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ATOMIC STRUCTURE A guide for GCSE students 2010 SPECIFICATIONS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING.

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Presentation on theme: "ATOMIC STRUCTURE A guide for GCSE students 2010 SPECIFICATIONS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATOMIC STRUCTURE A guide for GCSE students 2010 SPECIFICATIONS KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING

2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE INTRODUCTION This Powerpoint show is one of several produced to help students understand selected GCSE Chemistry topics. It is based on the requirements of the AQA specification but is suitable for other examination boards. Individual students may use the material at home for revision purposes and it can also prove useful for classroom teaching with an interactive white board. Accompanying notes on this, and the full range of AS and A2 Chemistry topics, are available from the KNOCKHARDY SCIENCE WEBSITE at... All diagrams and animations in this Powerpoint are original and created by Jonathan Hopton. Permission must be obtained for their use in any commercial work.

3 CONTENTS CONTENTS Rutherfords experiment Structure of atoms Mass number and atomic number Atoms and ions Isotopes Electronic structures of the first 20 elements ATOMIC STRUCTURE

4 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons. Around the nucleus are the electrons. Because electrons weigh very much less than protons and neutrons, most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in its nucleus.

5 RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE

6 RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a plum pudding. Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like.

7 RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ALPHA ( ) PARTICLES GOLD ATOMS ATOMIC STRUCTURE Many scientists thought atoms were solid like a plum pudding. Ernest Rutherford wanted to find out what atoms were like. He fired positively charged ALPHA PARTICLES (helium nuclei) at a very thin sheet of gold and detected what happened to their path.

8 ALPHA ( ) PARTICLES MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE

9 ALPHA ( ) PARTICLES SOME WERE DEFLECTED NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE

10 ALPHA ( ) PARTICLES VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE

11 ALPHA ( ) PARTICLES MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH SOME WERE DEFLECTED VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK MOST WENT STRAIGHT THROUGH SOME WERE DEFLECTED MOST OF AN ATOM IS SPACE NUCLEUS IS POSITIVELY CHARGED VERY FEW BOUNCED STRAIGHT BACK NUCLEUS IS RELATIVELY SMALL RUTHERFORDS EXPERIMENT ATOMIC STRUCTURE SUMMARY

12 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Atoms have a small central nucleus, which is made up of protons and neutrons and around which there are electrons.

13 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON

14 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON +1 1 NUCLEUS

15 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON NUCLEUS

16 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Negligble Very small 1 NUCLEUS IN SHELLS AROUND THE NUCLEUS

17 THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS - Summary The three important particles found in atoms are… ParticleWhere it is found Relative mass Relative charge PROTON NEUTRON ELECTRON Negligble Very small 1 NUCLEUS IN SHELLS AROUND THE NUCLEUS

18 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus

19 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus SymbolAtoms of an element are given a symbol Some have one capital letterH, N, O, P, K Some have two letters, the firstHe, Na, Mg Cu one being a capital Recently discovered high atomicUnh number elements have been given symbols with three letters

20 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus SymbolAtoms of an element are given a symbol Some have one capital letterH, N, O, P, K Some have two letters, the firstHe, Na, Mg Cu one being a capital Recently discovered high atomicUnh number elements have been given symbols with three letters When necessary, the atomic number and the mass number can be written alongside the symbol

21 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na When necessary, the atomic number and the mass number can be written alongside the symbol

22 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS

23 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS THESE ALWAYS GO TOGETHER – ANYTHING WITH 11 PROTONS MUST BE SODIUM

24 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS

25 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS THERE WILL BE 12 NEUTRONS IN THE NUCLEUS 23 – 11 = 12

26 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER Atomic Number (Z)Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass Number (A) Sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus Na Mass Number (A) PROTONS + NEUTRONS Atomic Number (Z) PROTONS

27 ATOMS AND IONS

28 ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS

29 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS PROTONS ELECTRONS ATOM or ION?

30 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS PROTONS ELECTRONS ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION

31 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS

32 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSNEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSPOSITIVE

33 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSNEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSPOSITIVE

34 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSNEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSPOSITIVE PROTONS ELECTRONS ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION CHARGE

35 ATOMS AND IONS ATOMSSAME NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AS PROTONS IONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF ELECTRONS AND PROTONS THE CHARGE ON AN ION DEPENDS ON THE RELATIVE NUMBERS OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS MORE ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSNEGATIVE FEWER ELECTRONS THAN PROTONSPOSITIVE PROTONS ELECTRONS ATOM or ION? ATOM ION ATOM ION ION CHARGE Neutral + Neutral - 2+

36 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER ProtonsNeutronsElectronsCharge Atomic Number Mass Number Symbol A B20040 C+1123 D660 E F613 G H 27 Al 3+

37 MASS NUMBER AND ATOMIC NUMBER ProtonsNeutronsElectronsCharge Atomic Number Mass Number Symbol A K B Ca C Na + D C E U F C G S 2- H Al 3+

38 ISOTOPES

39 ISOTOPES Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element.

40 ISOTOPES Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element haveSAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS

41 ISOTOPES Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element haveSAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS or put another waySAME ATOMIC NUMBER DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER

42 ISOTOPES Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. These atoms are called ISOTOPES of that element. Isotopes of an element haveSAME NUMBER OF PROTONS DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS or put another waySAME ATOMIC NUMBER DIFFERENT MASS NUMBER ISOTOPES HAVE SIMILAR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

43 ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN 1 H 1 2 H 1 ISOTOPES

44 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

45 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

46 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 MASS NUMBER ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

