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Territorial Government and Indian Wars ( )

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1 Territorial Government and Indian Wars (1847-1877)

2 Learning Target I can describe the Indian Wars and identify the events that lead to them. I will demonstrate I can do this by: Describing, in detail*, three specific events considered to be a part of the Indian Wars. Describe, in detail*, three specific events that lead to the Indians Wars. *detail means providing direct evidence from a class lecture. Example: The Native Americans were attracted the Catholic Priests’ use of chanting during their religious ceremonies.

3 Three events leading to the Indian Wars
Decline of the fur trade Treaty system and Indian removal The Whitman Massacre

4 Decline of Fur Trade Successful cooperation existed between whites and Indians based upon trade. Whites had exotic and valuable goods that Indians were willing to trade for and Indians had pelts 1846: Fur trade declines because fashion trends change, over trapping, fur companies disappear. Cooperation or shared trade system is no more.

5 White Need for Land The Great Migration: New industries were started: farming, ranching, logging, mining, etc. These new industries needed land. Pioneers simply squatted on whatever land they wanted, regardless of Indian presence. Indians did not believe they “owned” this land.

6 Treaty System and Indian Removal
U.S. government first treated Indians as “sovereign” nations. Indians made up a significant portion of the population east of the Mississippi and were a powerful military force. So, the U.S. signed treaties with them: Recognizing sanctity of their lands; Giving them diplomatic equality to the U.S.; Requiring whites to receive a license to do business with tribes; and Forbidding white settlement on Indian land.

7 The Indian Removal Act Signed in 1828 by President Andrew Jackson
Required all Indians in the eastern US to be settled on reservations west of the Mississippi The U.S. Supreme Court ruled the Act unconstitutional as it violated treaties and federal laws. The ruling was ignored by the President. All Indians were placed on reservations during the 1830s and 1840s.

8 The Effect of the Indian Removal Act on Oregon Country
Stories and rumors of the Indian removal were communicated to Oregon County Indians through extensive trade networks. Rumors fueled further distrust of the motives of the white pioneers in Oregon Country.

9 The Whitman Massacre

10 The Whitman Massacre Remember from prior lecture: The Indians were not converting to Christianity and a more “civilized” way of life as the Whitmans and other Protestant missionaries had hoped. Indians primarily wanted to trade at the mission for goods they needed and receive medical treatment from the Whitmans. The relationship worsened in 1843 when Dr. Whitman returned from the Eastern U.S. with 900 pioneers who would settle in Oregon Country.

11 The Whitman Massacre In 1847, a measles epidemic hit the area hard with Indians getting the worst of it due to their lack of immunity to white diseases. The Cayuse saw their own people dying at much higher rates than whites after treatment by Dr. Whitman. Rumors grew that Dr. Whitman was intentionally killing his Indian patients.

12 An Attack of Revenge On November 29, 1847, the Whitman Massacre resulted in the killing of 14 whites, including Dr. Whitman and his wife, Narcissa. 47 women and children taken hostage by the Cayuse. The Cuyuse were pursued by a militia and negotiations led to the freeing of the hostages in late December, 1847. Five Cuyuse warriors were eventually turned over and tried for the attack. They were hung on June 3, 1850.

13 Creation of Oregon Territory
Created as a result of the shock felt throughout the Eastern U.S. due to the Whitman Massacre. Brought the region under the direct jurisdiction of the U.S. federal government. Provided territorial and local government institutions in which residents could participate through election or holding office. Brought a sense of order and stability contrasting sharply with the frontier days of the fur trade and early pioneer era.


15 Territorial Government and Indians
Territorial establishment brought message to Indians that pioneers were to become a permanent fixture of the region. Territorial government gave white pioneers a new ally in the federal government meaning support in all disputes and local problems, including Indians. Territorial status was the beginning of the journey towards statehood.

