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Cultures of the Americas, Africa, and Europe Part 2: Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Cultures of the Americas, Africa, and Europe Part 2: Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cultures of the Americas, Africa, and Europe Part 2: Africa

2 West Africa Geography Mediterranean Sea Atlantic Ocean Sahara Desert Savannah Tropical Rain Forest Niger River

3 West Africa Trans-Saharan Trade Initially traded on the outskirts of the Sahara Intro of camels =trans-Saharan trade Carry more weight Extensive lengths of time w/o water Handle extreme desert temperatures Made goods more accessible Gold, ivory, ostrich feathers, furs As demand increased, so did settlements along the Sahara Increase trade=increased interactions=exchange of ideas

4 West Africa Islam Introduced as trade with Arab nations increase Followers called Muslims Popularity spread as a result of conflict and promoting religious unity Prosperity linked to the prosperity of gold High demand after the Muslim conquest of northern Africa (used as currency) Trade increase as European contact became more prevalent in the late 1200s with the shift form silver and copper coins to gold By 1300s, 2/3s of the gold in Europe and North Africa came from West Africa

5 Empires of West Africa Between 400 and 1500 3 great empires rose and fell in West Africa Growth and prosperity linked to trade Gold Salt Position in savannah allowed them to control trans-Saharan trade, which meant they were able to build wealthy and vast empires Ghana, Mali, and Songhai


7 Empires of West Africa Ghana Emerges around 400 AD Controlled trade and built the regions first empire Gained wealth by taxing gold and salt after the conquest of North Africa by Muslims Good relationship w/ Muslims who built mosques in their major cities Most people were farmers and herders who did not profit from trade Collapsed by the early 1200s War, over planting, new gold mines whose trade routes bypassed Ghana

8 Empires of West Africa Mali Location enabled them to control trade to new mines Wealth = conquest of Ghana and build large empire Government Ruler = Mansa – lived in capital city Town rulers collected taxes in the form of crops that were sent to the Mansa Used force to ensure power structure Religion Muslim Many farmers adhered to traditional religions b/c they felt it promoted agricultural prosperity

9 Empires of West Africa Mali (continued) Peaked in the 1300s under the leadership of Mansa Musa and his brother Newly found gold mines allowed for the empire to expand Built city of Timbuktu Cultural, political, and economic center

10 Empires of West Africa Songhai Lived along Niger River Valley Fishing Built canoes Controlled trade along river Sonni Ali – leader As Mali declined, seized Timbuktu in 1468 Began a series of conquests – salt and gold mines Askiya Muhammad – Took power from Sonni Alis son Best known for his revival of Timbuktu Centralized power in capital city of Goa Remained powerful until defeated by Morocco in 1591

11 Forest Kingdoms of Guinea West African coast in dense forests Mixture of hunters, farmers, and traders Small village communities Rich soil = surplus foods Supported rulers, artists, government officials, and artisans Traded for precious metals and salt Benin = largest city

12 Forest Kingdoms of Guinea Benin Developed around 1400 Large walled cities Ruler = Oba Expanded military and began the conquest of neighboring areas Appointed district chiefs to replace local rulers Began trading those captured in war as slaves the Portuguese for goods they later sold (ivory, pepper, gum, and cotton) Collapsed around 1700 due to civil war Many were then captured by Portuguese as slaves

13 Central and Southern Africa Rain forests made movement of goods and people difficult Villages established near rivers Fishing, planting wheat, raising livestock Others practiced a nomadic lifestyle Social Roles: Close and complex family structure Matrilineal societies – trace heritage through mother Women – home, children, trade, farming Men – hunting, fishing, raise livestock Tribal chief was male – (job inherited by the son the the chiefs oldest sister

14 Central and Southern Africa Congo Developed around 1400 near the Zaire River Food Surpluses Abundant rain, fertile soil Quickly expanded and became a large empire


16 Slavery Common in Africa Never based on race (until intro of the slave trade) War Debt Crime Not permanent Bought back Assimilated into the culture Opportunities to improve status Sale produce to purchase freedom Marry into captures society

17 Slavery How and Why did slavery change? Muslim traders Permitted slavery of non-Muslims Traded captured warriors for goods Gold Trade Mining Mali provided slaves to Portuguese in exchange for gold Sugar Plantations Europe was introduced to sugar by Muslims in the 1100s Causing and increased demand = need for more workers Established sugar plantations on Mediterranean islands Work was labor intensive and expensive = encouraged use of slaves Rising demand led to further plantation development off the coast of West Africa

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