Presentation on theme: "AFRICA. Introduction Sahara Desert *Covers ¼ of the continent *It was once fertile and well-watered. *Changing wind and weather patterns overtime the."— Presentation transcript:
Sahara Desert *Covers ¼ of the continent *It was once fertile and well-watered. *Changing wind and weather patterns overtime the land became dry and barren * Sahelsouthern edge of desertdry, rainfall sparse, farming difficult and uncertain Savannas * vast stretches of dry grasslands *Few trees and thorny bushes *Farmersgrew grains such as sorghum, millet, and rice *Cattle herders
Sub-Saharan Plateau: a land area having a relatively level surface considerably raised above adjoining land Steep shorelinesfew natural harbors Most rivers are blocked by rapids. Rainfall much greater farther south 100 incher of rain per year in central and western Africa Tropical Rain Forest Jungle in some areas Farther south of the rain forestmore dry grasslands 2 Deserts: Kalahari and Namib [nah-mib]
Other natural features: 5 Major Riversone of them is the Nile River Lake Victoriaone of the worlds largest lakes Great Rift Valleyearths crust parted Victoria Falls
Now its map time! Color and label your map like the one on p. 279 in your book. Next, go to the map on p. 281, and trace the route of the Bantu migrations in red onto your map. Make a key to the left side or bottom of the map.
There are more than 60 million people who speak Bantu as their native language. They live primarily in the regions that straddle the equator and continue southward into southern Africa BC a massive migration began (considered one of the largest in human history). This migration continued until around the 3rd or 4th century AD. Possibilities for Migration: It may have been due to a growing population in ancient times, which increased the need for more food. It was around this time that the banana, which is native to Asia, was introduced in southern Africa.
Currently the Bantu are known more as a language group than as a distinct ethnic group. Oral Traditions handed down by Griots.
Complete assignment on Ghana, Mali, & Songhai p.284- All three kingdoms * vast trading networks * main export was gold each kingdom wealthy and strong
Empire of Ghana Gold lacked adequate salt Not surprisingly, the gold- salt trade between the Ghana Empire and the Arab desert merchants flourished.
Change in political control of West Africa D ue to the fall of the Ghana Empire and the rise of the Islamic Mali Empire in 1235 Control of the gold-salt trade remained the economic lifeline of the region Established a second major gold-salt trade route northeast across the Sahara.
The Songhai people rose up to challenge the Mali Empire in the late 1400s understood the importance of controlling the trade centers They captured Timbuktu, a center of education and trade very well known outside of Western Africa
Commerce Ghana, Mali, and Songhai established trade routes As these networks grew and became more prosperous, they expanded to include the Mediterranean and then eventually Europe. Trade goods included gold, salt, copper, iron, various minerals, and agricultural products. A negative effect of this interaction was the start of the slave trade, when Europeans needed a cheap, reliable labor source for their New World colonies
Religion and the Trans-Saharan Trade Islam reached West Africa through Arab Merchants on Saharan caravan routes. During the Ghana, Mali, and Songhai empires Arab merchants brought the Koran and the written language Arabic to the traditionally oral cultures (Griot) each empire encompassed.
Islamic Influences In Mali, the emperor Mansa Musa was famous for his pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the Five Pillars of Islam. This pilgrimage gained Mali closer ties with the Islamic world, and increased trade and cultural diffusion between Mali and the Muslim Empire.
During the 1400s, Timbuktu became a center of learning under the leadership of Mali emperor, Mansa Musa (click on pic to watch his musical debut)
Migration Many migrations occurred throughout Africa. This resulted in a diversity of cultures across the continent as ideas and beliefs were spread.
SYNCRETISM the combination of different forms of belief or practice
Trans-Sahara Trade Increase in use of trade routes Increased contact with Muslims - connected West Africa with Muslim world and beyond Increase in wealth Ghana provided ivory, slaves, horses, cloth and salt Kings converted to Islam in 900s Mali absorbed Ghana and controlled all trade into Sub-Saharan Africa Mansa Musa makes pilgrimage to Mecca using route Major cities on route included Timbuktu and Gao. Songhai Kingdom Make sure to put this in your notes:
East African Trade Routes Exchange of slaves and goods Exchange of cultural diffusion Exchange of religious syncretism
Swahili City-states Trade centers in eastern Africa. Mogadishu, Sofala, and Kilwa Merchants traded gold, slaves and ivory for pottery, glassware, and textiles from Persia, India and China. Governed by kings, who controlled the trade, as well as the taxes.
The Swahili language, is basically of Bantu (African) origin. It has borrowed words from other languages such as Arabic probably as a result of the Swahili people using the Quran written in Arabic for spiritual guidance as Muslims.