16 Treaties and Reservations
The problem: Washington Territory needed to grow its population to meet requirement to become a state. The answer: Donation Land Claim Act: granted 320 acres of free land to any white male citizen of the age of Married couples could claim 640 acres. The problem: Most of this “free” land was presently occupied by Indian tribes. The answer: Signing treaties with major Indian tribes after convincing them to settle on reservations (aka the Indian Removal Act of 1830 – same idea)

17 Isaac Stevens

18 The Big Problem The person who was to convince the Indians to move to reservations was the first Territorial Governor for Washington, Isaac Stevens, who treated the Indians with such arrogance and contempt that tensions erupted leading to the Yakama and Spokane Indian Wars. The first treaties were signed with Coastal tribes. This was easier because they needed less land. They also did not understand the treaties. They did not believe in permanent land ownership and, so, believed they were simply allowing whites to temporarily use the lands.

19 Treaties - continued Due to language differences, many Coastal chiefs were not even aware of what they signed. The U.S. knew what was being promised and considered the treaties binding. Turn and Talk: Why would it be more challenging to get the Plateau tribes to live on a reservation? The Plateau tribes were a much harder sell. Due to their nomadic tendencies, their lifestyles, cultures and needs would not transfer so easily to life on a reservation.

20 Walla Walla Council Through three treaties, Stevens cleared over 22 million acres for white settlers. But the Indians left resenting his condescending and arrogant attitude toward their people. Many Plateau tribes signed nothing or did not even attend. There was much anger over the council and much talk about rebellion and warfare among many chiefs who had heard rumors and stories about broken treaties and violence from other parts of the U.S.

21 The Yakama Wars In 1855, Yakama Indians discovered two miners panning for gold on their treaty lands. The Yakama knew that if gold was discovered, their treaties would mean little to white miners and the government itself. The miners were killed and the federal Indian agent who came to investigate was killed also. The Yakama Wars had begun.

22 The Yakama Wars, cont. Turn to page 212 of your textbook and read from the heading, “The Battles of Toppenish Creek and Union Gap” through the section “The End of the Yakama Wars. In your Social Studies comp book, take notes of important points in each section. Be reading to share the outcome of the Yakama Wars in a class discussion.

23 The Spokane War The Spokane Indians were one of the tribes that had attended the Walla Walla Council but had not signed a treaty. For several years, they continued to refuse to sign and treaty and move to a reservation. They were able to do this for two reasons: They were a very powerful tribe; and Their homelands were located in northeastern Washington, far from major populations centers and settlers were not interested.

24 The Spokane War, cont Similar to the Yakama situation, gold miners began to arrive with soldiers not far behind them to offer defense from possible Indian aggression. A confrontation between Spokane warriors and those soldiers led to the beginning of the Spokane War. Students: Turn to page , read the two sections, “The Battle of Rosalia” and “The Battle of Spokane Plains.” Take notes of important details from these sections in your SS comp notebooks. Don’t forget to add these notes to your Table of Contents!

25 Indian Wars In order to make room for incoming white pioneers the Native Americans were asked to sign treaties. These were unfair deals and as a result wars between Native American tribes and the U.S. military occurred. In 1863 gold was found in the Southeastern Washington Nez Perce territory. The Wallowa Nez Perce refused a treaty.


27 Nez Perce Territory Important Plateau tribe
Signed the first treaty to be negotiated at the Walla Walla Council Traditional homeland: Northeastern Oregon, southeastern Washington, and western Idaho Gold discovered in 1863 The beginning of the end . .

28 Nez Perce The U.S. signed a treaty with a Nez Perce tribe in Western Idaho. In 1876 white settlers wanted the Southeastern land in Washington and asked the Nez Perce to leave. The Wallowa Nez Perce called the treaty void because a different Nez Perce tribe signed it. Chief Joseph (Nez Perce) and other chiefs met with General Howard (U.S) to discuss the situation.

29 Nez Perce Retreat The Nez Perce were forced to move to Western Idaho.
Some of the Nez Perce Indian, out of anger, killed four people as they left. Soldiers waited to seek revenge in Western Idaho so the Nez Perce retreated to Canada. They did not make it and were imprisoned until 1885.

30 Chief Joseph

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