Presentation on theme: "Native Americans European Exploration Africans and Slavery Mrs. Dean Social Studies."— Presentation transcript:
Native Americans European Exploration Africans and Slavery Mrs. Dean Social Studies
Arrival of Native Americans Who discovered America? 28,000 nomadic hunters traveled BC over Bering Strait Some continue to hunt large game Others settle and become farmers Native Americans reside throughout the Americas for thousands of years 50-100 million natives More than 2000 groups (or tribes)
Native Americans Thrive Hundreds of tribes succeeded in North America Had their own distinct languages Estimates of NA in North America = 7-12 million (25 million in Mexico alone) Harvested corn, beans, squash, sunflowers, cotton and took advantage of the numerous animal resources Savage?
Causes for European Exploration 3 Gs Gold God Glory
Gold In Europe – land is no longer the way to be rich…they looked to gold Marco Polo – travels to China, wrote about the culture – sparks exploration More and more people are interested in the exotic goods Merchants realize they can make $ by selling goods from the East Spices (cinnamon, pepper, cloves), perfumes, and precious stones in high demand Most of the trading is done on land through middle men Merchants begin looking for routes to trade directly with the East
Glory What is the U.S. known for TODAY? Large nation-states begin to form (equivalent of countries) Look to establish wealth and power specifically through power and trade Establish laws, courts, taxes and armies Improvements in technology encourage this growth Moveable type/printing press = new info Better maps = more accurate Better navigation instruments = know direction/location Better ships = longer voyages, faster, larger cargo areas Look to make a better name for their nation-state!
God Church is constantly looking to acquire land, wealth and believers Protestant Reformation (early 1500s) – led to decline in Catholic Church Look for areas and people to convert
Christopher Columbus How have you celebrated Columbus in the past? Given money buy king to sail West towards Asia (for more efficient trading) Return for gold and spices, Columbus would receive 10% of profits, governor of new lands, and the title Admiral of the Ocean Sea October 1492 – landed in Bahamas Kidnapped natives so he could find gold in Cuba On return trips, Columbus focused on finding gold and slaves Never found the pot of gold he was looking for Many thousands of slaves died in route back to Europe 1515 – 50,000 Indians left; 1550 – only 500 (originally millions)
Spanish Settlement Spanish settled primarily in the Caribbean and Central America Ponce de Leon – first to arrive on North American mainland Looking for gold (exhausted supply in Caribbean) and fountain of youth Spanish primarily stay in South (such as Florida, New Orleans)
Explorers vs. Indians Examples of what is to come Columbus = Arawaks of the Bahamas Cortes = Aztecs of Mexico Pizarro = Incas of Peru English settlers of VA and MA = Powhatans and Pequots
Spanish vs. English Colonies Spanish Armada Failed attempt by Spain to restore English monarchy to a Catholic one Spain no longer the ruler of the seas – opens the way for English exploration
English Take Over Exploration 1585 – Roanoke (off of North Carolina) Difficult winter – colonists returned to England 1587 (2 nd attempt) 100 men; 17 women Wrote of Native Americans Virginia Dare – first English colonist born on American soil John White sailed back for more supplies – returned 3 years later, Roanoke deserted Only clue – CROATOAN carved in a tree
English Exploration (contd) Jamestown Group of merchants from the Virginia Company of London April 1607 In the Chesapeake Bay (Virginia) – named the river James and the town Jamestown after who??? Left with 144 men – only 38 left a year later
Jamestown When residents were starving, some ran off to join the Indians Gov. of Jamestown ordered return of men but men did not Gov. ordered revenge on Indians Soldiers killed 16 Indians, burned houses, ruined corn fields, took queen of tribe and children Took them into boats, threw children overboard and shot them in the head Queen was taken off and stabbed to death 12 yrs later, Indians feared growing numbers of settlers and went on killing rampage: 347 men, women and children Total War
New Wave of Colonists Came searching for religious freedom Puritans = Protestants who wanted to reform the Anglican Church Separatists (Pilgrims) = those who wanted to set up their own churches Only 35 of 102 Mayflower passengers were Pilgrims Originally planned on settling in Virginia, but landed in Cape Cod Mayflower Compact – set up representative govt.
Pilgrims and Indians What is Thanksgiving? Thanksgiving Video
Africa Regions rich with natural resources – gold, copper, iron By 1400, Portugal had set up trading posts on the west coast Africans had long accompanied ships sailing to the New World, not necessarily as slaves
Africans First Africans (20) workers to Jamestown in 1619 Perhaps brought more as indentured servants – not lifetime service Up until 1640 – some Africans were free and owned property By 1660, slavery was recognized in Virginian law African slaves came by the shiploads
Why Africans?.... Why not poor whites, Native Americans, or other willing servants? 1637 – very first American-made slave ship arrives in the colonies Named Desire Millions are to-be-slaves never make it to US Disease suicide
Slavery in the US Evolves to the most cruel form in the world Even in South American and Caribbean Islands, Africans maintained certain aspects of their culture Religion Music Language
Colonial Rule England views its North American colonies as economic resource In order to profit, colonies need to export more than they import Navigation Acts – ensures profits for England Monopoly over all colonists goods Colonists begin to smuggle goods Magna Carta – English document that specifies limited government Education important – Harvard (1636), William and Mary (1693) established
French and Indian War Map – pg 117 American population growing – need more room to expand French had good relationship with NA Did not want their land, but fur trade Often married NA women Iroquois balanced the power by siding with the British
French and Indian War George Washington surveys the land in the Ohio River Valley Assigned Liuetenant of 150 militia (1754) Went to present day Pittsburgh – French already built a fort Established a nearby fort – Fort Necessity Washington tried to attack, but failed – returned to Virginia Homework: Read Chapter 4-4 (121-125)