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AP WORLD HISTORY POD #6 – Gold, Salt & Ivory Trade in Africa

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1 AP WORLD HISTORY POD #6 – Gold, Salt & Ivory Trade in Africa
Mansa Musa’s Mali

2 Class Discussion Notes
Bulliet – “The Rise and Fall of the Caliphate, ”, pp “New Islamic Empires”, pp “Africa, the Atlantic, and Islam”, pp

3 Ghana Empire (Land of Gold)
Northern traders discovered that they could trade salt for gold by providing the southern nomads, who controlled the salt sources but had little use for gold, with more useful products, such as copper and manufactured goods One of the first lands outside of original Muslim territory to embrace a gradual and peaceful conversion to Islam Muslim Berbers attacking out of the desert cause the collapsed in 1076 C.E.

4 Islam “Muslim Berbers invading out of the desert in 1076 caused the collapse of Ghana, the empire that preceded Mali in the western Sudan, but their conquest did little to spread Islam. To the east, the Muslim attacks that destroyed the Christian Nubian kingdoms on the Upper Nile in the late thirteenth century opened that area to Muslim advances. Instead, Islam’s spread south of the Sahara usually followed a pattern of gradual and peaceful conversion. The expansion of commercial contacts in the western Sudan and on the East African coast greatly promoted the conversion process. Most Africans found meaning and benefit in the teachings of Islam. Takrur in the far western Sudan became the first sub-Saharan African state to adopt the new faith around 1030.” (Bulliet, p. 372)

5 Mali Empire “bilad alsudan” (land of the blacks)
Sundiata established the Mali empire by defeating the Takrur under the leadership of King Sumanguru who claimed to have magical powers Mali power, influence and wealth depended on control of a well-developed agricultural base and the regional and trans-Saharan trade routes Territorially it was centered around the old Ghana lands but expanded to include the area surrounding the upper Niger River providing access to new gold fields and trade routes Islam spread and was embraced by the empire’s political and merchant elite Control of the gold and copper trades with North African Muslim traders created massive prosperity

6 Mansa Musa Led the Mali to unprecedented wealth spreading the empire’s reputation far and wide Made a pilgrimage to Mecca, to fulfill his duty as a Muslim in – it was this pilgrimage that displayed his personal and empire’s wealth The Entourage – Senior Wife and 500 of her ladies in waiting and their slaves, 60,000 porters, 500 Slaves The Caravan – camels carried a massive amount of supplies (ESPECIALLY GOLD) – ounces (3.8 kilogram) packs of gold, each of the 500 slaves carried a golden staff The Impact – so many gifts were dispersed as he passed through Cairo that the value of gold was dispersed for years After the pilgrimage he built new mosques and opened Quran schools in the cities along the Niger River

7 Ibn Batutta Visited Mali from during the reign of Masa Suleiman (successor to Mansa Musa) Praised the Mali dedication to the teachings and practices of Islam Reported an empire that provided “complete and general safety” and encouraged foreign travelers to visit the region without fear of being robbed or having their goods confiscated if they died

8 Fall of Mali The empire began to fall apart 2 centuries after their rise Inability to prevent rebellions among the diverse groups within the empire (after the rule of Mansa Suleiman) Enemy invaders began to attack interested in the regions wealth and control of trade The cities of the upper Niger survived Mali’s collapse, but some trade and intellectual life moved east to the central Sudan

9 Songhai Empire Ruled by an indigenous Muslim dynasty
Wealth gained from control of the trans-Saharan trade routes A slave general in the western Sudan named Askia Muhammad seized control of the empire in 1493

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