# 1 Electroforming Presented by Subject. 2 1) Advantages and limitations of the system. - Concerning weight - Concerning the model 2) Core 3) Racks and.

## Presentation on theme: "1 Electroforming Presented by Subject. 2 1) Advantages and limitations of the system. - Concerning weight - Concerning the model 2) Core 3) Racks and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Electroforming Presented by Subject

2 1) Advantages and limitations of the system. - Concerning weight - Concerning the model 2) Core 3) Racks and anodes. Harmonisation. 4) Galvanic preparation. 5) Electroforming of gold alloy (tri-metal) 6) Emptying cores 7) Removing the copper coating 8) Annealing 9) Soldering 10) Polishing INDEX 3/14 15/24 25/26 27 28/41 42 43 44 45 46 Figure No Menu

3 Obtains hollow pieces from 100 microns thick, by plating a sheet of metal on a core and removing then the core. Menu

4 If we admit that a bead with gallons of 10 mm diameter is equivalent to a regular ball of 9 mm, and in case of 150 microns thick, this ball will weight 0,535 grams Side area = x Ø²= x 0.87² = 2.38 cm² Øi = 8.70 mm Øe = 9 mm Volume = A x e = 2.38 x 150 = 0.036 cm² 10000 Weight sphere = Volume x Gold Density = 0.036 x 15 = 0.535 g Comparing: Electroforming Menu

5 Comparing: Casting If we admit that a bead with gallons of 10 mm diameter is equivalent to a regular ball of 9 mm, if massive, this ball will weight 5,92 grams. Volume = 4/3 x x R³ V = 4/3 x x 0.45³ = 0.382 cm³ = 9 mm Weight sphere = Volume x Gold Density P = 0.382 x 15.5 = 5.92 g Menu

6 Comparing: Stamping If we admit that a bead with gallons of 10 mm diameter is equivalent to a regular ball of 9 mm, and in case of 300 microns thick, this ball will weight 1,11 grams All volume = External volume – Internal volume Ev = 4/3 x x R³ Ev = 4/3 x x 0.45³ = 0.382 cm³ Iv = 4/3 x x R³ Iv = 4/3 x x 0.42³ = 0.31 cm³ Av = 0.382 - 0.31 =0.0714 cm³ Weight sphere = Volume x Gold Density P = 0.0714 x 15.5 = 1.11 g Menu

7 Comparing concerning weight Electroforming – Casting – Stamping Menu

8 Electroforming Casting Stamping Comparing Getting itCost Takes time High Getting itCost ImmediatelyLow Getting itCost ImmediatelyLow Menu

10 Sharp points attracts the current and in consequence: Current is uneven in different parts of the piece Thickness of metal electroformed is also uneven. Menu

11 Straight (sharp) angles with electroforming external or internal Model External electroforming Internal electroforming Round edge Sharp edge Menu

14 Harmonic form allowing even current in all around the surface Menu

15 Step from core to finished ear ring CoreElectroforming with coreHollow finished ear ring Menu

16 Most used core specially in gold 18K and 14K Metallic core. White metal casting Menu

17 Vulcaniser Casting EQUIPMENT TO PRODUCE METALLIC CORES (or resin cores sometimes) Metal furnace Menu

18 Amber colour wax Main use in: Gold 24 K Gold 18 K and 14 K cold electrolite Silver Menu

19 Vulcaniser HdM Mark IV injector with pneumatic piston Gun for metal coating Equipment to produce wax cores. Menu

20 Equipment to produce resin cores Manual mix of resin and catalizer Manual pouring of resin in the mold. Catalized liquid silicone mold Menu

21 Equipment to produce resin core (2) Gun for metal coating HdM Vacuum machine to remove air bubbles Menu

22 Resin cores Used mainly in : Silver Copper For pieces were core is not removed (not hollow pieces) Menu

23 From now on the presentation is limited to; 1)Metallic cores because they are the most characteristics of the process 1)Metallic cores because they are the most characteristics of the process 2)Alloyed gold electroforming, because it is the most sophisticated process. 2)Alloyed gold electroforming, because it is the most sophisticated process. 3)Warm electrolites as they are the most popular in all oyed gold electroforming, because: 3)Warm electrolites as they are the most popular in all oyed gold electroforming, because: Its rose colour is much better accepted that the green colour in 18 K and almost white in 14K of cold electrolites (bi-metallic gold-silver) Its rose colour is much better accepted that the green colour in 18 K and almost white in 14K of cold electrolites (bi-metallic gold-silver) Menu

