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Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Session 3 Senior University Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology in Iberia, France, UK, & Germany Don Beaumont,

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Presentation on theme: "Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Session 3 Senior University Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology in Iberia, France, UK, & Germany Don Beaumont,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Portugal and Spain Iberian Peninsula Session 3 Senior University Winter 2011 Vagabonds tramping geology in Iberia, France, UK, & Germany Don Beaumont, Sandi Phillips, & Rocky Romero Geology in the News First: Alaskan Arctic Ocean The past is never dead. Its not even past William Faulkner

2 Geology in the News Royal Dutch Shell cancels 2011 Arctic Ocean drilling due to slow government approval of permits

3 Greenland Alaska Canada

4 Alaska Canada Siberia Shell drilling delayed Next: Quebec and Asbestos Mining

5 Canadian asbestos company hopes to resume mining in Quebec to supply demand in third world countries. Geology in the News

6 Geology of Serpentine Next: Southern Sudan, a new nation

7 South Sudan (non Islamic) votes to become an independent: what happens to their oil reserves?

8 Friday Feb. 11

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10 Next: More early humans to Polynesia

11 Early human migration to Polynesia now thought to be 6,000 years earlier than 4,000 years ago: i.e. during low sea level due to last continental glacier The latest on 3 million year old Lucy

12 New data on the earthquake in Chile

13 Chilean earthquake produced by sudden 25 feet of plate movement; normal annual movement = 3 inches. Modeling suggests another major quake since earth stress not completely released Friday Feb. 11 Gold mining beginning again in old, long abandoned USA mining areas

14 Old Mines Reopen in a Revival of Californias Gold Rush; NYT online By JESSE McKINLEYJESSE McKINLEY Published: February 10, 2011 Gold price, $1300/oz. supports reopening old gold mines in many abandoned gold mining areas including California and Nevada. Gold is a mineral that is deposited when hot hydrothermal solutions cool as they move upward through the continental crust. These deposits are: 1. gold flecks to nuggets often in quartz veins or 2. gold flecks disseminated in a host rock, often limestone When gold impregnated rocks weather and erode the heavy gold often accumulates in stream beds (placers) and even in ocean beaches & bars, Consequently, gold is mined in: 1. underground tunnels and shafts (gold veins) 2. open pit mines (disseminated gold flecks) 3. stream panning and dredging Finally, back to Iberia and France The creation of todays landscape in Iberia: beginning 5 to 3 mmybp

15 North Africa collides with Europe 5 to 3 million years ago Mediterranean Sea divided into two large salt lakes Iberia crushed between France and Morocco The creation of todays landscape in Iberia: beginning 5 to 3 mmybp How did the crushing affect Iberia?

16 The Crushing (folding) of Iberia North Africa France The corrugation of Iberia And a little more of what weve covered

17 Rivers concentrate erosional debris in the oceans at their deltas The Big Rivers create Geosynclines in the oceans at their deltas What is the thickness of a Geosyncline? Lets look at the Mississippi River Geosyncline A little of what weve covered

18 Example of a Geosyncline: Gulf of Mexico 1. Integration of the debris of several rivers M o d e r n S e d i m e n t A c c u m u l a t i o n s Swamp Muds Shallow water Sands Deep water Muds 2. Accumulation of thick layers of debris

19 New Orleans Gulf of Mexico Geosyncline (debris) Sun City Austin Debris Loading of the Continental Margin Gulf of Mexico 12 miles thick! Now lets apply that to the Iberian Gulf of Valencia

20 Ebro River drainage area Douro River drainage area Tagus River drainage area Mass Transfer by the Rivers of Iberia Guadalquivir River drainage area Guadiana River drainage area Debris split to the open Atlantic Moving debris from the center of Iberia to the Med & Atlantic Results: center rises, west and east margins sink! Warping Iberia. Gulf of Valencia geosyncline Gulf of Cadiz geosyncline Mass Transfer Central continent being moved to the sea

21 Gulf of Valencia Geosyncline The burial of the yellow rock Time 1: Gulf of Valencia now Spain The burial of the yellow rock Time 2: Future time The burial of the yellow rock Time 3: Future-future time The Yellow Rock in Time 3 has been squeezed, heated, & partially melted What will happen next? The Appalachian Model Mediterranean Sea

22 Metamorphic and Igneous Mountains East Dipping Sandstones and Shales Limestones Folded Sandstone and Shale Mountains The Appalachian Geosynclinal Model The Fate of Thick Debris in the Sea along Continental Margins Debris of the Appalachia geosyncline turned into the Appalachian Mountains Heres how mountain building works Rocks at the surface today The Appalachian geosyncline has been welded back into the North American continent

23 Mountain Building Mountain Building Appalachian Example Mountains welded onto continent Todays Gulf of Valencia Geosyncline LimestonesSandstones and Shales VirginiaPennsylvania OhioIllinois Appalachian Geosyncline 250 million years ago Crushed Melted Rocks = Mountains Pennsylvania Virginia Back to the Gulf of Valencia Geosyncline

24 Onshore Spain Spanish Continental Shelf Gulf of Valencia Geosyncline Ebro River Delta Future Valencia Mountains

25 Bay of Valencia: Google Earth How are geosynclines made into mountains? Well talk about those geological processes in another session Now lets look at the geology of some of the provinces of Iberia

26 Geological Provinces of Iberia Cantabrian Trough

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28 60 million year old,mountains made in 150 million year geosyncline Contains the largest Iron and Coal deposits of Iberia How does this relate to the Natural Resources of Iberia?

29 Cantabrian Trough Natural Resources Map: Iberia

30 Mineral Resources Iberia Minerals for the Bronze Age Iron for the early Iron Age Coal for the later Iron Age Cantabrian Trough

31 Two periods of mountain building affecting two geosynclines: one geosyncline with mountains about 200 million years old second geosynclinal mountains about 50 million years old Next: the Iberian Massif

32 Geological Provinces of Iberia Cantabrian Trough Iberian Massif

33 Cantabrian Trough Iberian Massif Mountains of Appalachian age 200 million years old forming the core of Iberia Younger rocks deposited on the Iberian Massif Iberian Massif Foundation core of Iberia Youngest rocks being deposited now Now: Map of Appalachian age mountain building

34 Shaded areas are mountain rocks exposed at the surface Appalachian Age Mountain Building Iberian Massif Metallic ores associated with the Iberian Massif mountains

35 Mineral Resources Iberia Minerals for the Bronze Age Iron for the early Iron Age Coal for the later Iron Age Iberian Massif Iberian Massive has the Copper & Tin for the Bronze Age A quick look at pre-written history of Iberia

36 Pre-written history Time Line, Iberia Next, the Advent of Humans Chart

37 Homo erectus Homo Antecessor/ mauritanicus Homo ergaster The Current Geological Record Advent of Humans: last 2 million years Next, focus on the last 80,000 years Homo rhodesiensis Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens Pleistocene Ice Ages h Erectus arrives in Iberia Neanderthals & sapiens arrives in Iberia

38 Uniquely human characteristics? 1. Reason 2. Conscience (right & wrong) 3. Adapt to any climate Time of Written World History Now, a look at the human migration route Last ice age Homo sapiens in Spain

39 Rift Valleys Location of earliest human fossils Nile River Migration of Hominids & Humans out of Africa The Stone Age: 10,000 to 3,000 BC Iberia in 5,000 years of World History

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