18CropsDates: raised in desert oasisKola Nuts: Used for medicines
19Resources Salt: When ancient lakes dried up they left salt behind Gold: found in secret mines and used for jewelry
20Culture and TradeWhen west Africa was damp people lived further apart because they could rely on the earths resources, but as time changed the earth got dryer and people had to live closer together to depend on one another. Thus came SOCIAL STRUCTURES!!
21Technology brought change Heating rock= IRONIRON= Strong toolsSTRONG TOOLS= more cropsMORE CROPS= tradingNok people became good farmers and hunters and gained power
22TRADE-TRADE-TRADE Desert Trade Not so smart people used horses, but horses had to stop and drink at every oasisThen they started used camels 200ADCamels allowed people to cross the desert in 2 monthsThey formed caravansBerbers were know for crossing the desert
23DESERT TRADE Desert Trade was dangerous because… Supplies ran low ThievesLoose their way (sand was everywhere)
24TRADE GOLD and SALT Gold and Salt Mine=MONEY MONEY MONEY Camels carried gold and salt from the Sahara desert in the north to the south for tradeEUROPE and the ISLAMIC world received gold and saltAlong with gold and salt, they traded cloth, copper, and silver and sold humans
28Once upon a time, way far away in West Africa, grew a country named Ghana. Now Ghana was not like most countries…
29It was special. See Ghana was the center of trade It was special. See Ghana was the center of trade. And the trade all started with the Soninke. But who were the Soninke?
30The Soninke were farmers in 300AD The Soninke were farmers in 300AD. They banned together and united to form Ghana. They were amazing farmers. They farmed across the Niger River and most of West Africa.
31The Soninke were not only good farmers but they were smart The Soninke were not only good farmers but they were smart. They used Iron tools to farm. And soon more food meant more people and Ghana became the center for trade.
32Ghana was the center of trade Ghana was the center of trade. Salt came from the North and Gold came from the South. Ghana was growing and growing.
33Trading happened like this: The people who owned the salt and gold would trade each other for goods. But they would trade without ever contacting each other.
58There once was an Empire…Mali There once was an Empire…Mali. This Empire was special, as it lay in the fertile land on the Niger river. The Niger River helped this Empire grow into a HUGE POWERFUL EMPIRE. But that did not happen over night.
59There was a leader named Sundiata and he was a warrior, but also a magician.
60Sundiata was a son of a pervious King. And boy did he hate his father Sundiata was a son of a pervious King. And boy did he hate his father. So he made an army and….
61Over took his fathers kingdom Over took his fathers kingdom. Sundiata then continued to conquer near by kingdoms.
62Sundiata took over the salt and gold traders and he worked Sundiata took over the salt and gold traders and he worked. He worked to…
63Improver Agriculture. He grew beans, onions, rice. (NOT for Tacos) Improver Agriculture. He grew beans, onions, rice. (NOT for Tacos). He also grew….
64Cotton. And he did not farm this cotton, oh no, he had slaves farm it Cotton. And he did not farm this cotton, oh no, he had slaves farm it. But where did he get these slaves?
65The people he conquered would become his slaves.
66Not only did he make the people slaves, but he took power from both the people and local leaders he conquered.
67When Sundiata died in 1255AD his son took power and then when his son died Muslims came to power.
118West African societies had no written language West African societies had no written language. What they did write down was in Arabic.Types of people who could write:Muslim tradersGovernment officialsReligious leaders
120Africa story tellers were called GROITS The Groits were highly respected, and kept history alive. They told stories of deeds of people ancestors and stories of the rise and fall of West Africa.
121Epics were long poems about kingdoms and hero's Dausi Epic- Tells about GhanaSudiata Epic- Tells about Mali
122Much of West African stories come from travelers or scholars from Muslim lands such as Spain or Arabia Peninsula
123West African ArtsSculptures made of wood, brass, clay, stone, ivory and other materialsMasks made of hyenas, lions, monkeys and antelopesKente is the hand-woven brightly colored fabricDances ere important visual arts