Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 – The West Chapter 17, Section 1 Mining and Railroads."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 17 – The WestChapter 17, Section 1Mining and Railroads
2The Discovery of Gold and Silver in the West The Comstock LodeDiscovered in Nevada in 1859Importance: one of the richest silver mines in the worldEffect: made Nevada a center formining.
3The Boom Spreads Few prospectors became rich because the ore was deep underground and difficult to extract.By the 1880’s, western mining had become big business.gold mines also contributed to state growth (Colorado, Montana, South Dakota)
4Life in Mining TownsTent cities arose around mining camps and quickly became boomtowns.Nearly half of all miners were foreign born.Because mining towns grew so quickly, it was hard to find law and order. So miners formed groups of vigilantes, chased bandits and imposed their own justice.As towns grew, local residents looked for more lasting forms of government.In some towns, all the ore was soon extracted and mines closed, miners moved away, businesses closed, and merchants left.
6Aid to RailroadsTo encourage the growth of railroads, the federal government offered railroads subsidies, which are grants of land or money. Railroads also received federal loans.A transcontinental railroad is a railroad line that spans the continent.In 1862, the Central Pacific Railroad won the right to build a line eastward from Sacramento. The Union Pacific railroad would build west from Omaha.The railroads hired thousands of workers, including 10,000 Chinese.On May 10, 1869 the two lines met in Promontory Point, Utah.
7Effects of the Railroads On Population: led to rapid population growthPolitical Changes: Nevada, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming became states.
9People of the PlainsFor centuries, the Plains people lived by gathering wild food, hunting, and fishing.The Europeans introduced horses and guns.Many Plains nations began following the buffalo herds.Chapter 17, Section 2
10Broken TreatiesAs Americans moved west, U.S. officials tried to convince the Plains Indians to stop following the buffalo and settle down permanently.In 1851, Native American leaders signed the Fort Laramie Treaty. The U.S. government promised to protect Native American land. However, after the treaty was signed, settlers moved onto Native Americans’ lands.Chapter 17, Section 2
11Broken treaties (cont.) In 1864, Colonel John Chivington attacked a band of Cheyenne at Sand Creek.The Sand Creek Massacre helped ignite an era of war.Chapter 17, Section 2
12Native American Resistance Southern Plains nations were moved to reservations in Oklahoma. Life there was a disaster because poor soil in Oklahoma made farming difficult.Many Sioux and Cheyenne gathered on land set aside for them in the Black Hills of South Dakota.Chapter 17, Section 2
13When a gold strike in 1874 brought miners to the area, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse led attacks to keep the whites out.
14Chief Joseph led the Nez Perces to Canada. In 1876, General George Armstrong Custer tried to force Native Americans onto a reservation. He and all his men died in the Battle of Little Big Horn.Chief Joseph led the Nez Perces to Canada.The U.S. Army caught the Nez Perces near Canada and Chief Joseph surrendered..Chapter 17, Section 2
15After years of war, the Navajos were defeated in 1864 in Arizona, and they were forced to move to a spot near thePecos River.Chapter 17, Section 2
16In the late 1880’s, Native Americans began performing ghost dances, which they believed would make their ancestors and the buffalo return and would cause white people to leave the Plains. Soldiers saw this as the beginning of an uprising. In the struggle, Chief Sitting Bull was killed.Later, troops killed nearly 200 Sioux men, women, and children at the Battle of Wounded Knee.Chapter 17, Section 2
17Efforts at ReformCongress passed the Dawes Act in 1887, which gave Native American men 160 acres to farm – and set up schools for Native American children.The measure failed because few Native Americans didn’t take to farming.The Dawes Act – encouraged Indians to be farmersDidn’t work – Indians didn’t believe anyone owned the land, sold their shares for low pricesChapter 17, Section 2
18Changes for Native Americans Life for Native Americans changed-fed. govt. took away power of leaderswanted them to give up their culture: customs, language, religiondepended on U.S. govt. for food and suppliesnot content on reservationsChapter 17, Section 2
20Causes and Effects Railroads swept across the Plains Texas Ranchers began driving cattle to the rail lines to get cattle to distant markets. Cowhands followed trails such as the Chisholm Trail and the Good-night Loving TrailChap. 17, Sec. 3
21Causes and EffectsCowhands who drove cattle needed to unwind at the end of the trail, where they faced dangers such as panicked animals, stampedes, fires, and thieves.Cow towns sprang up along rail lines -cowboys drove longhorns (cattle drives) to rail lines in Kansas -Dodge City, Abilene, KC, Missouri Here, dance halls, saloons, hotels, and restaurants served the cowhands.Chap. 17, Sec. 3 cont.
22Causes and EffectsCowhands borrowed much from early Spanish and Mexican vaqueros.Cowhands learned how to ride, rope, and brand. They wore spurs and chaps and broad-brimmed hats.Chap.17, Sec. 3 cont.
23Causes and EffectsWilliam “Buffalo Bill” Cody created a traveling Wild West show.The myth of the Wild West as a place of violence, adventure, and endless opportunities was spread.Chap. 17, Sec. 3 cont.
24Causes and EffectsProfits rose. New breeds of cattle had fewer diseases and more meat than longhorns.The cattle industry booms. Backers from the East and Europe invested millions in huge cattle companies.Chap. 17, Sec. 3 cont.
25Causes and EffectsIn the 1880’s, there was bad weather, economic depression, lower demand for beef and competition with sheep. Farmers fenced in open range.The cattle industry collapsed.Chap. 17, Sec. 3 cont.
26Causes and EffectsRailroads expanded and their lines moved closer to the ranches.Large roundups and long cattle drives vanished. The cattle boom was over.Chap. 17, Sec. 3 conclusion
28Homestead Act of 1862Offered 160 acres to anyone who resided on the land for five years.Thousands became homesteaders, which were settlers who acquired free land from the government
29RailroadsTo the railroads, more farms meant more shipping for the railroads.So railroads gave away some of the 180 million acres they got from the government.
30New Farming Methods Steel plows that could break through sod Drills to bury seedReapers to harvest cropsThreshers to beat off the hard coverings of grains.Irrigation
31Farm Families Role of men: labored on the farm Role of children: tended animals and helped with chores.Role of women: kept house, helped plant and harvest, educated children, nursed the sick, sewed clothes, preserved food, made basics such as candles and soaps.
32Exodusters Thousands of African Americans came to the Plains. They were known as Exodusters because they believed they were like the Jews fleeing from slavery in Egypt in the book of Exodus in the Bible.
33Spanish-speaking Farmers Many had been there since before the Mexican-American War.Mexican immigrants arrived with the coming of the railroads.Large landowners were known as ricos.
34SoonersThe federal government opened up what was once Indian territory in Oklahoma to homesteaders in April 1889.A few people known as sooners had already sneaked on to the land.
35Farmers OrganizeGranges were groups of farmers who met for lectures, sewing bees, and other events. In 1867, local granges joined to form the National Grange.Grangers demanded the same low rates from railroads and warehouses given to big farmers.
36Farmers Organize (cont.) Farm cooperatives were groups of farmers who pooled their money to make large purchases of tools, seeds, and other supplies at a discount.Unhappy farmers joined with labor unions to form the Populist Party, which pushed for social reforms.