47 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 MASS NUMBER12 PROTONS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

48 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 MASS NUMBER12 PROTONS11 NEUTRONS ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

49 1 H 1 2 H 1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 MASS NUMBER12 PROTONS11 NEUTRONS01 ISOTOPES OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

50 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER MASS NUMBER PROTONS NEUTRONS ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

51 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

52 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

53 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

54 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% RATIO ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

55 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% RATIO 3 : 1 ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

56 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

57 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE MASS = 4 ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

58 35 C l C l 17 ATOMIC NUMBER1717 MASS NUMBER3537 PROTONS1717 NEUTRONS1820 ABUNDANCE75%25% RATIO 3 : 1 AVERAGE MASS = ISOTOPES OF CHLORINE ISOTOPES

59 12 C 6 ATOMIC NUMBER666 MASS NUMBER PROTONS666 NEUTRONS C 6 14 C 6 ISOTOPES OF CARBON ISOTOPES

60 12 C 6 ATOMIC NUMBER666 MASS NUMBER PROTONS666 NEUTRONS C 6 14 C 6 ISOTOPES OF CARBON ISOTOPES

61 THE ARRANGEMENT OF ELECTRONS IN ATOMS OF THE FIRST TWENTY ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

62 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca + 1 ATOMIC NUMBER1 GROUP1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION HYDROGEN ATOMIC STRUCTURE atoms have the same number of electrons as protons electrons are found in shells (energy levels) around the nucleus electrons are put into the lowest energy level first

63 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 2+ 2 ATOMIC NUMBER2 GROUP0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION HELIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE the innermost shell can hold up to two electrons

64 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 3+ 2,1 ATOMIC NUMBER3 GROUP1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION LITHIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE each shell (energy level) can hold a maximum number of electrons the first one can only hold 2,so the next goes in the second shell

65 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 4+ 2,2 ATOMIC NUMBER4 GROUP2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION BERYLLIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

66 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 5+ 2,3 ATOMIC NUMBER5 GROUP3 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION BORON ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

67 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 6+ 2,4 ATOMIC NUMBER6 GROUP4 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION CARBON ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

68 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 7+ 2,5 ATOMIC NUMBER7 GROUP5 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION NITROGEN ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

69 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 8+ 2,6 ATOMIC NUMBER8 GROUP6 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION OXYGEN ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

70 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 9+ 2,7 ATOMIC NUMBER9 GROUP7 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION FLUORINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is gradually filled up until it has eight electrons

71 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 10+ 2,8 ATOMIC NUMBER10 GROUP0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION NEON ATOMIC STRUCTURE the second shell is now full full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES

72 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 11+ 2,8,1 ATOMIC NUMBER11 GROUP1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION SODIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE as the second shell is full, electrons go into the third shell the third shell can hold up to a maximum of eight electrons

73 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 12+ 2,8,2 ATOMIC NUMBER12 GROUP2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION MAGNESIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE

74 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 13+ 2,8,3 ATOMIC NUMBER13 GROUP3 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION ALUMINIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE

75 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 14+ 2,8,4 ATOMIC NUMBER14 GROUP4 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION SILICON ATOMIC STRUCTURE

76 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 15+ 2,8,5 ATOMIC NUMBER15 GROUP5 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION PHOSPHORUS ATOMIC STRUCTURE

77 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 16+ 2,8,6 ATOMIC NUMBER16 GROUP6 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION SULPHUR (SULFUR) ATOMIC STRUCTURE

78 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 2,8,7 ATOMIC NUMBER17 GROUP7 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 17+ CHLORINE ATOMIC STRUCTURE

79 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 18+ 2,8,8 ATOMIC NUMBER18 GROUP0 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION ARGON ATOMIC STRUCTURE the third shell is now full full outer shells are characteristic of the unreactive NOBLE GASES

80 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 19+ 2,8,8,1 ATOMIC NUMBER19 GROUP1 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION POTASSIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE as the third shell is full, electrons go into the fourth shell

81 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 20+ 2,8,8,2 ATOMIC NUMBER20 GROUP2 ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION CALCIUM ATOMIC STRUCTURE

82 WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

83 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 16+ ELECTRONS? PROTONS? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

84 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 16+ ELECTRONS16 PROTONS16 ATOM / ION ATOM ELEMENT SULPHUR ANSWER S WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

85 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 19+ ELECTRONS? PROTONS? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

86 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 19+ ELECTRONS18 PROTONS19 ATOM / ION POSITIVE ION ELEMENT POTASSIUM ANSWER K+K+ WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

87 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 17+ ELECTRONS? PROTONS? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

88 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 17+ ELECTRONS18 PROTONS17 ATOM / ION NEGATIVE ION ELEMENT CHLORINE ANSWER Cl¯Cl¯ WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

89 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 8+ ELECTRONS? PROTONS? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

90 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 8+ ELECTRONS10 PROTONS8 ATOM / ION NEGATIVE ION ELEMENT OXYGEN ANSWER O 2- WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

91 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 13+ ELECTRONS? PROTONS? ATOM / ION ? ELEMENT ? ANSWER ? WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

92 H Li Na K Be Mg B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne Ar He Ca 13+ ELECTRONS10 PROTONS13 ATOM / ION POSITIVE ION ELEMENT ALUMINIUM ANSWER Al 3+ WHAT IS IT? ATOMIC STRUCTURE

93 © 2011 JONATHAN HOPTON & KNOCKHARDY PUBLISHING ATOMIC STRUCTURE THE END


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