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The chemists tools Elements and the periodic table.

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Presentation on theme: "The chemists tools Elements and the periodic table."— Presentation transcript:

1 The chemists tools Elements and the periodic table

2 Elements Pure substances that cannot be separated into different substances by ordinary processes Are the building blocks of matter 120 elements known today Examples: carbon gold calcium

3 Symbols of Elements Use 1 or 2 letter abbreviations Capitalise the first letter only Examples: C carbon Cocobalt N nitrogenCacalcium F fluorine Br bromine O oxygen Mg magnesium

4 Symbols from Latin Names ElementSymbolLatin name CopperCucuprum GoldAuaurum LeadPbplumbum MercuryHghydrargyrum PotassiumKkalium SilverAgargentum SodiumNanatrium TinSnstannum

5 % Major Elements in the Body O65.0 %K 0.34 C18.0S 0.26 H10.0Na 0.14 N 3.0Cl 0.14 Ca 1.4Fe P 1.0 Zn Mg 0.50 Trace Elements As, Cr, Co, Cu, F, I, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V

6 Learning Check Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 1) C2) Ca3) CA B. Sulfur 1) S2) Sl3) Su C. Iron 1) Ir2) FE3) Fe

7 Solution Select the correct symbol for each: A. Calcium 2) Ca B. Sulfur 1) S C. Iron 3) Fe

8 Learning Check Select the correct name for each: A. N 1) neon2) nitrogen 3) nickel B. P 1) potassium2) phlogiston 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver2) aegean3) gold

9 Solution Select the correct name for each: A. N 2) nitrogen B. P 3) phosphorus C. Ag 1) silver

10 Periodic Table The periodic table is an arrangement of the elements according to similarities in their chemical and physical properties.

11 Physical Properties The characteristics of a substance that can be observed without changing the substance. Color Size Shape Density Freezing and Boiling Points Odor

12 Groups of Elements Vertical columns on the periodic table Similar physical properties Similar chemical properties

13 Groups on the Periodic Table

14 Representative Groups Group 1Alkali Metals Group 2 Alkaline Earth Metals Group 7 Halogens Group 8Noble Gases

15 Location of Some Groups A l m k e a t l a i l s AlkalineAlkaline HalogensHalogens I G n a e s r e t s

16 Periods on the Periodic Table Horizontal rows from Group 1 to Group 8. Numbered 1, 2, 3, …. Include representative elements and transition elements

17 Periods on the Periodic Table

18 Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, Period 4 1) Br2) Cl3) Mn B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron

19 Solution A. Element in Group 7A, period 4 1) Br B. Element in Group 2A, Period 3 2) magnesium

20 Learning Check A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) Br2) Cl3) Mn B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 1) beryllium2) magnesium 3) boron C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn D. Nonmetals in Group VA 1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

21 Solution A. Element in Group VIIA, period 4 1) Br B. Element in Group IIA, Period 3 2) magnesium C. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb D. Nonmetals in Group VA 2) N, P, As

22 Metals and Nonmetals Metals Located to the left of the heavy line Shiny, ductile Good conductors of heat and electricity Nonmetals Located to the right of the heavy line Dull and brittle Poor conductors, good insulators

23 Metals and Nonmetals NONMETALS METALS Transition metals

24 Learning Check Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each: A. sulphur____ B. chlorine____ C. sodium____ D. iron____ E. carbon____ F. silver____

25 Solution Specify metal (1) or nonmetal (2) for each: A. sulphur2 B. chlorine2 C. sodium1 D. iron1 E. carbon2 F. silver1

26 Learning Check Select the correct elements: A. Metals in Group IVA 1) Ge, Sn, Pb 2) C, Si 3) C, Si, Ge, Sn B. Non-metals in Group VA 1) As, Sb, Bi 2) N, P, As 3) N, P, As, Sb

27 Solution A. Metals in Group 4A 1) Ge, Sn, Pb B. Nonmetals in Group 5A 2) N, P, As


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