2Left Side On your map of Africa: Nile RiverOn your map of Africa:Draw in the Nile River and Niger RiverColor the Sahara desertNiger River
3The Big QuestionsWhat were the major civilizations of Africa during the post-classical era?What political, economic, and social effects did Islam have in African kingdoms?
4IntroductionAnthropologists believe humanity first arose in East AfricaIn ancient times, the rise of Egyptian civilization affected African cultures along the upper NileKush – an early iron-producing center, grew rich from selling iron products, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves. (It had once been a part of Egypt called Nubia)Axum – Located in Ethiopia. Its rise caused the decline of Kush. King Ezana made Christianity the official religion (330 A.D.). Axum dominated trade in slaves and ivory.
5Left Side Locate the kingdoms of Kush and Axum on your map. Create a key in the lower left section of your mapKushAxum
6Gold-Salt Trade Sahara was never completely cut off from Eurasia Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara because of gold and other riches in West AfricaWest Africa lacked salt – vital to human survivalMerchants picked up large blocks of salt on their journey and exchanged them for goldA thriving trade developed, based on gold-salt tradeIdeas were exchanged, such as Islamic beliefs
8Partner work: Ghana was founded about 750 A.D. With your partner, read pages Take notes about Ghana. Make sure you include info about the kings, the economy, and trade.
9Kingdom of Ghana –Draw an outline of Ghana on your map and add it to your key.Kingdom of Ghana
10Check your work: GhanaMade iron swords, spears, and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and to gain control over West Africa’s major trade routesCaravans brought salt south to Ghana and returned north with goldPower of kings of Ghana rested on their ability to tax all trade passing through the region, especially the gold-salt tradeRulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves1076 they were invaded by Muslims from North AfricaMuslims brought Islam to West Africa
11Partner Work:In 1240, the people of Mali, under their leader, Sundiata Keita, conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire.Read pages Take notes about Mali. Include info about its economy and its most famous ruler, Mansa Musa.
12Kingdom of Mali –Draw an outline of the Kingdom of Mali on your map (different than Ghana) and add it to your key.label TimbuktuTimbuktuKingdom of Mali
13Check your work:Rulers brought both gold and salt mines under their direct controlRulers converted to Islam, although most people did notMansa Musa – expanded kingdom greatlyMade a religious pilgrimage to MeccaBrought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali with himMuslim scholarship flourishedTimbuktu became an important center of several important universities and attracted student from Europe, Asia, and Africa
14Ibn Battuta –Arab traveler that wrote about Mansa Musa and his respect for law and the power of its rulerBecause of his extensive travels and his records historians know a lot about this time period in Africa and the Middle EastHe was like the Marco Polo of the Muslims
15Timbuktu Famous trading city Became an important center of several important universitiesAttracted students from Europe, Asia, and AfricaFlourished as a center of Muslim scholarshipAlso famous for the Sankore mosque
16Partner work:In 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, captured Timbuktu, brought the upper Niger under his control, and created the larges of West Africa’s three trading kingdoms.Read page 231. Take notes about Songhai and include info about trade, politics, and policies of expansion.
17Kingdom of Songhai –Draw an outline of the Kingdom of Songhai (new color) and include it on your key.Kingdom of Songhai
18Check your work:Grew rich from trade across Sahara Desert (salt and gold)Divided into provincesCreated a navy and soldiers on horseback (cavalry)expanded its trading networks as far as Europe and AsiaContinued to flourish as acenter of Muslim scholarshipand many subjects wereMuslim
19Kingdom of BeninBecame famous for their copper and bronze sculptures, which were among the finest of all African artworkBecame involved with the slave trade
20Kingdom of Benin Draw Benin on your map and add it to your key
21The Great ZimbabweOne of the best known trading kingdoms of South AfricaGreat deposits of goldTraded gold, copper, and ivory from Africa’s interior with Muslim traders along Africa’s east coastTowers of the Great Zimbabwe
22Other Important Info Bantu Migrations East African Trading Centers Communities of peoples who lived on subsistence farming and spoke a common language (Bantu)Lived throughout West, Central, and southeast AfricaEast African Trading CentersMuslims from the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf settled at ports along the east coastMerchants grew wealthy from trade hereEventually, gave rise to mixed African-Arabian culture known as Swahili
23Zimbabwe, Trading Cities, and Migrations. Add Zimbabwe to your map.Also, add the East African Trading cities of Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa.Finally, add arrows representing the movement of the Bantu migrations.Make sure everything is on your key.MogadishuMombasaKilwaZimbabwe
24African SocietyIn many African societies, lineage was traced through the mother (matrilineal).Boys and girls were often separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty.Marriages were arranged by families and grooms paid a dowry to the bride’s family.Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while husbands represented the family outside it.SlaveryBerber groups in N Africa regularly raided villages south of the Sahara for captives, but slavery was also common further south and along the east coastIncluded prisoners of war, debtors, and some criminalsSlaves worked on farmlands, were soldiers, or were domestic servants
25LEFT SIDEUsing page 232 in your textbook, complete the chart of African Trading Empires. Using your notes or textbook, add the information for important rulers and economic base (you won’t find rulers for Kush or Ghana)