Left Side On your map of Africa: Draw in the Nile River and Niger River Color the Sahara desert Niger River Nile River
The Big Questions What were the major civilizations of Africa during the post-classical era? What political, economic, and social effects did Islam have in African kingdoms?
Introduction Anthropologists believe humanity first arose in East Africa In ancient times, the rise of Egyptian civilization affected African cultures along the upper Nile Kush – an early iron-producing center, grew rich from selling iron products, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves. (It had once been a part of Egypt called Nubia) Axum – Located in Ethiopia. Its rise caused the decline of Kush. King Ezana made Christianity the official religion (330 A.D.). Axum dominated trade in slaves and ivory.
Left Side Locate the kingdoms of Kush and Axum on your map. Create a key in the lower left section of your map Kush Axum
Gold-Salt Trade Sahara was never completely cut off from Eurasia Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara because of gold and other riches in West Africa West Africa lacked salt – vital to human survival Merchants picked up large blocks of salt on their journey and exchanged them for gold A thriving trade developed, based on gold-salt trade Ideas were exchanged, such as Islamic beliefs
Partner work: Ghana was founded about 750 A.D. With your partner, read pages 228-230. Take notes about Ghana. Make sure you include info about the kings, the economy, and trade.
Kingdom of Ghana – 750-1200 Kingdom of Ghana Draw an outline of Ghana on your map and add it to your key.
Check your work: Ghana Made iron swords, spears, and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and to gain control over West Africas major trade routes Caravans brought salt south to Ghana and returned north with gold Power of kings of Ghana rested on their ability to tax all trade passing through the region, especially the gold-salt trade Rulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves 1076 they were invaded by Muslims from North Africa Muslims brought Islam to West Africa
Partner Work: In 1240, the people of Mali, under their leader, Sundiata Keita, conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire. Read pages 230-231. Take notes about Mali. Include info about its economy and its most famous ruler, Mansa Musa.
Kingdom of Mali – 1240-1400 Draw an outline of the Kingdom of Mali on your map (different than Ghana) and add it to your key. label Timbuktu Timbuktu Kingdom of Mali
Check your work: Rulers brought both gold and salt mines under their direct control Rulers converted to Islam, although most people did not Mansa Musa – expanded kingdom greatly Made a religious pilgrimage to Mecca Brought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali with him Muslim scholarship flourished Timbuktu became an important center of several important universities and attracted student from Europe, Asia, and Africa
Ibn Battuta – Arab traveler that wrote about Mansa Musa and his respect for law and the power of its ruler Because of his extensive travels and his records historians know a lot about this time period in Africa and the Middle East He was like the Marco Polo of the Muslims
Timbuktu Famous trading city Became an important center of several important universities Attracted students from Europe, Asia, and Africa Flourished as a center of Muslim scholarship Also famous for the Sankore mosque
Partner work: In 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, captured Timbuktu, brought the upper Niger under his control, and created the larges of West Africas three trading kingdoms. Read page 231. Take notes about Songhai and include info about trade, politics, and policies of expansion.
Kingdom of Songhai – 1464-1600 Draw an outline of the Kingdom of Songhai (new color) and include it on your key. Kingdom of Songhai
Check your work: Grew rich from trade across Sahara Desert (salt and gold) Divided into provinces Created a navy and soldiers on horseback (cavalry) expanded its trading networks as far as Europe and Asia Continued to flourish as a center of Muslim scholarship and many subjects were Muslim
Kingdom of Benin Became famous for their copper and bronze sculptures, which were among the finest of all African artwork Became involved with the slave trade
Kingdom of Benin Draw Benin on your map and add it to your key Kingdom of Benin
The Great Zimbabwe One of the best known trading kingdoms of South Africa Great deposits of gold Traded gold, copper, and ivory from Africas interior with Muslim traders along Africas east coast Towers of the Great Zimbabwe
Other Important Info Bantu Migrations Communities of peoples who lived on subsistence farming and spoke a common language (Bantu) Lived throughout West, Central, and southeast Africa East African Trading Centers Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf settled at ports along the east coast Merchants grew wealthy from trade here Eventually, gave rise to mixed African-Arabian culture known as Swahili
Zimbabwe, Trading Cities, and Migrations. Add Zimbabwe to your map. Also, add the East African Trading cities of Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa. Finally, add arrows representing the movement of the Bantu migrations. Make sure everything is on your key. Mogadishu Mombasa Kilwa Zimbabwe
African Society In many African societies, lineage was traced through the mother (matrilineal). Boys and girls were often separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty. Marriages were arranged by families and grooms paid a dowry to the brides family. Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while husbands represented the family outside it. Slavery Berber groups in N Africa regularly raided villages south of the Sahara for captives, but slavery was also common further south and along the east coast Included prisoners of war, debtors, and some criminals Slaves worked on farmlands, were soldiers, or were domestic servants
LEFT SIDE Using page 232 in your textbook, complete the chart of African Trading Empires. Using your notes or textbook, add the information for important rulers and economic base (you wont find rulers for Kush or Ghana)