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**AP Chemistry Chapter I Lesson 3**

Significant Numbers

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Giving the Cat Bath

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Question A sample of carbon dioxide that undergoes a transformation from solid to liquid to gas would undergo (A) a change in mass (B) a change in density (C) a change in composition (D) no change in physical properties Answer B

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**Question A solution is a(n)**

(A) compound (B) pure substance (C) homogeneous mixture of substances (D) heterogeneous mixture of substances Answer C

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Chemical Equation Symbolic representation of the change or changes occurring. sodium bicarbonate + hydrochloric acid Sodium chloride + water + carbon dioxide

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Reactant Substances reacting to produce product.

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Product Substances that are produced. iron + oxygen Iron III oxide

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Example 2 Na + Cl2 2 NaCl Reactants Product

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Accuracy How close is measurement to the true value.

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Precision Agreement between several measurements of some quantity.

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**Ions electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms. Cations (+)**

charged ions Anion (-) charged ions

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Convert 7 in to cm 17.8 cm

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Convert 179 m to cm 1.790 x 104 cm

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Convert 15 km/L to mi/gal 35 mi /gal

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**Calculation of significant figures**

Preceding zeros do NOT count. Ex: is 2 sig #’s Zero between non zero digits count. Ex: is 6 sig #’s

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**Calculation of significant figures cont.**

Trailing zeros do NOT count. Ex: 100 is 1 sig # Zeros behind the decimal after a non zero digit DO count. Ex: 1.00 x 102 is 3 sig #’s

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Answer Significant # for A B 6 sig # 6 sig #

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Answer Significant # for: A B 3 sig # 1 sig #

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**Rules for Significant figures in multiplying and dividing.**

Ex: 4.56 x 1.4 = 6.38 round to 6.4 use the number that has the least number of significant figures. Due to the least precise number.

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**Rule for significant figures and addition and subtraction.**

Ex: round to nearest tenth due to digit with least precise measurement. So correct answer would be 31.1 due to (18.0).

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Mass Amount of matter in an object.

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Volume 1 L = 1000ml = 1000 cm3 = 1 dm3

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Temperature property of matter that determines whether heat energy can be transferred from one body to another and the direction of that transfer.

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**Formulas: a. Convert oF to o C (o F - 32) x 5/9 = o C**

b. Convert o C to o F o C x 9/ = o F Celsius Fahrenheit

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**Formulas: c. Convert o C to K o C + 273.15 = K or K - 273.15 = o C**

Lord Kelvin

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Absolute Zero lowest possible temperature. Where all motion of molecules ceases.

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