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Kingdoms of Africa.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms of Africa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdoms of Africa

2 Kingdoms of Africa Anthropologists believe humanity originated in East Africa (Lucy) Read more about skeletons found in East Africa here... Rise of Egyptian Society affected other African Cultures along the Nile Kush Iron producers Also sold ivory, ebony, wood, slaves Axum Ethiopia later adopted its own Christianity

3 The Gold-Salt Trade North Africa is mainly Sahara desert
South of the Sahara are grasslands known as the savanna The savanna is home to large groups of pastoral peoples that herd cattle and sheep These peoples also smelted iron, grew crops and had complex communities with craftspersons, warriors and traders.

4 The Gold-Salt Trade Sahara Desert acted as a barrier between people of Sub- Saharan Africa and the Mediterranean World Trade was, however, never cut off completely Sahara contains oases with fresh water Camels helped merchants cross the desert once they knew where the oases were located Muslim merchants from Mediterranean also made this journey

5 The Gold-Salt Trade Merchants were motivated to make the journey across the Sahara because of the gold and other riches they could obtain from West Africa Parts of West Africa lacked Salt Salt is vital for human survival Merchants in camel caravans picked up salt on their journey to trade for gold Ideas, Islamic Beliefs and various goods were exchanged in this way

6 Apply it! Compare the African Gold-Salt Trade with that of the Silk Road? Why was the Sahara a trade barrier? How was that barrier conquered?

7 The Rise of West African Kingdoms
West Africa saw the rise of many powerful kingdoms based on the control of trade routes Civilizations dominated West Africa for the next thousand years This lead to an exchange of ideas, rise of cities and increased wealth

8 Kingdom of Ghana Developed in West Africa between the Senegal and Niger Rivers People of Ghana made iron swords, spears and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and gain control of major trade routes Needed Salt…trade it for Gold (which they had)

9 Kingdom of Ghana Kings of Ghana taxed trade passing through the regions With this revenue, they raised a large army with a cavalry Rulers built a capital city and governed a wide area with officials and nobles

10 Kingdom of Ghana Kings appointed nobles to govern the provinces in return for paying taxes to the central government System had similarities to European Feudalism Rulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves Ghana was invaded by Muslims from North Africa. Muslims brought Islam to the area Ghana never recovered from this invasion and dissolved into smaller states

11 Apply it! How did Ghana benefit from the trade in the area?
How is the political system of Ghana similar to that of Medieval Europe?

12 Kingdom of Mali In 1240, the people of Mali conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire The rulers brought gold and salt mines under their control. Mali’s rulers converted to Islam But most people stayed loyal to traditional beliefs and rejected Islam

13 Kingdom of Mali

14 Kingdom of Mali Mali’s most famous ruler was Mansa Musa (click)
Mansa Musa was the main Muslim man of Mali who went many miles to the main Muslim mosque in Mecca with a magnificent menagerie and meaded out much money to many men, maybe millions and brought back many Muslim scholars for much learning. Expanded the kingdom greatly Took religious pilgrimage to Mecca Also visited Cairo Observers were impressed with his wealth He brought back Muslim scholars and architects to Mali

15 Kingdom of Mali Mansa Musa commissioned a palace and giant mosque to be built in Timbuktu, a thriving trade center on the Niger River Muslim scholarship in Mali flourished Timbuktu became an important center of universities and attracted students from Europe, Asia and Africa Many of his subjects studied the Qur’an and learned to read and write

16 Kingdom of Mali Ibn Battuta was an arab traveler
Impressed by Mali’s wealth, respect for law and power of it’s ruler Ibn Battuta traveled extensively and wrote about the various kingdoms of the area It is through his writings that scholars know much about the life in Africa and the Middle East

17 Kingdom of Songhai In 1465, Sultan Sunni Ali, ruler of the Songhai, captured Timbuktu and brought the Upper Niger River under his control Kingdom of Songhai became the largest of West Africa’s three trading kingdoms Like Ghana and Mali, Songhai grew rich from trade across the Sahara Desert Expanded trade routes as far as Europe and Asia

18 Kingdom of Songhai The Songhai established a system of taxation and communications Timbuktu flourished as a center of Muslim scholarship Despite its riches and power the Kingdom of Songhai lasted only 130 years

19 Kingdom of Songhai In 1591, the ruler of Morocco, hearing of Songhai’s wealth, invaded West Africa Although Songhai army was larger, Moroccans used gunpowder and muskets to defeat the Songhai who fought only with arrows and spears Despite their military success, Moroccans were unable to govern from a distance West Africa split into large number of independent areas The fall of the Songhai marked the end of the great West African Kingdoms

20 Apply it! What parallel can you see when looking at both the control of Songhai by Morocco and subsequent fall and that of the American colonies?

21 Other African States Ife and Benin
These Kingdoms developed in the rainforests of West Africa Famous for the copper and bronze scultputres Benin became involved in the slave trade Took captured persons from other tribes and exchanged them with Europeans for guns and iron goods

22 Apply it! Was the slave trade a European invention? Why or why not?

23 Other African States Zimbabwe
Gold deposits near Zimbabwe was crucial to the rise of this state Zimbabwe traded gold, copper and ivory with Muslim traders along the east coast

24 Other African States Coastal Cities of East Africa
A number of independent city-states arose around the 10th Century Gold from the African interior was sent down the Zambia River to these cities where it was sold to merchants from Arabia and India

25 Apply it! What did all the trade in Africa inevitably lead to?
How do the Kingdoms of Africa compare to Classical and Post Classical societies we’ve already discussed?

26 Family Roles in Africa In traditional African Societies, both boys and girls were separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty Marriages were arranged Groom paid a dowry to his bride’s family Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while the husband represented the family outside it “A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it.”

27 Ghana Invaded by Muslims Morocco Conquered Songhai
Apply it! Ghana Invaded by Muslims Mansa Musa’s Trip Morocco Conquered Songhai Ghana Founded Mali Founded Mali Collapsed Songhai Founded 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700

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