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PCM in Aviation - individualising human factors training

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1 PCM in Aviation - individualising human factors training
Mike Nendick, MDN & Associates & Werner Naef, Kahler Communications Oceania Why is it that in high risk environments, people who are well trained in both technical and non-technical skills do not always follow procedures and best practice? Why, despite endless practice and team simulations, does interpersonal communication often breakdown between team members in times of stress? Why, when miscommunication occurs, do decision making and workload management breakdown, and clear thinking go out the window? The Process Communication Model®(PCM) offers answers to these questions. PCM is a practical training solution for issues that are still problematic for threat and error management after over 30 years of CRM and human factors training. Currently all CRM / NTS behavioural marker systems exclude the individual factor by default. ‘One size fits all’ generic NTS training does not achieve the goal of a high correlation with superior technical and non-technical skill performance during normal and non-normal situations. This was a clear finding from the GIHRE research project where 2/3 of all observed crew had no valid predictor for the experimental hypothesis that crew with excellent NOTECHS behaviour would show correlating good technical outcomes. Something important was missing! But what? Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

2 PCM - speaking each others language!
PCM explains why we sometimes do not ‘speak each other’s language’ and why miscommunication occurs. PCM training provides us with practical tools to both recognise and respond appropriately to these predictable distress behaviours and re-establish good communication, logical thinking and effective decision making. PCM training improves human performance in the workplace. PCM is a research and evidence based methodology that was used in the astronaut recruitment and team composition determination for NASA’s manned space program. In Australasia, PCM is now being used in many safety critical domains besides aviation including rail and the hospital operating theatre. The major medical Australasian colleges have recently accredited PCM into their respective Continuous Professional Development (CPD) programs, and paediatric surgeons will commence PCM training for the first time this year as part of their 5-year specialist training. PCM training achieves the long sought after correlation of NTS training with good technical outcomes in times of stress. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

3 Process Communication
Effective communication in ‘distress’ Predictable communication behaviours React positively or negatively Process Communication Avoid undesired outcomes Process Communication is a model for effective communication when stress causes distress. 2. PCM helps us understand the predictable communication behaviours linked to our own personality traits and those with whom we need to productively interact. Of course good communication is a fundamental necessity for successful human activity. However it is critical when under pressure to choose the optimal communication channel to get your message received and understood, and to motivate your colleagues to act appropriately. 3. PCM training can make a big difference to get your message across in the maintenance hangar, on the ramp, in the control tower, in the cabin, and on the flight deck under stressful conditions when miscommunication is a threat to be managed to avoid undesired outcomes. 4. The primary tenet of PCM is that how we say something is often more important than what we say. How we say things influences how people respond to us. 5. Unconsciously, we all react positively or negatively to the way people express themselves no matter the message content. Negative responses lead to miscommunication, demotivation, and conflict. For enhanced flight safety these consequences must be avoided at all costs. Focus on how we say things Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

4 Error Management A few days’ practice and you can use PCM
We can’t think clearly in distress Avoid undesired situations Error Management Bring colleagues back to ‘OK’ state 1. Even after the proverbial has hit the fan, proficiency with PCM techniques following only a few days of intensive practice and application enables us all to naturally identify a person’s preferred communication style, and to use the appropriate channel that they will most likely positively react to and understand. 2. When an individual is in distress, they are no longer able to think and communicate clearly. They often do not act productively. 3. The most interesting aspect of the PCM model from the perspective of error management in the work place is that it effectively and reliably predicts an individual’s behaviour pattern when in ‘distress’. 4. Being able to quickly recognise the signs of this predictable distress behaviour pattern for each personality type enables anyone trained in PCM to respond to the distressed individual in such a way as to invite them out of distress, and back into an “ok” state where they will once again think clearly and act positively. This has significant implications for refining non-technical skills training and team building. 5. If this occurs under emergency or non-normal conditions then we can avoid undesired situations. Reliable behaviour prediction Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

5 Teams need to listen to each other
Personality, Communication & Management model Personality Patterns Inventory How we say something rather than what we say Six personality types So what are we talking about? What is PCM based on? How can it help teamwork? “A team can’t make effective decisions if its members don’t trust one another or if they fail to listen to one another” 1. PCM is a comprehensive model of personality, communication and management. We will focus on the aspects of distress behaviours following miscommunication and the failure to get our psychological needs met. 2. The Personality Patterns Inventory (PPI) displays an individual’s personality structure 3. There are six types of personality identified in the PCM structure and we each have the characteristics of all of these in varied order and strengths (or energies) that are unique to us. The potential combinations of order and energy are immense. 4. The model is based on the key precept that for communication the way we say something (the process) is as, or is more, important than what we say (the content). Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

