3Geography Sahara Desert *Covers ¼ of the continent *It was once fertile and well-watered.*Changing wind and weather patternsovertime the land became dry and barren* Sahel—southern edge of desert—dry, rainfall sparse, farming difficultand uncertainSavannas* vast stretches of dry grasslands*Few trees and thorny bushes*Farmers—grew grains such as sorghum, millet, and rice*Cattle herders
4Geography Sub-Saharan Steep shorelines—few natural harbors Plateau: a land area having a relatively level surface considerably raised above adjoining landSteep shorelines—few natural harborsMost rivers are blocked by rapids.Rainfall much greater farther south100 incher of rain per year in central and western AfricaTropical Rain ForestJungle in some areasFarther south of the rain forest—more dry grasslands2 Deserts: Kalahari and Namib [nah-mib]
5Geography 5 Major Rivers—one of them is the Nile River Other natural features:5 Major Rivers—one of them is the Nile RiverLake Victoria—one of the world’s largest lakesGreat Rift Valley—earth’s crust partedVictoria Falls
7Geography Now it’s map time! Color and label your map like the one on p. 279 in your book.Next, go to the map on p. 281, and trace the route of the Bantu migrations in red onto your map.Make a key to the left side or bottom of the map.
9There are more than 60 million people who speak Bantu as their native language. They live primarily in the regions that straddle the equator and continue southward into southern Africa.1000 BC a massive migration began (considered one of the largest in human history). This migration continued until around the 3rd or 4th century AD.Possibilities for Migration:It may have been due to a growing population in ancient times, which increased the need for more food. It was around this time that the banana, which is native to Asia, was introduced in southern Africa.
14Complete assignment on Ghana, Mali, & Songhai p.284- All three kingdoms*vast trading networks* main export was goldeach kingdom wealthy and strong
15Empire of GhanaGoldlacked adequate saltNot surprisingly, the gold-salt trade between the Ghana Empire and the Arab desert merchants flourished.
16Change in political control of West Africa Due to the fall of the Ghana Empire and the rise of the Islamic Mali Empire in 1235Control of the gold-salt trade remained the economic lifeline of the regionEstablished a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara.
17The Songhai peoplerose up to challenge the Mali Empire in the late 1400s understood the importance of controlling the trade centersThey captured Timbuktu, a center of education and trade very well known outside of Western Africa
18Commerce Ghana, Mali, and Songhai established trade routes As these networks grew and became more prosperous, they expanded to include the Mediterranean and then eventually Europe. Trade goods included gold, salt, copper, iron, various minerals, and agricultural products. A negative effect of this interaction was the start of the slave trade, when Europeans needed a cheap, reliable labor source for their New World colonies
19Religion and the Trans-Saharan Trade Islam reached West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes.During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures (Griot) each empire encompassed.
20Islamic Influences In Mali, the emperor Mansa Musa was famous for his pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the Five Pillars of Islam. This pilgrimage gained Mali closer ties with the Islamic world, and increased trade and cultural diffusion between Mali and the Muslim Empire.
21During the 1400s, Timbuktu became a center of learning under the leadership of Mali emperor, Mansa Musa (click on pic to watch his musical debut)Press Here
22MigrationMany migrations occurred throughout Africa. This resulted in a diversity of cultures across the continent as ideas and beliefs were spread.
26Trans-Sahara Trade Make sure to put this in your notes: Increase in use of trade routesIncreased contact with Muslims - connected West Africa with Muslim world and beyondIncrease in wealthGhana provided ivory, slaves, horses, cloth and saltKings converted to Islam in 900sMali absorbed Ghana and controlled all trade into Sub-Saharan AfricaMansa Musa makes pilgrimage to Mecca using routeMajor cities on route included Timbuktu and Gao.Songhai KingdomMake sure to put this in your notes:
27East African Trade Routes Exchange of slaves and goodsExchange of cultural diffusionExchange of religious syncretism
28Swahili City-states Trade centers in eastern Africa. Mogadishu, Sofala, and KilwaMerchants traded gold, slaves and ivory for pottery, glassware, and textiles from Persia, India and China. Governed by kings, who controlled the trade, as well as the taxes.
30The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin. It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims.