Presentation on theme: "אינרו("אין" חותם; "רו" נרתיק) קופסה מעוצבת ומעוטרת עשויה בדרך כלל מעץ ברוש יפני (הינוקי), מכוסה בשכבות לכה רבות ומעוטרת. הצורה החיצונית מלבנית בדרך כלל."— Presentation transcript:
אינרו("אין" חותם; "רו" נרתיק) קופסה מעוצבת ומעוטרת עשויה בדרך כלל מעץ ברוש יפני (הינוקי), מכוסה בשכבות לכה רבות ומעוטרת. הצורה החיצונית מלבנית בדרך כלל ונפחה אליפטי. היא מחולקת למספר תאים חלולים. בתחילה שימשה הקופסה לנשיאת החותם האישי וכרית הדיו, ברבות השנים גם לנשיאת תרופות וחפצים קטנים אחרים.
צורת התלייה של אינרו על חגורת הבגד היפני בעזרת נצוקה Ojime Inro Obi Netsuke
An inrō ( ) is a traditional Japanese case for holding small objects, suspended from the obi. Description Because traditional Japanese garb lacked pockets, objects were often carried by hanging them from the obi, or sash, in containers known as sagemono (a Japanese generic term for a hanging object attached to a sash). Most sagemono were created for specialized contents, such as tobacco, pipes, writing brush and ink, but the type known as inrō was suitable for carrying anything small.
Consisting of a stack of tiny, nested boxes, inrō were most commonly used to carry identity seals and medicine. The stack of boxes is held together by a cord that is laced through cord runners down one side, under the bottom, and up the opposite side. The ends of the cord are secured to a netsuke, a kind of toggle that is passed between the sash and pants and then hooked over the top of the sash to suspend the inrō. An ojime, or bead, is provided on the cords between the inrō and netsuke to hold the boxes together. This bead is slid down the two suspension cords to the top of the inrō to hold the stack together while the inrō is worn, and slid up to the netsuke when the boxes need to be unstacked to access their contents. Inrō were made of a variety of materials, including wood, ivory, bone, and lacquer. Lacquer was also used to decorate inro made of other materials.
This Inro is made from carved wood. It shows five monkeys climbing trees. Two netsuke are attached, one shows a monkey mother with her baby and the other is a young monkey.
This inro represents a man called Chokaro. He is one of eight Chinese immortals. Chokaro has a magical horse that sleeps inside the gourd he carries. When Chokaro needs to go somewhere he blows into the gourd and his horse appears. The story of Chokaro and his magical horse may explain the Japanese proverb a horse from a gourd which means that the most unexpected things can happen. The gourd is a symbol of good luck, rebirth and immortality.
Inro with court noble on horseback preceded by his servant with netsuke with Siberian cranes and ojime by Shokosai, active late 18th - early 19th centuries. On display at the Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts on the Stanford University campus in Stanford, California. 1996.84
Inrô: Figures in a landscaped garden, 18th century Red lacquer Lacquer is the refined sap of a deciduous tree of the sumac family. Applied in extremely thin layers in order to allow time for hardening, a single piece requires the application of numerous base layers before surface decoration is carved or applied. When exposed to oxygen and humidity, the lacquer hardens or polymerizes. It is used to seal and preserve porous surfaces of various materials, usually wood, Pigments can be added during the layered application process, allowing darker colors to emerge as the carver cuts through the top layer, in this case red.
Inrô with design of sea foam, 19th century Shibata Zeshin, after a design by Ogata Kôrin (1658–1716) Gold lacquer, pewter inlay; ojime: bronze and gold jar with stylized chrysanthemum crest; netsuke: carved tortoiseshell
Inro are small boxes, usually of several compartments, used to carry medicines. They were first produced in the 17th century, and were worn until the beginning of the 20th century when Western dress was introduced into Japan. This three box inro is decorated with some of the takaramono (Buddhist emblems), separated by horizontal bands against a brocade background pattern. 1800 - 1830
Case (Inrô) in the Shape of Mount Fuji, with Design of Ferryboat and Figures Based on a design by Hanabusa Itchô (Japanese, 1652– 1724) Artist: Inro by Kajikawa) Date: probably 19th century Medium: Lacquer with nashiji background; ojime made of agate
This five box inro depicts an overall scene of two carp among waves. The eyes of the carp are inset glass with black pupils. The interior is red speckled gold. 1800-1900
This single box inro has a dark brown ground to simulate the appearance of oxidised iron, it depicts two frogs as sumo wrestlers beneath a bamboo hung with a dandelion plant and lotus leaf. The reverse depicts frogs as spectators..
