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QUESTIONS: Describe developments in New Zealands gold industry in the 19 th century Evaluate the influences of these changes on New Zealands economic and.

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Presentation on theme: "QUESTIONS: Describe developments in New Zealands gold industry in the 19 th century Evaluate the influences of these changes on New Zealands economic and."— Presentation transcript:

1 QUESTIONS: Describe developments in New Zealands gold industry in the 19 th century Evaluate the influences of these changes on New Zealands economic and social development

2 Driving Creek mines – Coromandel Peninsula, 1860s Gold extraction works – Paeroa Terawhiti mine, Karori – very little gold discovered here

3 gold first discovered on Coromandel Peninsula (1852), West Coast (South Island – mid-1860s) and Otago (1861) - this led to the beginning of the gold rush, particularly in Otago it was hoped that gold would attract migrants, transform economies and deliver prosperity the miners were often mechanics own culture established – drinking, gambling and lusting after women – was considered undesirable by outsiders miners often stole sheep, killed pigs and rabbits and demanded hospitality believed they had the right to mine (public land – available for all – did not want a monopoly – equal opportunities) – also had right to all gold found and to vote NZ miners fairly law-abiding compared to Australians considered themselves cosmopolitan – foreigners elected to official roles Describe developments in New Zealands gold industry in the 19th century

4 Otago government seized 670,000 acres from run holders for miners Chinese miners encouraged to come to New Zealand many miners and other Pakeha angered by arrival of Chinese kept apart from Pakeha miners led to allegations – Chinese seen as dirty, diseased, immoral and corrupt – these were untrue, but Pakeha still unhappy Henry Atkinson fought against Chinese attacks they did not see their stay as permanent – earn fortune and return to China Charles (Choie) Sew Hoy different – permanently settled 1868 – 2 years after first miners arrived - married NZ woman and raised family

5 Otago goldfields near Arrowtown Chinese gold miners and settlement Gabriels Gully goldfield

6 Evaluate the influences of these changes on New Zealands economic and social development led to anti-Chinese feelings and legislation: Chinese Immigrants Restriction Act – poll tax of £10 Poll tax raised to £100 in Old Age Pension Act excluded Chinese and other Asian 1899 – Immigration Restriction Act – those of non-British or Irish origin required to take English language test Chinese set up new businesses, e.g. market gardens, laundromats and fruit stores for some areas of New Zealand, the gold rush led to great prosperity and wealth: The city of Dunedin briefly became New Zealands largest city (grew from a population of 1,700 in 1858 to 18,500 by 1874 – Otago University (New Zealands first) was set up here in 1869 Companies such as Hallensteins Bros., D.I.C. and Son & Ewen set up in Dunedin around this time there was rapid population growth – between 1860 and 1870 New Zealands population increased by 67% (two-thirds) New Zealands population grew rapidly during the gold rushes, however it was often concentrated For example, Otago region experienced a large population growth

7 Evaluate the influences of these changes on New Zealands economic and social development led to the gold rushes led to gender imbalances for New Zealand: In the Otago Goldfields the ratio was 1 woman for every 18 men – 1864 reliance on gold as a major export – New Zealand suffered when economic depression hit in 1870s – prices for gold fell as did the amount being mined Areas such as Otago were heavily dependant on gold as a major source of income for the region Goldfields Act 1856 gave miners the rights to their lands – these were part of the wastelands that the government had ownership of, but some areas were exempted


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