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Density Mass per unit volume of a substance

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Density: the amount of matter in a given space, or volume. Density = Mass/Volume

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Physical Properties Extensive physical properties depend on the amount (extent) of matter present Examples: length, volume and mass Intensive physical properties are intrinsic (fundamental) and do not depend on the amount of material present Examples: color, malleability, ductility, boiling point Can be used to identify a substance

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Is density an extensive or intensive property?

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Density May change at higher temperatures May change at higher temperatures Unit of density is grams/cubic centimeter or g/cm 3 Unit of density is grams/cubic centimeter or g/cm 3 Unique so can be used to identify matter Unique so can be used to identify matter

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Review Mass: the amount of matter in an object Mass: the amount of matter in an object Volume: the amount of space an object takes up Volume: the amount of space an object takes up Density = Mass Density = Mass Volume Volume Remember: Density will break your heart

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Density of a rectangular solid 1. Using the metric ruler, measure length, width and height of the object 2. Find the mass of the solid. 3. Use the formula: Volume = length x width x height 4. Density = mass/volume

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Displacement: density of an irregular object 1. Find the mass of the object. 2. Place some water in the graduated cylinder and record the volume. 3. Carefully add the object. 4. Read the new volume. 5. Subtract the old volume from the new volume. 6. Density = mass/volume

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Density of Liquids 1. Immiscible: liquids that are insoluble in one another 2. Density of water = 1 g/cm 3 3. To determine: 1.Find the mass of the empty graduated cylinder 2.Find the mass of the graduate + liquid = mass of liquid 4.Read the volume of the liquid 5.Density = mass/volume

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Section 2 Physical Properties Chapter 2 Physical Properties, continued Using Density to Identify Substances Look at the table below to compare densities of several common substances.

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Section 2 Physical Properties Chapter 2

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Section 2 Physical Properties Chapter 2 Physical Properties, continued Liquid Layers The graduated cylinder below contains six liquids. Each liquid is a different density so the liquids form layers. Density of Solids Knowing the density of a substance can also tell you what kind of substance it is.

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1. What could you use to tell pyrite (fools gold) and gold apart? A volume B density C mass D state Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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1. What could you use to tell pyrite (fools gold) and gold apart? A volume B density C mass D state Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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2. What do you think would happen if you placed a nugget of pyrite into a beaker of mercury? F The pyrite would sink. G The pyrite would dissolve. H The mercury and the pyrite would react. I The pyrite would float. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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2. What do you think would happen if you placed a nugget of pyrite into a beaker of mercury? F The pyrite would sink. G The pyrite would dissolve. H The mercury and the pyrite would react. I The pyrite would float. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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3. If a nugget of pyrite and a nugget of gold each have a mass of 50 g, what can you conclude about the volume of each nugget? A The volume of pyrite is greater than the volume of gold. B The volume of pyrite is less than the volume of gold. C The volumes of the substances are equal. D There is not enough information to determine the answer. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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3. If a nugget of pyrite and a nugget of gold each have a mass of 50 g, what can you conclude about the volume of each nugget? A The volume of pyrite is greater than the volume of gold. B The volume of pyrite is less than the volume of gold. C The volumes of the substances are equal. D There is not enough information to determine the answer. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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4. Which substance has the lowest density? F helium G pyrite H mercury I gold Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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4. Which substance has the lowest density? F helium G pyrite H mercury I gold Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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1. Imagine that you have discovered a new element, and you want to find its density. It has a mass of 78.8 g and a volume of 8 cm3. To find the density of the element, you must divide the elements mass by its volume. What is the density of the element? A g/cm 3 B 0.98 g/cm 3 C 9.85 g/cm 3 D g/cm 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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1. Imagine that you have discovered a new element, and you want to find its density. It has a mass of 78.8 g and a volume of 8 cm3. To find the density of the element, you must divide the elements mass by its volume. What is the density of the element? A g/cm 3 B 0.98 g/cm 3 C 9.85 g/cm 3 D g/cm 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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2. Many soft drinks come in bottles that contain about 590 mL. If the density of a soft drink is 1.05 g/mL, what is the mass of the drink? F g G g H g I g Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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2. Many soft drinks come in bottles that contain about 590 mL. If the density of a soft drink is 1.05 g/mL, what is the mass of the drink? F g G g H g I g Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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3. If you have 150 g of pure gold and the density of gold is g/cm 3, what is the volume of your gold nugget? A cm 3 B 7.76 cm 3 C 0.98 cm 3 D 0.13 cm 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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3. If you have 150 g of pure gold and the density of gold is g/cm 3, what is the volume of your gold nugget? A cm 3 B 7.76 cm 3 C 0.98 cm 3 D 0.13 cm 3 Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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4. Three objects have a mass of 16 g each. But their volumes differ. Object A, a liquid, has a volume of 1.2 mL. Object B, a solid, has a volume of 3.2 cm 3. Object C, another solid, has a volume of 1.9 cm 3. Which object is the least dense? F object A G object B H object C I There is not enough information to determine the answer. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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4. Three objects have a mass of 16 g each. But their volumes differ. Object A, a liquid, has a volume of 1.2 mL. Object B, a solid, has a volume of 3.2 cm 3. Object C, another solid, has a volume of 1.9 cm 3. Which object is the least dense? F object A G object B H object C I There is not enough information to determine the answer. Chapter 2 Standardized Test Preparation

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