Inrō with Design of Blossoming Plum Tree Hara Yōyūsai (1772–1845) After a design by Sakai Hōitsu (1761–1828) 19th century
Inrō with Design of Rabbit in the Moon and Eulalia Grass 19th century Case: pewter with gold and silver scabbard cover on red and black lacquer; Fastener (ojime): pierced metal with floral design; Toggle (netsuke): ivory carved in the shape of a rabbit
19th century 5-case lacquer inro. Design of pine trees supporting a bamboo fence, in gold takamakie with kirigane, on a nashiji ground. 8 cm tall.
Case (Inrō) with Lotus and Crab (obverse); Lotus and Tadpole (reverse) late 19th century Case: powdered gold (maki-e), lead foil, and carved metal on black lacquer; Fastener (ojime): metal with design of tadpoles in a stream; Toggle (netsuke): ivory carved in the shape of a lotus leaf and turtle.
Seven Gods of Good Luck From left to right: Soldan Sağa Hotei, Juroujin, Fukurokuju, Bishamonten, Benzaiten, Daikokuten, Ebisu The Seven Gods of Fortune (Shichi Fukujin), refer to the seven gods of good fortune in Japanese mythology and folklore. They are often the subject of netsuke carvings and other representations. Many figures in Japanese myth were transmitted from China (some having entered China from India), including all of the Seven Lucky Gods except Ebisu. Another god, Kichijōten, goddess of happiness, is sometimes found depicted along with the seven traditional gods, replacing Jurōjin, the reasoning being that Jurōjin and Fukurokuju were originally manifestations of the same Taoist deity, the Southern Star. However, as is often the case in folklore, Japanese gods sometimes represent different things in different places.
Inrō with Design of the Seven Gods of Good Fortune Fording a River Nakayama Komin (Japanese, 1808–1870) late 19th century Gold lacquer with gold hiramkie sprinkled and polished lacquer, nashiji (pear skin) lacquer, and mother-of-pearl, ivory, and wood inlay; Interior: nashiji and fundame; Netsuke: wood-framed ivory plaque with bird and flower inlay; Ojime: lacquer Daikoku's hammer.
Inrô with design of thatched hut, 18th–19th century Lacquer; ojime: pewter; netsuke: ivory inrô: Decorated with a combination of lacquer techniques in silver and gold, the inrô in the shape of a thatched hut bears the signature of Koami Shinsaburo. The ivory netsuke, signed by ôhara Mitsuhiro, depicts one of the Seven Gods of Good Luck known as Hotei. A rotund, jolly figure, Hotei's attributes often include a fan and a bag to carry his treasures.
Case (Inrō) with Design of Clamshells and Fireflies Koma Yasutada late 18th century Case: powdered gold and silver (maki-e) and gold foil on red lacquer with mother-of-pearl inlay; Fastener (ojime): silver with design of bird and flowers in gold; Toggle (netsuke): carved ivory and colored lacquer with design of Daikoku in ivory and carnelian inlays
Inro with decoration of Portuguese figures, 19th century Wood with black and gold lacquer H. (9 cm) The mutual fascination with which the Japanese and Europeans regarded each other after their initial contacts in the late sixteenth century was expressed in part by Japanese art objects that incorporated images of Westerners as part of the ornamentation. This inro, which was worn suspended from the waist and used to hold medicines and other small items, is decorated with the images of three Portuguese men, dressed in their distinctive pantaloons and jackets with large, ruffled collars.
Inrō with Design of Cricket and Muskmelon Plants late 19th century powdered gold (maki-e) on brown and black lacquer with stained-ivory inlay; Fastener (ojime): metal; Toggle (netsuke): ivory carved in the shape of Hotei and children playing around a screen.
About 1775-1825 Kajikawa Bunryusai (maker) Black, gold, silver and red lacquer inlaid with gold foil Metal beads, lacquered wood netsuke Lacquer was most commonly used in the manufacture of inro since it was highly suitable for storing medicines. Lacquer is the sap from the tree Rhus verniciflua that grows mainly in East Asia. After processing, it is applied in many thin layers to a base material. The craft of lacquering, as well as making inro bodies, is highly complex, time-consuming and expensive. This example is decorated with a courtiers hat and cherry blossom in gold, silver and black takamakie (high sprinkled picture) lacquer. Makie is the most characteristic of Japanese lacquer techniques. It is a generic term for a number of related techniques. They all make use of gold, silver or coloured powders that are sprinkled on to wet lacquer before it hardens. From the 1700s onwards, many artists signed the inro they made. This example is signed kanko (official craftsman) Kajikawa Bunryusai. The Kajikawa were one of the main lacquer families who specialised in making inro. Although the third Kajikawa master was called Bunryusai, the use of this name on a number of inro refers to the work of one or two lacquer artists who were active from around the mid- eighteenth to mid-nineteenth centuries. They can be differentiated as Bunryusai II and III. This inro was probably made by Bunryusai II.
