Presentation on theme: "The Death of a Dream Imperialism and Western Culture 1870 – 1914 I've seen the devil of violence, and the devil of greed, and the devil of hot desire."— Presentation transcript:
The Death of a Dream Imperialism and Western Culture 1870 – 1914 I've seen the devil of violence, and the devil of greed, and the devil of hot desire. - Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness 1902
Death of what dream? -Renaissance -Enlightenment worldview William James
Seeds of the New Consciousness Is progress rational, liberal, moral? Is humanity fundamentally rational or irrational? Is Imperialism proof of Western superiority or underlying barbarism?
I. The New Imperialism Older Empires slipping Russia, America continental expansion Africa, SW Pacific, SE Asia Conrad = The Heart of Darkness Nietzsche = Nihilism / order out of chaos Freud = unconscious desire
A. Technology of Empire 1. Transportation 2. Communication
3. Military technology Whatever happens we have got/ the Maxim gun and they have not 4. Chemicals - gin and conquest
A. Glory 1.Benjamin Disraeli - Crystal Palace Speech, 1872 - national/personal prestige jingoism = use colonial adventure to smooth over domestic political divisions
2. Popular Empire - newspapers, businessmen, politicians profit
3. Heightened militarism / nationalism - New Navalism -Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History (1890) dreadnoughts
B. Gold 1. Remedy for boom-bust cycle - monopoly, oligopoly, cartel - expansion of consumerism - captive markets 2. Economics of addiction - rubber, petroleum, tea, coffee, cotton, fruit, labor - Ecological consequences
C. God / cultural hegemony 1. Provided moral justification for colonial expansion - Albert Schweitzer = cure for cultural decay - Rudyard Kipling, The White Mans Burden Enlightenment turned on its head
2. expression of cultural hegemony - Social Darwinism repudiation of Enlightenment - racial radicalism
2. Resistance Emperor Menelik, Ethiopia Samory Toure, West Africa Zulu War, 1878 – 1879 Exposed domestic division King Cetswayo
3. Exposed domestic division - Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor 1881 - Mohandas K. Gandhi Civil Disobedience/Passive Resistance - Vladimir Lenin Imperialism is the highest form of capitalism
C. Boer War 1899 - 1901 1. Afrikaners 2. guerilla tactics and modern warfare - trenches, blockhouses, concentration camps
Methods of conquest in Africa exposed inconsistency in Western values… - racial radicalism - brutal suppression of resistance - national competition Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1902)
D. Europeans in Asia 1. British Raj - East India Company - 1861, Indian Viceroy - 1877, India and Empire Rule through minorities, princes, caste system
2.China and the Opium War 1839-1842 - Treaty Ports & Concessions
3. French in Southeast Asia Cambodia, Indochina Metropol
Corruption of Western culture 1.competition / nationalism 2.racism, anti-semitism, Social Darwinism 3.extremist, anti-liberal political ideologies - anarchism, bolshevism, fascism, militarism 4.Relativism - Is there Truth, constancy in nature or society?
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