Presentation on theme: "Anthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy) Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here... Rise of Egyptian Society affected."— Presentation transcript:
Anthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy) Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here... Rise of Egyptian Society affected other African Cultures along the Nile Kush Iron producers Also sold ivory, ebony, wood, slaves Axum Ethiopia later adopted its own Christianity
North Africa is mainly Sahara desert South of the Sahara are grasslands known as the savanna The savanna is home to large groups of pastoral peoples that herd cattle and sheep These peoples also smelted iron, grew crops and had complex communities with craftspersons, warriors and traders.
Sahara Desert acted as a barrier between people of Sub- Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean World Trade was, however, never cut off completely Sahara contains oases with fresh water Camels helped merchants cross the desert once they knew where the oases were located Muslim merchants from Mediterranean also made this journey
Merchants were motivated to make the journey across the Sahara because of the gold and other riches they could obtain from West Africa Parts of West Africa lacked Salt Salt is vital for human survival Merchants in camel caravans picked up salt on their journey to trade for gold Ideas, Islamic Beliefs and various goods were exchanged in this way
Compare the African Gold-Salt Trade with that of the Silk Road? Why was the Sahara a trade barrier? How was that barrier conquered?
West Africa saw the rise of many powerful kingdoms based on the control of trade routes Civilizations dominated West Africa for the next thousand years This lead to an exchange of ideas, rise of cities and increased wealth
Developed in West Africa between the Senegal and Niger Rivers People of Ghana made iron swords, spears and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and gain control of major trade routes Needed Salt…trade it for Gold (which they had)
Kings of Ghana taxed trade passing through the regions With this revenue, they raised a large army with a cavalry Rulers built a capital city and governed a wide area with officials and nobles
Kings appointed nobles to govern the provinces in return for paying taxes to the central government System had similarities to European Feudalism Rulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves Ghana was invaded by Muslims from North Africa. Muslims brought Islam to the area Ghana never recovered from this invasion and dissolved into smaller states
How did Ghana benefit from the trade in the area? How is the political system of Ghana similar to that of Medieval Europe?
In 1240, the people of Mali conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire The rulers brought gold and salt mines under their control. Malis rulers converted to Islam But most people stayed loyal to traditional beliefs and rejected Islam
Malis most famous ruler was Mansa Musa (click)Mansa Musa Mansa Musa was the main Muslim man of Mali who went many miles to the main Muslim mosque in Mecca with a magnificent menagerie and meaded out much money to many men, maybe millions and brought back many Muslim scholars for much learning. Expanded the kingdom greatly Took religious pilgrimage to Mecca Also visited Cairo Observers were impressed with his wealth He brought back Muslim scholars and architects to Mali
Mansa Musa commissioned a palace and giant mosque to be built in Timbuktu, a thriving trade center on the Niger River Muslim scholarship in Mali flourished Timbuktu became an important center of universities and attracted students from Europe, Asia and Africa Many of his subjects studied the Quran and learned to read and write
Ibn Battuta was an arab traveler Impressed by Malis wealth, respect for law and power of its ruler Ibn Battuta traveled extensively and wrote about the various kingdoms of the area It is through his writings that scholars know much about the life in Africa and the Middle East
In 1465, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai, captured Timbuktu and brought the Upper Niger River under his control Kingdom of Songhai became the largest of West Africas three trading kingdoms Like Ghana and Mali, Songhai grew rich from trade across the Sahara Desert Expanded trade routes as far as Europe and Asia
The Songhai established a system of taxation and communications Timbuktu flourished as a center of Muslim scholarship Despite its riches and power the Kingdom of Songhai lasted only 130 years
In 1591, the ruler of Morocco, hearing of Songhais wealth, invaded West Africa Although Songhai army was larger, Moroccans used gunpowder and muskets to defeat the Songhai who fought only with arrows and spears Despite their military success, Moroccans were unable to govern from a distance West Africa split into large number of independent areas The fall of the Songhai marked the end of the great West African Kingdoms
What parallel can you see when looking at both the control of Songhai by Morocco and subsequent fall and that of the American colonies?
Ife and Benin These Kingdoms developed in the rainforests of West Africa Famous for the copper and bronze scultputres Benin became involved in the slave trade Took captured persons from other tribes and exchanged them with Europeans for guns and iron goods
Was the slave trade a European invention? Why or why not?
Zimbabwe Gold deposits near Zimbabwe was crucial to the rise of this state Zimbabwe traded gold, copper and ivory with Muslim traders along the east coast
Coastal Cities of East Africa A number of independent city-states arose around the 10 th Century Gold from the African interior was sent down the Zambia River to these cities where it was sold to merchants from Arabia and India
What did all the trade in Africa inevitably lead to? How do the Kingdoms of Africa compare to Classical and Post Classical societies weve already discussed?
In traditional African Societies, both boys and girls were separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty Marriages were arranged Groom paid a dowry to his brides family Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while the husband represented the family outside it A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it.
Ghana Founded Ghana Invaded by Muslims Mali Founded Mansa Musas Trip Mali Collapsed Songhai Founded Morocco Conquered Songhai