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Settlement of the Last Frontier. St. Louis Jumping-off Point: Independence, Missouri.

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Presentation on theme: "Settlement of the Last Frontier. St. Louis Jumping-off Point: Independence, Missouri."— Presentation transcript:

1 Settlement of the Last Frontier

2 St. Louis

3 Jumping-off Point: Independence, Missouri

4 Great Plains The journey starts with a long trek across the Great Plains region.

5 Chimney Rock also modern day Nebraska

6 Scotts Bluff Nebraska again!

7 Independence Rock by July 4th

8 Devils Gate Wyoming

9 Shoshone Falls Idaho, known as the Niagara Falls of the west

10 Three Island Crossing Also in Idaho, by Snake River

11 They crossed the Rocky Mountains… The a treacherous journey through the Rocky Mountains…

12 …and settled in Utah, Oregon, and California Those who made it settled in Utah, Oregon, and California

13 How do I get to California? In the 1850s there were 3 ways to go: 1.Overland trails 2.Sailing around the horn 3.A sea-and-land voyage via the Panama Route

14 Overland Route Shortest route Most direct route Cheapest way Took 4 to 6 months Most physically exhausting way to travel

15 Cape Horn Route 13,000 miles one wayNY to SF More expensive than the overland route Took 4 to 6 months or longer Shortest route was 88 days by ship

16 Panama Route Most expensive Steamship from New York to Panama Board a train to cross the isthmus Steamship north to San Francisco Took 19 to 24 days

17 More about the Panama Route Between 1849 and 1869 about 640,000 people took this route This was also the route used by the U.S. mail Much of the gold mined in California was transported along the way

18 This advertisement for a ship to California almost guaranteed gold!

19 S.S. Central America More about the Panama Route


21 In 1848 James Marshall discovered gold at John Sutters mill in California. Marshall and his partner Sutter tried to keep it a secret but… The California Gold Rush

22 Wednesday, March 15, 1848

23 GOLD FEVER!!! San Franciscos newspaper, the Californian had to stop publishing because its staff left to look for gold. As the word spread, migration to California skyrocketed; San Franciscos population exploded…

24 Population of San Francisco, 1848-1855

25 The prospectors who flocked to California in 1849, were called Forty-niners.


27 Boom Towns

28 Many believed that mining for gold would be easy…. But striking it rich depended on:


30 Ghost Towns

31 Political Effects on California By 1849 Californias population exceeded 100,000 and they planned to apply for statehood. What do you think were the issues surrounding statehood for California?

32 The S.S. Central America 280-foot long steamship Commanded by Captain William Herndon of the U.S. Navy September 3, 1857 HI FOLKS! ILL BE YOUR CAPTAIN FOR THIS VOYAGE TO NEW YORK.

33 4:00 PM September 3, 1857 The S.S. Central America left Panama carrying 478 passengers, 101 crew members, and 3 TONS OF GOLD!!!

34 Oh no! Were taking on water!!!! Wednesday September 9, 1857 By Thursday, September 10 th hurricane conditions were being felt onboard the S. S. Central America On Friday the 11 th, the ship began to take on water and list to starboard.


36 Friday, September 11th START BAILING MEN! 10:00 am– the third officer raised the strongest sail on board, but it blew to pieces By 3:00 PM the boilers go out All men on board were ordered to help bail the ship

37 Saturday, September 12 12:00 pm the S.S. Marine was sighted on the horizon The Marine came close to the Central America but the two ships drifted quickly apart The captain ordered the lifeboats launched 100 women & children were transferred to the Marine Launch the Lifeboats!!!

38 EVERY MAN FOR HIMSELF!!!! 8:00 pm The ship sank and 478 men plunged into the waters of the Atlantic Ocean.

39 1:00 am September 13th The Ellen began to rescue survivors By 9:00 am they had saved 50 men. 9 days later 3 more men were found barely alive in one of the lifeboats that had drifted away from the Marine and been discovered by the desperate men 425 men were never found



42 Columbus-America Discovery Group Founded by Tommy Thompson in 1986 Set out to find the USS Central America On September 11, 1988 the crew located the wreck on the ocean floor

43 GOLD!!! The Gold was found in 3 forms: 1.Dust and nuggets 2.Coins 3.Ingots

44 Dust and Nuggets Gold dust served as currency Likely carried by the poorer passengers Nuggets ranged in size from a fingertip to fist- sized

45 Coins Private coin companies produced coins of various sizes and denominations. Later, the government standardized coins.

46 Ingot s The preferred type of gold for banks and the U.S. govt. Ranged from small pocket sized to a massive 64 pounds

47 Time Capsules Thousands of personal possessions Passenger trunks Clothes Tools Letters Jewelry Photos

48 This trunk belonged to John Dement


50 So….who deserves to keep the gold? The recovery ship and its crew The insurance company from the 1800s (still existed) The heirs of the passengers and crewmembers Homework: Answer in one hearty paragraph

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