Presentation on theme: "The Race Europeans wanted Asian trade goods such as spices and silk During the 1400s one pound of salt was worth as much as two pounds of gold. The overland."— Presentation transcript:
The Race Europeans wanted Asian trade goods such as spices and silk During the 1400s one pound of salt was worth as much as two pounds of gold. The overland trade routes were very dangerous and inflated the cost of goods In the late 1400s nations in western Europe raced to find an all water route from Europe to Asia.
1492 Columbus Sails the Ocean Blue An Italian Sailor named Christopher Columbus believed he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. The idea was daring. People thought he was crazy! Many believed that planet Earth was flat and he would fall off the edge. King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain eventually gave Columbus three ships
Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria On August 3, 1492 Columbus set sail. As the weeks passed the crew grew nervous. Over two months later they hit land! On October 12 th 1492 the fleet hit the present day Bahamas. Columbus named the island San Salvador or Holy Savior
Indians? Although Columbus was no where near Asia, he thought he was in the Indies. Therefore he called the people he met Indians. Later, Europeans realized that Columbus had actually hit the continent of N. America.
Spanish Conquest in America Spain's rulers hoped to expand their empire by taking control of the Americas. Riches and lands of America would add to their nations wealth and power. Spain also wanted to spread Christianity to the Americas. To accomplish this they sent small armies and church officials to the Caribbean. These expeditions were led by conquistadores – soldiers and adventurers in search of glory, gold and land.
Conquistadores They wore suits of armor and steel helmets They rode mighty horses and carried muskets and finely crafted swords. To the Indians who had never seen horses or steel weapons this was frightening. How did this impact the spreading of Christianity? With the advantage of superior military technology, the Spanish soon conquered many of the Caribbean Islands. They then set their eyes on the American mainland.
Cortes Marches through Mexico In 1519 conquistador Hernan Cortes sailed from Spanish Cuba to the East Coast of Mexico. After landing the Spanish met many Mexican Indians. They told Cortes of the powerful and wealthy Aztec Empire. The Aztecs were led by Moctezuma II, also known as Montezuma. Cortes decided to find Montezuma and take him alive in chains and make him subject of Spain. How do you think the spreading of Christianity is going thus far?
Cortes To make certain his army would not surrender, he sank his ships. He wanted victory no matter the cost however, he faced overwhelming odds. The Aztec had astonishing numbers reaching in the millions and their land was vast.
Inside help for Cortes An Indian women named Malintzin also pronounced Malinche helped Cortes overcome his disadvantage. She served as guide and interpreter. With her help, Cortes gained allies among the already conquered people. He proclaimed this was a religious war and these people needed to be converted to Christianity at all cost. Thousands joined his march toward the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan.
Tenochtitlan Astonishment When we saw those cities…built in the water, and great other towns on dry land,…we were astounded. These great towns and temples and buildings all rising from the water, all made of stone, seemed like an enchanted vision.
Cortes Retreats The Aztec had large amounts of gold, precious gems, and silver. Moctezuma gave Cortes peace offerings from his treasure, but it was not enough. Cortes took the city captive and began planning how to conquer the Aztec. Before Cortes was prepared fighting broke out between the Spanish and Aztec. On the night of June 30, 1520 the Spaniards fled the city. Cortes then began planning a new assault. He convinced more Mexican Indians to support him in his fight for Christianity.
Round II They built boats with armor and cannons. In May of 1521 the Spaniards and their Mexican Indian allies attacked Tenochtitlan. After a long and brutal fight they conquered the Aztec in August of Many of the Aztec were killed and the remainder were enslaved. The city of Tenochtitlan laid in ruins.
Spanish Gains Spain captured great wealth and land from the Aztecs. The Spanish sent much of the Aztec gold, silver, and treasure back to Spain. On top of the ruins of Tenochtitlan, Cortes built Mexico City. It became the capital of New Spain and extended from California to Florida to Mexico. Along with the Caribbean Islands, Mexico became a common starting point for Spanish exploration of the Americas. By 1600, Spain's empire included much of North and South America.
The Seven Cities of Gold According to a Spanish legend there lied 7 cities of gold across the Atlantic Ocean. During Anno Domini (A.D.) 700 Portugal was invaded. During the invasion 7 bishops fled and crossed the Atlantic Ocean. After crossing the Atlantic they came to a land filled with gold and jewels. The bishops built seven fabulous wealthy cities. Many Spaniards longed to find these cities. They thought these cities must be in the Americas! Other empires full of gold and jewels had already been found, there could be more. What Empire had already been found and by who?
Searching for Cities of Gold When Cabeza returned to Spain he wrote of his experiences in the Americas. In his writings he reported mountains to the north of Mexico with towns of great population and huge houses. He also stated that there were signs of gold in the mountains. Cabezas stories excited the viceroy (vice.roy) – royal governor of New Spain. What was the capital of new Spain? (Hint) Cortez conquered the Aztec Empire and built this capital over the ruble.
Marcos and Estavanico 1539 In 1539 the Spanish sent a friar named Marcos de Niza to find these cities of gold. Niza chose Estevanico to be his guide. Estevanico had been to the Americas and knew many of the Native American languages. They brought along over 300 Mexican Indians to provide protection. The explorers moved from Mexico through present day Arizona into New Mexico. Estavanico wore bright colors and a cape. He also tied bells and wistles to his wrists and ankles. Native Americans often thought he was a healer and welcomed him.
1 of 7? Estavanico and some others would go ahead of the main group and scout the territory. Marcos eventually received word that his scout had seen a one of the 7 cities! As Marcos approached the city some of his scouting group came running from the city. They reported Estavanico had angered the villagers and he and many other scouts had been killed! Marcos retreated to higher ground to view the city from afar. The city shined in the distance, the buildings sparkled in the sun. Marcos returned home to Mexico City and reported that he had found one of the 7 cities of gold.
Cibola the City of Gold The Spanish called this new found city Cibola. The Spanish organized its strongest force ever to take over Cibola. This force of 300 soldiers, many religious officials, and 1,000 Mexican Indians was led by Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. Coronado was a 30 year old conquistador. Coronado's army and Marcos left Mexico for Cibola in April of 1540.
Coronado and Marcos When they reached Cibola they found a force of Zuni Indians. A small battle took place but the Spaniard's were victorious. The battle was one sided due to the muskets and swords of the Spanish. Victory was short lived because the buildings of gold were not gold at all. They were adobe houses! Marcos was sent back to Mexico City in disgrace.
Coronado Continues Coronado continued his search for gold. He sent groups out to explore the present day Southern United States. During his search for gold he saw many things and met many new people. Coronado was the first Spaniard to view the Grand Canyon. He met one Native American by the name of Turk. Turk was of the Tiguex tribe.
Turk Tells of Quivira 1541 Turk told stories of a region called Quivira. Quivira was said to hold cities full of gold. Guided by Turk, Coronado began his expedition to Quivira. The expedition traveled onto the flatlands of the Texas Panhandle where they stated seeing humpback cows. From Texas they traveled North to Kansas. Finally they reached Quivira at where is now Wichita, Kansas. They found nothing but grass huts and corn! Coronado was furious! He asked Turk why he did this and Turk said, my tribe was tired of your men and requested I deceive you.