24 Main Advantages of metallic cores: 1) Can be grinded, burnished and polished, making better the quality of the finished piece. Disc finishing for grinding and polishing Burnishing machine 2) There are reusable alloys 3) Stand warm electrolytes without expansion Menu

25 Racks and anodes. Harmonisation. Racks -Rounds to get more even galvanic current all around the rack -Steady connection core-rack (screw or soldering) -Uniform core spreading -Core of similar form and shape. Menu

26 Anodic system designed to obtain a distribution of current on the cathodic rack as even as possible + -Cathode Anode Menu

27 Galvanic preparation Previous to electroforming Degreasing Alkaline copper (Cu. Al.) Acid copper (Cu. Ac.) Previous to emptying Protection coating of Acid copper (Cu. Ac.) Menu

28 Electroforming of gold alloy (tri-metal) Surface determination Targets Characteristics of GF electrolite. Ageing. Computer programm AUROFORM controlling systems based on the rack weight increase. Economy of GF electrolite System of pieces control, when removed for rack. Capacity of installation AUROFORM Menu

29 Reckoning of pieces surface on the racks. It is important to reckon the area of the surface of the models (before fitting on the rack). Knowing the surface of the pieces the right intensity of current can be applied. The surfaces of the models are introduced in a data base of computer programm developed for Auroform. This is the process we recomend ObjetoPeso1Peso2diferenciaÁreaFactorÁreaFactorMedia A3.08613.18620.100135.62355.8735.53354.9535.58 B2.63012.71520.085130.28355.8730.21354.9530.25 Menu

30 Targets Supposing we are using: - Models matching with the process - Cores with good surface - Rack matching with the type of pieces. - Core-Rack-Anodes harmonic The targets ares: - Control and security of the karat - Quality of surface - Even thickness. Menu

31 1 -Control system according to rack weight increases. 2 -Characteristics of electrolite. Ageing. Most important for those targets are: + ELECTROLITE LONGER LIFE + CONSISTENT REACTION OF ELECTROLITE Menu

32 3 Computer programm of command and control Menu

33 Characteristics of electrolite GF Ageing Electrolite GF offers: - Reliable behaving. Remarkable tolerance on error - Very slow ageing. Normally 50 turnovens - If electrolite contains 450 grams of gold, his medium life will allow to produce: 50 x 450 = 22500 Grams of alloy electroformedElectrolite Microns per hour (eficacity) Weight of a micron in on dm2 Minutes per micron. GF 14K340.132 GF 18K270.152.5 Menu

34 Computer programm GF - Reckons the pieces on the rack surface according to the information in the Data Base - Reckons the condition of the electolite also according to the information in the Data Base - Admits to enter: How many microns. Number of controls etc. - Commands the intensity of the rectifier - Process the information of every control and change intensity accordingly - Controls all the conditions in the process are kept inside the limits required. - Stops the process when the required microns has been electroformed. Menu

35 AUROFORM control system based on the rack weight increase Tri-metal electrolyte electroforming, controls the karat as per the weight increase of the alloy electroformed which is introduced in the computer program. - Weight =Karat too low + Weight =Karat too hight Menu

36 AUROFORM weight control is: Very reliable Almost instantaneous Working position Control position Menu

37 ECONOMY OF GF ELECTROLITE GF admits that AUROFORM produce automatically one of the components: Saving money Not introducing components not needed, which will harm the electrolite Menu

38 Control system of the pieces removed from rack SystemAnswerCost (Euros) X ray fluorescenceInmediateFive digits AssayingHoursFour digits Menu

39 AUROFORM Production Keeps Stability in temperature and level of the electrolite Continious filtering of electrolite Permanent interface with the computer programm. Menu

40 90 L150L Max. Weight (grams) Time (hours) Max. area (dm²)1725 Max. Weight (grams) 14 K Productuion capacity Menu

41 90 L150L 20 30 Max. Weight (grams) Time (hours) Max. area (dm²) 18 K Productuion capacity Menu

42 Emptying the cores Holes Every piece has to have two holes. Ideally opposite A flat area around the hole can be convenient to make easier, soldering complements Pieces are locate between silicone discs. Heat and centrifugal action are applied. Emptying with heat and centrifugal force Menu

43 Removing copper lay Acids system Toxic fumes are produced Menu

44 Annealing Pieces electroformed are very bristle An annealing treatment is required Very convenient to do in control atmosphere furnace. Menu

45 Assembling and soldering Assembling -Nornal jewellery techniques are used Soldering Due to its low density and thickness, it is advisable: - -Avoid soldering when possible -Solder with minimum temperatura and exposure. Menu

46 Polishing Manual or turbo polishing is advisable in order the piece has a soft treatment and with no hitting. Menu

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