Inro with two men on a footbridge, Japan, Edo period, lacquer, gold and silver, Honolulu Academy of Arts
Inro with Monkeys in Human Guises About 1750-1850 Black, gold, red and brown lacquer The inro is a container made up of tiers. Most inro are rectangular with gently curving sides. Makers used a great variety of decorative styles and layout. On this example, the maker has spread the decoration over the entire body. As a result, the inro often cuts the decoration at unusual or unexpected places. This design shows 115 monkeys, many of which are dressed like human beings and engaged in human activities. It is a remarkable achievement given the small scale of the decoration and the use of the makie (sprinkled picture) technique. This involves sprinkling gold, red and brown powders on to a prepared lacquer surface to create the design. Victoria and Albert Museum
Toryu (Japanese, active ca. 18th century) Inro with Autumn Carnations and Badger Netsuke A standard (oblong) black lacquer five compartment inro. Flowering pinks or carnations all around in "hiramakie" of gold and silver with "togidashiji." The flowers in red lacquer. The background in "roiro." The interior in "nashiji" and "fundame." Inscribed in gold with a gold "kakihan" on the bottom of the bottom compartment. The cord channels are external. Together with a carved wood netsuke in the form of a badger with a drum and with a signature (Toryu) carved on the bottom of the tail.
Sotheby's Japanese Art, Mar. 25 The Japanese auction began with an selection of inro. An inro is a small sectional carry-all, worn by Japanese gentlemen at the waist, traditionally containing medicines and herbals. Some 133 inros from the collection of the late C. A. Greenfield were offered. Formed in the 1930s and exhibited with great success at the Japan House Gallery in 1972, the Greenfield collection brought a total of $1,410,000 on the sale of 81 examples, or 62% of the lots. מחיר האינרו במכירה פומבית
A three case lacquer inro worked in gold and white takamaki-e and mother of pearl. Depicting three hares with amber coloured eyes. 6.5 cm Circa 1800.
Case (Inrō) with Design of the Silk Winder and the Milky Way (The Tanabata Story of the Weaver and the Herdboy) Kyūkoku 19th century Mother-of-pearl with gold; Ojime: silver and gold quail in autumn grasses; Netsuke: carved ivory flowers and grasses with silver butterflies
Case (Inrō) with Design of Fisherman, Boat, Reeds, and Stone Basket Breakwaters Tsuchiya Yasuchika 19th century
Case (Inrō) with Design of Monkeys' Festival 18th–19th century Maki-e with black on gold lacquer Ojime: lacquered wood in the shape of a chestnut Netsuke: carved ivory with a sleeping man and a monkey
Case (Inrô) with Design of Gourd Vine Period: 19th century Culture: Wood, carved relief, incised, stained; Interior: dark brown
Pouch by Shibata Zeshin, ojime (bead), and netsuke (toggle) by Ikeda Sensa Inrô: Shibata Zeshin (1807-1891); Netsuke: Ikeda Sensai (1870-1945). Bamboo, lacquered and gilded in maki-e and kirigane techniques, with brass ojime
Case (Inrō) with Design of Eulalia Grass and Deer Edo period Case: powdered gold (maki-e), gold, silver, and gold foil on black lacquer with shell inlay; Fastener (ojime): white agate; Toggle (netsuke): ivory carved in the shape of an eagle catching a fox
Case (Inrō) with design of checkerboard with "Seven Lucky Treasures" and "Longevity" Characters 19th century Hiramaki-e in gold, silver, and colors on lacquer; Interior: nashiji and fundame Ojime: metal bead; Netsuke: coral
Museums and Galleries Bolton Museum and Archive ServiceBolton Museum and Archive Service, Bolton, Lancashire, UK Los Angeles County Museum of Art Robyn Buntin of Honolulu Rutherston and BandiniRutherston and Bandini, London Tikotin Museum of Japanese ArtTikotin Museum of Japanese Art, Haifa, Israel Victoria and Albert MuseumVictoria and Albert Museum, London http://www.metmuseum.org/snetsuke
מקורות: Inro and lacquer, from the Jacques Carre Collection" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inr%C5%8D http://pinterest.com/mollywatt/inro/ http://www.netsuke.com/inro/index.html http://pinterest.com/mollywatt/inro http://www.bmagic.org.uk/results?s=+inro http://www.japangeo.org.il/crafts/index3.htm http://michaelhampton./japanese-netsuke.html קלריטה ואפרים הנכם מוזמנים להיכנס לאתר שלנו: www.clarita-efraim.com chefetze@netvision/net.il