6 “If you want them to listen, speak their language”
Communication Styles Communication Channels Distress behaviours Psychological needs So, what are these personality characteristics, their preferred channels of communication and their typical distress behaviours? The focus of this presentation is not to detail the underlying theoretical model for PCM. To illustrate the points to be aware of to individualise non-technical skills training to increase its effectiveness in the safety critical workspace, we shall simply summarise some of the relevant personality based Communication styles, Communication channels, Psychological needs and Distress behaviours Research findings for PCM have shown that people are motivated by certain psychological needs depending on their personality type. When these needs are not met positively, then people will try to get their needs met negatively through very predictable non-productive behaviours in their personal and professional lives. They may be aware or unaware that they are doing this. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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Applying PCM ‘Not ok’ = not listening or thinking logically Three days to start putting PCM into action Irrational behaviour under pressure Respond to what you see Bring your colleagues back to ‘ok’ state The strength of PCM as a practical leadership, motivational, and communication tool, is that you do not need to have an in-depth understanding of the theory to put it into practice. The part one course takes 3 days at which point you can start to use PCM. When your colleague is displaying distress behaviour they are no longer listening, or thinking logically. This explains why very well trained, intelligent, and highly competent individuals can behave apparently irrationally at times. This is of course, exacerbated in times of high stress and pressure such as in emergency or non-normal situations. 3. It does not matter what their personality structure is because you purely respond to what you see and behave accordingly. 4. Once you have been trained to recognise the predictable distress behaviours you can instantly apply an antidote through your words and actions to bring your colleagues back to the ‘ok state’. 5. Knowing the right words and actions to get your team members back into listening and thinking clearly could make the difference in a tight situation. This could be the missing link to the unexplained variance in NTS outcomes that our unique personality structures cause, and that CRM has not yet fully addressed. Right words and actions make the difference Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

8 PPI Personality structure Base Used by NASA Distress sequences Phase
The basic psychological needs that motivate our behaviour are linked to phases of an individual’s life. 1, 2, 3 The Personality Pattern Inventory (PPI) tool is used to determine an individual’s personality structure including current base and phase motivations and general characteristics. It provides a picture of our individual condominium personality floor structure. 4. The PPI accurately predicts an individual’s first (normal) and second degree (severe) distress sequences which are related to standard management and communication concepts. This information is very useful to understand our predispositions in this regard so that we can effectively mitigate both our own negative unproductive behaviours in distress and the responses of those around us. When it was first validated in 1990 the PPI had been administered to over 50,000 American men and women. Since then it has been used to profile more than 700,000 people in America and around the world including Australia and New Zealand. 5. The PPI was used by NASA between to select astronauts and determine crew compositions due to its accurate prediction of individual distress sequences and team member compatibility. Distress sequences Phase Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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Our ‘condominium’ 30% have same base/phase entire life We may phase once, twice, or more as we age. Our motivations and distress behaviours can change. ‘Phase’ personality characteristics drive our primary psychological needs and motivation. ‘Base’ personality characteristics remain our primary communication channel. Energy levels and where we spend time can change. 1. The Process Communication model likens our personality structures to a 6 floor ‘condominium’ or apartment building with an elevator between each floor. 2. The order of the floors is set early in life and never changes 3. However the amount of energy we have on each floor, and the floor where we spend the most time can change as we age. 4. Each personality type has an identifier and an associated description of its characteristics. Our ‘base’ personality type characteristics are our ‘foundation’ and stay with us throughout our lives. They remain the primary influence for our preferred communication channel. 5. However we can move up through our six floors over our lifetime which is called ‘phasing’. The floor that we are phased to is the primary influence on our psychological needs or motivations. If our phase needs are not met on a regular basis than we tend to move into our ‘cellar’ or basement and demonstrate predictable distress behaviours. 6. 30% never phase. Their primary personality characteristics floor represents both their preferred communication channel and their motivations. However the rest of us may phase once, twice, or more and find that our motivations and distress behaviours change accordingly as we age. Order set early in life, never changes. 6 floor personality structure. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

