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INDONESIA GOLD RESOURCES AND EXPLORATION CHALLENGES (Source: Prihananto, 2011) Dr. Arifudin Idrus Department of Geological Engineering Gadjah Mada University.

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Presentation on theme: "INDONESIA GOLD RESOURCES AND EXPLORATION CHALLENGES (Source: Prihananto, 2011) Dr. Arifudin Idrus Department of Geological Engineering Gadjah Mada University."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDONESIA GOLD RESOURCES AND EXPLORATION CHALLENGES (Source: Prihananto, 2011) Dr. Arifudin Idrus Department of Geological Engineering Gadjah Mada University E-mail address: arifidrus@gmail.com Disampaikan pada One-day Course: Pemanfaatan dan Prospek Sumberdaya Emas di Indonesia; HMTG-UGM, 1 Oktober 2011

2 WHY GOLD? Part of human life since ~6,000 years ago Relatively minor occurrences, but widespread in geographic distribution Physical properties and valuable deposit Unique economic behavior (in both small and large scale)

3 GOLD PRODUCTION 1900-1989 (from various sources) Sumatra Ertsberg Pacific War Dutch Colonial Era Independence CoW Sukarno | Soeharto

4 GOLD DISTRICTS 1900-1989 Mangani Ertsberg Cikotok North Sulawesi Kalimantan Alluvials Lebong

5

6 Total: 1,768 tonnes

7 GOLD PRODUCTION DECREASING ??? Gold deposit potential depleted No Decreasing of exploration activities and lack of new discoveries ??? Technical aspects Non technical aspects

8 GOLD DEPOSIT TYPES Witwatersrand Greenstone Belt Epithermal including Carlin (sediment hosted) Porphyry/ skarn Orogenic Gold Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) Others

9 DEPOSIT MODEL (Corbett, 2005)

10 REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF INDONESIA

11 MAGMATIC ARCS OF INDONESIA (Carlile ane Mitchel, 1994)

12 GOLD RESOURCES + RESERVES 1969 – 2010 (desk study) 167.66 Moz (5,214.38 tonnes) gold N: 94

13 GOLD – BY MAGMATIC ARC 167.66 Moz (5,214.38 tonnes) gold

14 GOLD – BY DEPOSIT TYPE 167.66 Moz (5,214.38 tonnes) gold

15 GOLD – BY PROJECT STATUS 167.66 Moz (5,214.38 tonnes) gold

16 GOLD MINES 1990-2010 Mesel Mt. Muro Kelian Grasberg Cikidang Gosowong Batu Hijau Wetar Rawas Active Closed Sediment Hosted LS Epithermal Porphyry/ Skarn VMS Pongkor Lb Tandai Kencana Mt. Muro West ……. Cibaliung Buduk

17 PRIMARY GOLD DEPOSITS/ OCCURENCES Toka TindungSeruyung Tombulilato Wabu Way Linggo Elang Awak Mas Pungkut Active Closed Sediment Hosted LS Epithermal HS Epithermal Porphyry/ Skarn Mesothermal Vein Mirah Martabe Motomboto ……. Bukit Tujuh Palu Jelai-Mewet Pangulir Ojolali

18 GEOLOGICAL TARGET TYPES HS EPITHERMAL Field LS EPITHERMAL Field SKARN Field PORPHYRY Field

19 GOLD MINE – LAPSE TIMES MineOwnerStatus Contract SignedProductionLapse Lebong TandaiBilliton (CSR)Closed198519861 GosowongNewcrestClosed199719992 WetarBillitonClosed198619915 ErtsbergFreeportClosed196719736 PongkorAntamProduction198819946 KelianRiotintoClosed198519927 Mt. MuroAuroraClosed198519949 KencanaNewcrestProduction199720069 MeselNewmontClosed1986199610 RawasLavertonClosed1986199711 CibaliungAustindo/ AntamProduction1998201012 Batu HijauNewmontProduction1986199913 Mt. Muro WestStraitsProduction1985200419 GrasbergFreeportProduction1967198922 Average Lapse Time (Years) 9.5

20 GOLD MINE – LIFE SPANS Mine909192939495969798990001020304050607080910 Grasberg Lebong Tandai Alluvials Wetar Kelian Pongkor Mt. Muro Mesel Rawas Gosowong Cikidang Batu Hijau Mt. Muro West Kencana Cibaliung Porphyry VMS LS Epithermal Sediment hosted Alluvial

21 FACTORS AFFECTING INDUSTRYS FUTURE Geological Prospectiveness (++) F Country Stability (+) F Gold Price (++) F Legal/Commercial Basis ( - ) èNew Mining Law, lack of implementing regulations F Intensity of Exploration Efforts (– to +)

22 CONCERNS IN INDONESIA (non technical aspects) F Uncertainty in mineral tenement system (Mining Law No.4/ 2009 with lack of implementing regulations) F Forestry overlapping issues F Pains of regional autonomy F Illegal mining F Local community / NGOs

23 EXPLORATION CHALLENGES technical aspects 2. Exploration going deeper Development of new geological/ exploration model Application of new technology Advanced exploration techniques and approaches Higher exploration costs 1. Opportunity to generate/ develop new projects is sliming Matured Exploration Areas 3. Professional ability and skill of explorationists

24 MAJOR GOLD DEPOSIT TYPES IN INDONESIA Epithermal Porphyry/ skarn

25 Porphyry vs Epithermal


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