Nanotechnology is the creation and use of materials or devices at extremely small scales. Nano is Greek for dwarf Manipulation of matter < 100nm (1 10,000 th the size of a bacterium) 80,000X smaller than a human hair 10 hydrogen atoms lined up measure about 1 nm A grain of sand is 1 million nm 1 nm = 0.000000001 m
Human hair Approx. 1 X 10 -5 nm DNA Sample Approx. 2 nm A nanometer is… ………one billionth of a meter How small is Nanoscale……..?
Cutting down a cube of gold If you have a cube of pure gold and cut it, what color would the pieces be..? Now you cut those pieces. What color will each of the pieces be? If you keep doing this - cutting each block in half - will the pieces of gold always look gold?
Nanoparticles of gold can appear red, orange or even blue depending on size. Nano-Gold colloids exhibit different colours at different sizes and concentrations Well… strange things happen at the small scale If you keep cutting until the gold pieces are in the nanoscale range, they dont look gold anymore… They look RED!
Nano…sized particles exhibit different properties than larger particles of the same substance Learn more about the nature of matter Develop new theories Discover new questions and answers in many areas, including health care, energy, and technology Figure out how to make new products and technologies that can improve peoples lives
Why cannot we write the entire 24 volumes of the Encyclopedia Britannica on the head of a pin? Dr. Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988) 1959R. Feynman Delivers Plenty of Room at the Bottom 1974First Molecular Electronic Device Patented 1981Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) 1986 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented 1987 First single-electron transistor created 1991Carbon Nanotubes Discovered
0.1 nm1 nm10 nm 100 nm 1 m 10 m Nanocluster Biomolecules Nanoscience is about the phenomena that occur in systems with nanometer dimensions. top-down Photolitography Microprinting bottom-up Organic synthesis Self-assembly
Realization of miniaturized devices and systems while providing more functionality Attainment of high surface area to volume ratio Manifestation of novel phenomena and properties, including changes in… Physical Properties (e.g. melting point) Chemical Properties (e.g. reactivity) Electrical Properties (e.g. conductivity) Mechanical Properties (e.g. strength) Optical Properties (e.g. light emission)
(magnification up to 1000x) Light microscope Red blood cells (400x) The naked eye can see to about 20 microns A human hair is about 50-100 microns thick Light microscopes let us see to about 1 micron Bounce light off of surfaces to create images
Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs), invented in the 1930s, to see objects as small as 10 nanometers Bounce electrons off of surfaces to create images Higher resolution due to small size of electrons Greater resolution to see things like blood cells in greater detail Blood Cells
Scanning probe microscopes, developed in the 1980s, give us a new way to see at the nanoscale We can now see really small things, like atoms, and move them too! This is about how big atoms are compared with the tip of the microscope
Types of Nanomaterial Nanopowder Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures. Nanotube Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long.
100 time stronger than steel and very flexible If added to materials like car bumpers, increases strength and flexibility CNT is a tubular form of carbon with diameter as small as 1nm. Length: few nm to microns. CNT is configurationally equivalent to a two dimensional graphene sheet rolled into a tube. Can act as both thermal conductors and thermal insulators Efficient electrical conductors
More resistant to chemical changes than SWNTs Multiple rolled layers of graphene sheets (5-50 nm) SWNT can be conceptualized by wrapping a one-atom-thick layer of graphite called graphene into a seamless cylinder. (diameter ~ 1nm)
Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT) [ Sumio Ijyma (Nature,1991)] Single-Walled carbon Nanotube (SWNT) [ Ijyma, Bethune et al. (1993)] Single Crystals of SWNT [ R.R.Schlittler et al. (Science, May 2001)] Discovery of CNT
Incredible strength due to their bond structure and soccer ball shape Could be useful shells for drug delivery Are nonreactive (move safely through blood stream) Can penetrate cell walls Carbon Buckyballs (C60)
Medical Industrial Stronger Lighter Cheaper Durable Precise End of Illnesses (i.e. cancer, heart disease) Universal Immunity (i.e. aids, flu) Body Sculpting(i.e. change your appearance) Computers can become a billion times faster and a million times smaller Automatic Pollution Cleanup Manufacturing at almost no cost
Electronics Nano Transistors Nano Diodes OLED Energy Batteries Fuel cells Solar cells Materials Nanotubes Aerogel Nanoparticles Life Sciences Targeted Drug Delivery Artificial Retina Tissue Regeneration Electronics Plasma Displays Quantum Computers
The perfect match for the power tie? Meet the "Power Shirt," a piece of nanotechnology-infused clothing that will be able to generate enough electricity to power small electronic devices for soldiers in the field, hikers, or just about anyone whose physical motion can be harnessed and converted to electrical energy. Concept: Backed by Thin-film nanotechnology, super thin battery is capable of generating power up to 10-20 times more than regular batteries. Boasting of merely 200 microns thickness, it is thinner than a sheet of paper. It consists of lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) that imparts it with its flexible quality and increased storage capacity. In addition, it gets charged up to 80% in just 15 minutes. Power shirt Super thin battery
Smaller, faster, more energy efficient and powerful computing and other IT-based systems Information Technology Cancer treatment Bone treatment Drug delivery Appetite control Drug development Medical tools Diagnostic tests Imaging Medicine Solar cells Fuel cells Batteries Bio fuels Energy Foods and beverages Advanced packaging materials, sensors, Appliances and textiles Stain proof, water proof / wrinkle free textiles Household and cosmetics Self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints Consumer Foods Nanotechnology in Every field
Loss of jobs (in manufacturing, farming, etc) Carbon Nanotubes could cause infection of lungs Oil & Diamonds could become worthless Atomic weapons could be more accessible and destructive Disadvantages