2Kingdoms of AfricaAnthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy)Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here...Rise of Egyptian Society affectedother African Cultures along theNileKushIron producersAlso sold ivory, ebony, wood, slavesAxumEthiopia later adopted its own Christianity
3The Gold-Salt Trade North Africa is mainly Sahara desert South of the Sahara are grasslands known as the savannaThe savanna is home to large groups of pastoral peoples that herd cattle and sheepThese peoples also smelted iron, grew crops and had complex communities with craftspersons, warriors and traders.
4The Gold-Salt TradeSahara Desert acted as a barrier between people of Sub- Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean WorldTrade was, however, never cut offcompletelySahara contains oases with fresh waterCamels helped merchants cross thedesert once they knew where the oaseswere locatedMuslim merchants from Mediterranean also made this journey
5The Gold-Salt TradeMerchants were motivated to make the journey across the Sahara because of the gold and other riches they could obtain from West AfricaParts of West Africa lacked SaltSalt is vital for human survivalMerchants in camel caravanspicked up salt on their journey totrade for goldIdeas, Islamic Beliefs and various goods were exchanged in this way
6Apply it!Compare the African Gold-Salt Trade with that of the Silk Road?Why was the Sahara a trade barrier?How was that barrier conquered?
7The Rise of West African Kingdoms West Africa saw the rise of many powerful kingdoms based on the control of trade routesCivilizations dominated West Africa for the next thousand yearsThis lead to an exchange ofideas, rise of cities andincreased wealth
8Kingdom of GhanaDeveloped in West Africa between the Senegal and Niger RiversPeople of Ghana made iron swords, spears and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and gain control of major trade routesNeeded Salt…trade it for Gold (which they had)
9Kingdom of GhanaKings of Ghana taxed trade passing through the regionsWith this revenue, they raised a large army with a cavalryRulers built a capital city and governed a wide area with officials and nobles
10Kingdom of GhanaKings appointed nobles to govern the provinces in return for paying taxes to the central governmentSystem had similarities to European FeudalismRulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slavesGhana was invaded by Muslims from North Africa.Muslims brought Islam to the areaGhana never recovered from this invasion and dissolved into smaller states
11Apply it! How did Ghana benefit from the trade in the area? How is the political system of Ghana similar to that of Medieval Europe?
12Kingdom of MaliIn 1240, the people of Mali conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empireThe rulers brought gold and salt mines under their control.Mali’s rulers converted to IslamBut most people stayed loyal to traditional beliefs and rejected Islam
14Kingdom of Mali Mali’s most famous ruler was Mansa Musa (click) Mansa Musa was the main Muslim man of Mali who went many miles to the main Muslim mosque in Mecca with a magnificent menagerie and meaded out much money to many men, maybe millions and brought back many Muslim scholars for much learning.Expanded the kingdom greatlyTook religious pilgrimage to MeccaAlso visited CairoObservers were impressed with his wealthHe brought back Muslim scholars and architects to Mali
15Kingdom of MaliMansa Musa commissioned a palace and giant mosque to be built in Timbuktu, a thriving trade center on the Niger RiverMuslim scholarship in Mali flourishedTimbuktu became an important center of universities and attracted students from Europe, Asia and AfricaMany of his subjects studied the Qur’an and learned to read and write
16Kingdom of Mali Ibn Battuta was an arab traveler Impressed by Mali’s wealth, respectfor law and power of it’s rulerIbn Battuta traveled extensively andwrote about the various kingdomsof the areaIt is through his writings that scholars know much about the life in Africa and the Middle East
17Kingdom of SonghaiIn 1465, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai, captured Timbuktu and brought the Upper Niger River under his controlKingdom of Songhai became the largest of West Africa’s three trading kingdomsLike Ghana and Mali, Songhai grew rich from trade across the Sahara DesertExpanded trade routes as far as Europe and Asia
18Kingdom of SonghaiThe Songhai established a system of taxation and communicationsTimbuktu flourished as a center of Muslim scholarshipDespite its riches and power the Kingdom of Songhai lasted only 130 years
19Kingdom of SonghaiIn 1591, the ruler of Morocco, hearing of Songhai’s wealth, invaded West AfricaAlthough Songhai army was larger, Moroccans used gunpowder and muskets to defeat the Songhai who fought only with arrows and spearsDespite their military success, Moroccans were unable to govern from a distanceWest Africa split into large number of independent areasThe fall of the Songhai marked the end of the great West African Kingdoms
20Apply it!What parallel can you see when looking at both the control of Songhai by Morocco and subsequent fall and that of the American colonies?
21Other African States Ife and Benin These Kingdoms developed in the rainforests of West AfricaFamous for the copper and bronze scultputresBenin became involved in the slave tradeTook captured persons from other tribes and exchanged them with Europeans for guns and iron goods
22Apply it!Was the slave trade a European invention?Why or why not?
23Other African States Zimbabwe Gold deposits near Zimbabwe was crucial to the rise of this stateZimbabwe traded gold, copper and ivory with Muslim traders along the east coast
24Other African States Coastal Cities of East Africa A number of independent city-states arose around the 10th CenturyGold from the African interior was sent down the Zambia River to these cities where it was sold to merchants from Arabia and India
25Apply it! What did all the trade in Africa inevitably lead to? How do the Kingdoms of Africa compare to Classical and Post Classical societies we’ve already discussed?
26Family Roles in AfricaIn traditional African Societies, both boys and girls were separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at pubertyMarriages were arrangedGroom paid a dowry to his bride’s familyUnder Islam, women were limited to running the household while the husband represented the family outside it“A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it.”
27Ghana Invaded by Muslims Morocco Conquered Songhai Apply it!Ghana Invaded by MuslimsMansa Musa’s TripMorocco Conquered SonghaiGhana FoundedMali FoundedMali CollapsedSonghai Founded60070080090010001100120013001400150016001700