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The Death of a Dream Imperialism and Western Culture 1870 – 1914 I've seen the devil of violence, and the devil of greed, and the devil of hot desire.

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Presentation on theme: "The Death of a Dream Imperialism and Western Culture 1870 – 1914 I've seen the devil of violence, and the devil of greed, and the devil of hot desire."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Death of a Dream Imperialism and Western Culture 1870 – 1914 I've seen the devil of violence, and the devil of greed, and the devil of hot desire. - Joseph Conrad, The Heart of Darkness 1902

2 Death of what dream? -Renaissance -Enlightenment worldview William James

3 Seeds of the New Consciousness Is progress rational, liberal, moral? Is humanity fundamentally rational or irrational? Is Imperialism proof of Western superiority or underlying barbarism?

4 I. The New Imperialism Older Empires slipping Russia, America continental expansion Africa, SW Pacific, SE Asia Conrad = The Heart of Darkness Nietzsche = Nihilism / order out of chaos Freud = unconscious desire

5 A. Technology of Empire 1. Transportation 2. Communication

6 3. Military technology Whatever happens we have got/ the Maxim gun and they have not 4. Chemicals - gin and conquest

7 II. Motives for Empire

8 A. Glory 1.Benjamin Disraeli - Crystal Palace Speech, national/personal prestige jingoism = use colonial adventure to smooth over domestic political divisions

9 2. Popular Empire - newspapers, businessmen, politicians profit

10 3. Heightened militarism / nationalism - New Navalism -Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History (1890) dreadnoughts

11 B. Gold 1. Remedy for boom-bust cycle - monopoly, oligopoly, cartel - expansion of consumerism - captive markets 2. Economics of addiction - rubber, petroleum, tea, coffee, cotton, fruit, labor - Ecological consequences

12 C. God / cultural hegemony 1. Provided moral justification for colonial expansion - Albert Schweitzer = cure for cultural decay - Rudyard Kipling, The White Mans Burden Enlightenment turned on its head

13 2. expression of cultural hegemony - Social Darwinism repudiation of Enlightenment - racial radicalism

14 British Empire, ca. 1914

15 French Empire, ca. 1914

16 III. The nature of imperial control

17 Legacy of Imperialism Berlin Conference, 1884 effective occupation

18 Hammering 1. Crush resistance quickly - Islamic resistance, the Mahdi Omdurman, 1898

19 2. Resistance Emperor Menelik, Ethiopia Samory Toure, West Africa Zulu War, 1878 – 1879 Exposed domestic division King Cetswayo

20 3. Exposed domestic division - Helen Hunt Jackson A Century of Dishonor Mohandas K. Gandhi Civil Disobedience/Passive Resistance - Vladimir Lenin Imperialism is the highest form of capitalism

21 C. Boer War Afrikaners 2. guerilla tactics and modern warfare - trenches, blockhouses, concentration camps

22 Methods of conquest in Africa exposed inconsistency in Western values… - racial radicalism - brutal suppression of resistance - national competition Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness (1902)

23 D. Europeans in Asia 1. British Raj - East India Company , Indian Viceroy , India and Empire Rule through minorities, princes, caste system

24 2.China and the Opium War Treaty Ports & Concessions

25 3. French in Southeast Asia Cambodia, Indochina Metropol

26 Corruption of Western culture 1.competition / nationalism 2.racism, anti-semitism, Social Darwinism 3.extremist, anti-liberal political ideologies - anarchism, bolshevism, fascism, militarism 4.Relativism - Is there Truth, constancy in nature or society?


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