10 Personality type percentages
Promoter % (M = 3% , F = 2%) Imaginer % (M = 4%, F = 6%) Persister % (M = 7.5%, F = 2.5%) Rebel % (M = 8%, F = 12%) In order of their typical representation in the general population based on North American data, the identifier labels and percentages (male and female) for each of the six personality types are shown here. (Harmoniser to Promoter percentages) Interestingly, personality types do ‘self select’ and vary their representation in different job groups. For example while Persisters are around 10% of the normal population base personality they are over 70% of applicants for the NASA astronaut program. The next most common type in the astronaut program is Thinker at 17%. Together these two cognitively driven, perfection focused personality types which are closely aligned account for 87% of the astronaut group, many of whom come from pilot ranks. Thinker % (M = 18.75% , F = 6.25%) Harmoniser 30% (M = 7.5% , F = 22.5%) Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

11 Management communication style
Promoter Autocratic (Directive) Imaginer Autocratic (Directive) Persister Democratic (Questioning, Participative) Rebel Laissez Faire (Hands off, Delegative) Each personality type has a preferred communication style that they respond to most positively. (Harmoniser to Promoter management styles) Conversely we each tend to respond negatively to our least energised condominium ‘upper floor’ personality type communication styles. Thinker Democratic (Questioning, Participative) Harmoniser - Benevolent Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

12 Communication channel & perception
Promoter Directive, Actions ‘Let’s do this now” Imaginer Directive, Reflections ‘Go and do this alone’ Persister Requestive, Opinions ‘What do you believe?’ Rebel Emotive, Reactions ‘Hey, I like these!’ Examples of the communication channel and the associated perception to address each type are shown here. (Harmoniser to Promoter channels and perceptions) Thinker Requestive, Thoughts- ‘What do you think?’ Harmoniser - Nuturative, Emotions ‘How do you feel?’ Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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Psychological needs Promoter Incidence (excitement) and action Imaginer Solitude and direction Persister Meaningfulness of work, conviction, value Rebel Contact and fun The personality type that represents our current ‘phase state’ determines our motivations or psychological needs. (Harmoniser to Promoter psychological needs) While 30% of people never move from their base personality floor (thereby having their base and phase personality the same their whole life, the rest of us may phase once, twice or more as we age. The reasons for phasing will not be discussed here. The point to note from the perspective of motivating our colleagues and energising them stay in or return to their ‘ok’ state is that in distress people are seeking to have their phase psychological needs met positively. By recognising the distress behaviours on display, we can respond directly to the appropriate psychological needs to motivate and reenergise our colleagues so that they function effectively. Thinker Quality of work and time structure Harmoniser - Recognition of person and sensory Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

14 Giving psychological needs verbally
Harmoniser- Focus on the person Great to see you! Everyone in the team likes you! Thank you for being you! You did a great job on that report, you delivered it right on time and it had an excellent summary of the detail with a clear conclusion. Thinker- Detail, time, work quality Rebel – Interest them, work needs to be fun Cool to get this project flying together! By the way have you seen our latest project app? It’s a blast to use. Persister –Values and beliefs You are the expert. I value the perspectives that you bring to this, so what’s your opinion on the best way forward? Here we see examples to meet each phase need verbally. (Harmoniser to Promoter verbal psychological need battery charge examples) Imaginer- Introspection and personal space Take this project file into your office for the day, and come back to me tomorrow morning with a dot point summary of where we are. Promoter - Action and ego You are on top form today. Let’s grab a coffee and then you chair the meeting. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

15 Drivers and mismanagement behaviour
Harmoniser - I have to please Over-adaptive, indirect requests, wishy washy decision making Thinker - I have to be perfect Big words, over complicated explanations, poor delegation Rebel - I have to try hard Does not answer questions directly, lets others think for them, says don’t understand, delegates inappropriately Persister - You have to be perfect Big words , complicated questions, focus on what is wrong First degree distress is termed Driver behaviour. There are very predictable observable mismanagement behaviours associated with each personality type as shown here (Harmoniser to Promoter drivers and mismanagement behaviours) Imaginer - I have to be strong Others in charge of their thoughts and emotions, spreads self too thin, withdraws, goes nowhere Promoter - You have to be strong Says ‘you’ meaning ‘I’, expects others to fend for themselves, unsupportive Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

