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HUMAN RESOURCE What is appraisal? What is assessment? Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave,

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN RESOURCE What is appraisal? What is assessment? Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave,"— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN RESOURCE What is appraisal? What is assessment? Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, Edited by Fabio Emanuele Noia, Link Campus University of Malta, 2006 Chapter 8 Appraisal and Performance

2 Appraisal____________ A process that provides an analysis of a persons overall capabilities and potential, allowing informed decisions to be made for particular purposes. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

3 Assessment____________ An important part of the appraisal process, whereby data on an individuals past and current work, behavior and performance are collected and reviewed. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

4 PMS___________ Integrated Performance Management Systems, often based on a competency framework, provide vital data for rational, objective and efficient decision making relating to improving performance, identifying training needs, managing careers and setting levels of reward. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

5 Purpose of appraisal ____________ Improve individual performanceImprove individual performance Improving motivation and moraleImproving motivation and morale Clarifying expectations and reducing ambiguity about performanceClarifying expectations and reducing ambiguity about performance Determining rewardsDetermining rewards Identifying training and development opportunitiesIdentifying training and development opportunities Improving communicationImproving communication Selecting people for promotionSelecting people for promotion Managing careersManaging careers CounsellingCounselling DisciplineDiscipline Planning remedial actionsPlanning remedial actions Setting goals and targetsSetting goals and targets Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

6 Features of Performance management ____________ Objective setting and reviewObjective setting and review Annual appraisalAnnual appraisal Personal development planPersonal development plan Self appraisalSelf appraisal Performance related payPerformance related pay Coaching/mentoringCoaching/mentoring Career managementCareer management Competence assessmentCompetence assessment Twice-yearly appraisalTwice-yearly appraisal Subordinate appraisalSubordinate appraisal Continuous assessmentContinuous assessment Rolling appraisalRolling appraisal 360° appraisal360° appraisal Peer appraisalPeer appraisal Balanced scorecardsBalanced scorecards Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

7 Main Purpose of appraisal ____________ 1.The making of administrative decisions concerning pay, promotions and careers, and work responsibilities – the judgement purpose 2. The improvement of performance through the discussion of development needs, identifying training opportunities and the planning of action – the development purpose Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

8 Findings (Meyer et al., 1965) ____________ Criticism often has a negative effect on motivation and performanceCriticism often has a negative effect on motivation and performance Praise has little effectPraise has little effect Performance improves with specific goalsPerformance improves with specific goals Participation by the employee in goal-setting helps to produce favorable resultsParticipation by the employee in goal-setting helps to produce favorable results Interviews designed primarily to improve performance should not at the same time weigh salary or promotion in the balanceInterviews designed primarily to improve performance should not at the same time weigh salary or promotion in the balance Coaching by managers should be day to day rather than just once a yearCoaching by managers should be day to day rather than just once a year Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

9 Multisource feedback ____________ Feedback is received from all around a job (360°) allowing for more balance and objectivity than a single view from a line manager (cost increases) Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

10 Competencies____________ Competencies have also been seen as a way of facilitating the review process, linking personal development plans (PDPs) to strategy and to pay. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

11 Criticism____________ Employees are able to accept criticism if it is useful and relevant to them and the work they are doing.Employees are able to accept criticism if it is useful and relevant to them and the work they are doing. Feedback provides a chance of improving performance and an opportunity of continuing dialogue between managers and employees out of which will emerge a joint understanding of individual development needs and aspirations.Feedback provides a chance of improving performance and an opportunity of continuing dialogue between managers and employees out of which will emerge a joint understanding of individual development needs and aspirations. Continuous appraisal will work better.Continuous appraisal will work better. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

12 A control paradigm ________________ Define work Set measurable targets Perform Assess against targets Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

13 Effectiveness Some of the research evidence has indicated that the reality of appraisal may be less than effective. The problem may be due to the way in which appraisal processes are formulated, based on an explicit or implicit performance control orientation. May contrast with high trust- high commitment-high productivity of High Performance paradigm of HRM Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

14 From control to development ____________ The crucial contribution towards creating commitment, pride and trust is, however, managements devotion to nurturing a culture that supports the long-term development of people (Gratton, 1997). Assessment and appraisal can serve as the fulcrum of such a process, while accomodating for control needs. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

15 Alternatives to get useful information The performance of work task can be presented as a relationship between means (attributes, skills, knowledge, attitudes applied to tasks) and ends (results, measurements, standards) - Ouchi, 1979.The performance of work task can be presented as a relationship between means (attributes, skills, knowledge, attitudes applied to tasks) and ends (results, measurements, standards) - Ouchi, Between means and ends lies the behavior of the individual in a transformation process.Between means and ends lies the behavior of the individual in a transformation process. Through attention to the behavior of an employee in the transformation process data can be provided for a whole gamut of develomental decisions over time, starting with adjustments to reach minimum Standard and then addressing career changes and progression.Through attention to the behavior of an employee in the transformation process data can be provided for a whole gamut of develomental decisions over time, starting with adjustments to reach minimum Standard and then addressing career changes and progression. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

16 Developmental decisions Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003 Job or Career changes or progression Changing tasks and standards Future task issues Immediate task issues

17 Managing control and develoment paradox (Ouchi, 1979) Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003 Behavior or outputs Outputs Behavior Inputs Self Multisources Competenci es HIGH Ability to measure outputs LOW Knowledge of the transformation process PERFECT IMPERFECT

18 To reconcile the opposite needs of control and development PMSs have been developed, strategically integrated with HRM processes. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

19 Best value framework in public sector (customer/citizen oriented – quality driven approach): Strategic objectivesStrategic objectives Cost/efficiencyCost/efficiency Service delivery outcomeService delivery outcome QualityQuality Fair accessFair access Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

20 Goal setting and development need diagnosis The attitude of management are crucial as they are the key actors in the implementation of the various HR processes. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

21 PMS A PMS might incorporate a development center (same as assessment centers), a performance development plan (PDP), and goal setting. Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

22 Performance Management Cycle Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003 Ongoing support coaching training Performance and Development Plan First Review Second Review Third Review End of year review including multisource appraisal

23 Forms of appraisal Top DownTop Down UpwardUpward Peer to PeerPeer to Peer 360°360° SelfSelf Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

24 Performance Ratings Inputs (dependability, loyalty, decisiveness, resorcefulness and stability – difficult to define, low reliability)Inputs (dependability, loyalty, decisiveness, resorcefulness and stability – difficult to define, low reliability) Results and outcomes (production, sales, satisfied costomers, … more objective)Results and outcomes (production, sales, satisfied costomers, … more objective) Behavior in performance (give praise to employees, …. rated from excellent to unacceptable)Behavior in performance (give praise to employees, …. rated from excellent to unacceptable) Freely Inspired from Bratton J., Gold J., Human Resource Management, Theory and Practice, Palgrave, 2003

25 Exercise Appraisal and performance in University education. Is the appraisal process effective and fair?Is the appraisal process effective and fair? What are the main appraisal problems?What are the main appraisal problems? How might you suggest improving the appraisal process?How might you suggest improving the appraisal process?


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