Africas Geography The Sahara is the largest desert in the world, and is expanding 50ft per year The Sahara limited living space, but many trade routes were created Huge mineral resources such as salt, gold and iron promoted trade
Climate Change About 2500 BCE the Sahara started expanding (desertification) This forced the Bantu tribe to move South, spreading their language and iron working skills.
China Ashoka Rock Pillar Edicts Papyrus Slash and Burn Review What agricultural technique did the Bantu use? Ancient Egypt created this paper-like substance from river reeds The greatest Mauryan leader was _____________, he spread his belief in Buddhism using these What ancient civilization created paper, gunpowder and porcelain?
Maps Label the Sahara, Kalahari and Namib Deserts Label the Nile, Niger, Congo and Zambezi Rivers Label the savanna, forest and Mediterranean climates Shade in the area of Ancient Egypt Page 285
African Trade Trade along the Mediterranean Sea linked Africa to Europe and the Middle East Goods travelled along Saharan Trade routes to the Mediterranean Sea Egypt and Carthage dominated Mediterranean trade
Egypt Egypt was a trading empire. It dominated trade between North East Africa and Europe and the Middle East Egypt specialized in trading gold, sculptures, papyrus and food
Carthage Carthage dominated North West Africas Mediterranean trade. They extended trade to Spain, France and Italy. The Carthaginians eventually challenged Roman Trade routes and were destroyed by the Romans.
Growing Trade African trade grew quickly with the introduction of the Asian Camel Camels could transport up to 500 pounds and travel 20-30 miles a day. The camels made Sahara trade more profitable
Gold and Salt Salt came from the Europeans. Africans need it to prevent dehydration by consuming salt Salt is also used to preserve meats and other foods Salt was literally worth its weight in gold
Empires As the Saharan trade routes grew and valuable many strong monarchs (kings) gained control Ghana Mali Songhai
Ghana Located between two major rivers King controlled the gold and salt trade. All goods entering or leaving the nation were taxed. The King of Ghana had a huge army available to maintain order
Ghana The King hired many Islamic counselors, officials and advisors. This was the introduction of Islam into West Africa Ghana maintained power through direct rule by the King and enforcement by his army
Mali Over time Ghana fell to the more powerful Mali empire The Mali Empire was established by Sundiata, who was spared as a boy by invading forces. As he grew he became a powerful military leader. He regained control in 1250 Named his empire Mali, which means where the king dwells in Arabic
Mansa Musa 1312-1337 Mali gained control of both the salt and gold trade. And power was inherited by Mansa Musa. Mansa Musa was the greatest of all the Mali kings Even Today, Mansa Musa was the richest man EVER
Mansa Musa Musa was the greatest Mansa: -expanded the Empire to the Atlantic Ocean -Created a safe, peaceful and prosperous empire -converted to Islam and spread Arabic ideas There is complete and general safety throughout the land. The traveller here has no more reason to fear thieves than the man who stays home -Ibn Battuta
Review- Islam Mansa Musa was a devoted Muslim. Part of Islam is adherence to the five pillars: 1)Only one god- Monotheistic 2)Prayer five times a day 3)Giving to the poor 4)Fast during Ramadan 5)Hajj- travel to Mecca Mansa Musa is best known for completing the Hajj Hajj- Muslims must travel to Mecca to pray
Musas Hajj Mansa Musa left on his hajj in 1324. He took 500 servants and 100 camels laden with gold The Hajj took over a year, with stops in major cities such as Cairo in Egypt
Cairo, Egypt Mansa Musa gave gold to thousands of people in Egypt. Through trade and gifts he spent much of his gold. He spent SO much gold, the value of it fell. The Economy of Cairo fell significantly due to TOO much gold
Effects of the Hajj Mansa Musas Hajj has significant effects on Western Africa -Spread Islamic religion -new trading partners to the East -brought back Scholars who spread their knowledge However, Europeans soon hear about the vast wealth of this Mali King. This sparks interest which will end in imperialism Scholar- a person who studies and has knowledge
Songhai After Mansa Musa, Mali quickly crumbled The Songhai Empire is set up by Sonni Ali, a warrior king This king was able to control the great trade city of Timbuktu
Songhai Askia succeeded Ali to the throne. Askia was a Muslim, and travelled on the Hajj. However, he did not have nearly the amount of wealth as Mansa Musa Askia brought back many Islamic scholars creating a period of intellectual achievement in Timbuktu
Timbuktu Center of Learning Eventually absorbed into the Songhai empire. Overtime, even Timbuktu was overrun by powerful war lords
Negatives of Trade While the vast trade routes brought riches and cultural diffusion, there were two significant negatives. 1)As word spread of Africas wealth, other empires wanted to control the resources 2)The slave trade begins due to access with the Europeans and desire for further trade
Located south of Egypt, Nubia (Kush) was located in present day Sudan Nubia traded gold, ivory, animal skins and slaves to the Egyptians and beyond. They were heavily influenced by Egyptian society, art work, and culture