16 Channel & Perception for each Driver
Harmoniser - I have to please Nuturative - Emotions: ‘I feel, I care, kindness’ Thinker - I have to be perfect Requestive - Thoughts: ‘I think, facts’ Rebel - I have to try hard Emotive - Reactions: Fun, contact, ‘likes, dislikes’ Persister - You have to be perfect Requestive - Opinions, judgements: ‘I believe’ To respond in an appropriate way to encourage people out of their first degree distress we use the channel plus perception for each personality type as illustrated here. (Harmoniser to Promoter driver channel and perceptions) Imaginer - I have to be strong Directive - Reflective, Inactions: ‘Give space, directions’ Promoter - You have to be strong Directive - Actions, Incidence: ‘Make it happen’ Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

17 Warning signs for second degree distress
Harmoniser - Makes silly and   tragic mistakes Lacks assertiveness. Experiences self doubt. Invites criticism. Thinker - Over controls,   micromanages Easily frustrated about fairness, money, order or responsibility. Critical of others around thinking issues. Verbally attacks from a ‘you’ position. Rebel - Blames Negative and complaining. ‘Yes buts’. Blames things and situations on others. Persister - Pushes beliefs Crusades. Opinionated, righteous. Verbally attacks others who don’t believe the same. If we are unsuccessful with our choice of response we will often see people go into a deeper second degree distress pattern. There are very predictable and easily observable behaviours that relate to second degree distress and these are more problematical in our professional and personal lives. By recognising the behavioural warning signals and understanding the underlying personality type they relate to, we can use the appropriate words and responses to meet their psychological needs to bring them back from a ‘not ok’ state. The primary three observable warning signals for each type are shown here. (Harmoniser to Promoter second degree distress warning signs) Imaginer - Passively waits Continued withdrawal. Projects started and not finished. Lost for words. Promoter - Manipulates Sets up arguments. Creates negative drama. Ignores or breaks the rules. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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GIHRE project A disquieting finding At Swiss Air in the early 2000’s Werner Naef established a simulator study to investigate and validate CRM behavioural markers in high workload situations. The GIHRE project examined teams in environments ranging from flight decks and hospital operating theatres to nuclear power plant control rooms. A lot of good work was done to develop CRM behavioural markers. However despite the improvements in our knowledge and application of CRM and NTS there was a clear disquieting finding from the GIHRE research project. 64% of observed crew had no valid predictor for the experimental hypothesis that crew with excellent NTS behaviour would show correlating good technical outcomes Further analysis of when things went horribly wrong showed some notable observations relating to the people involved. They were all well trained and highly experienced. However, at a certain stress level, a different behavioural pattern took over, and their ‘thinking’ became biased. Specific ‘drivers’ delivered the motivation to act as they did. The switchover from green to orange to red range operations made them follow a different dominant logic. This different dominant logic had nothing to do with what had been learnt or what had been accumulated as experience. It relates to the way we manage ourselves. Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

19 PCM - the missing ingredient for NTS
Individual competency to manage personality based idiosyncrasies Self Management Training Insert text here Well validated for self and team Despite the improved focus on non-technical skills as well as technical skills training and competency assessment, there was still a missing ingredient. 1. 2. The missing ingredient was self management training and the development of individual competency to understand and control our own and others personality based idiosyncrasies. 3. 4. This is where PCM fits into the equation. It is a well validated process for improving self and team behaviour, and for dealing with pressure and distress. After personally seeing and documenting the outstandingly positive results from PCM training across a diverse range of safety critical professions, the authors strongly believe that the integration of PCM into CRM and NTS training will address these GIHRE findings. We think that PCM is the missing link to optimise NTS behaviours when we are under pressure and in distress. On reflection we feel that you need to act now to take advantage of these well validated techniques for improving self and team management. And the good news? You can have a lot of fun while doing this! Dealing with pressure and distress Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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Questions? Mike Nendick Director MDN & Associates Sydney, Australia phone: +61 (0) mobile: +61 (0) Werner Naef Director Kahler Communications Oceania Ltd Waikanae Beach, New Zealand phone: +64 (0) mobile: +64 (0) Nendick & Naef, PACDEFF 4-5 Sept 2013, Gold Coast

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