Presentation on theme: "The Gold Rush of 1849 Made by Kochev Dmitry Teacher: Travkina O.V."— Presentation transcript:
1The Gold Rush of 1849 Made by Kochev Dmitry Teacher: Travkina O.V. Lvovskaya school №42011The Gold Rush of 1849
2Origins of the Gold Rush Westward ExpansionCaptains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark of the United States Army were commissioned by President Thomas Jefferson in 1804 to explore the possible expansion of the US territory to the west.The Corps of Discovery (as the expedition was called) lasted from 1804 till 1806.This journey gave the US Government a knowledge of the geography of that territory.It also promoted commerce in this region, prompting many people to move across the country.
3Striking Gold!Forty two years after Lewis and Clark’s expedition gold was discovered in Northern CaliforniaOn January 24, 1848 James Marshall found gold while miningThe land was owned by Captain John Sutter and was near the place where San Francisco would be built soon.
4January 24, 1848The California Gold Rush began when gold was discovered at Sutter’s MillAs the news of discovery had spread over people came to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
5The Rush is On!Northern California became a very popular place in 1849.Thousands of people travelled west during the “Gold Fever” to reach the region of their hope.These people were known as “49ers” because they left everything and moved west in 1849.
7How did I get to California? Three main routes were taken during Gold Rush inOverland RouteGroups left from Midwest and travelled across the PlainsWater RouteGroups left from Eastern port cities (Boston, New York, and Philadelphia) and travelled around South AmericaWater and Land RouteGroups left from Eastern port cities for the East Coast of Panama and went from the West Coast of Panama in different boats to California
8Choosing your way: Overland They travelled by Covered Wagon in groups called “Wagon Trains”Approximately 40,000 people chose this route from 1849 till 1850Travellers had to cross over rivers, mountains, prairies, and deserts
10Choosing your way: Water Route Large Clipper Ships were used to travel around South AmericaThey stopped in Brazil and Chile to take new supplies and fuel;More than 15,000 people chose this route to travel to California
11Choosing your way: Water and Land Route Large ships sailed from northeast to the Isthmus of Panama in the Gulf of MexicoThen travellers made their way sixty miles through the jungle of CaliforniaPanama City was the port for their second ship to California
14Ethnical ConflictsBy 1850 most of the easily accessible gold had been collected and attention turned to extracting gold from more difficult deposits. Americans began to drive out foreigners to get the most accessible gold that remained. The new California State Goverment set a tax of twenty dollars per month for foreign miners. Americans began to organize attacks on foreign miners, particularly Latin Americans and Chinese. In addition, a great number of newcomers occupied the Native Americans’ traditional hunting, fishing and food-gathering areas.Massacre in Latino campWoman defends herself
15Ethnical Conflicts with Native Americans To protect their homes and territories some Native Americans attacked the miners. This provoked counter-attacks on native villages. The Native Americans, who had no guns, were often slaughtered. Those who escaped massacres were forced to survive without access to their food-gathering areas, and they starved to death.
16Gold recovery techniques Because the gold in the California gravel beds was so richly concentrated, the early forty-niners simply panned gold in California's rivers and streams. However, panning could not be done in a large scale. And some groups of miners developed new technologies such as "cradles" and "rockers" or "long-toms" to process larger volumes of gravel. The workers canneled water from one river to another and then dug for gold in the newly exposed river bottom.
19Techniques for retrieving gold At first a technique called panning was used to get gold from streams and riverbeds.Hydraulic mining was later invented in California. This technique was created for larger scales of gold mining
20Hydraulic technologies At the next stage, by 1853, hydraulic mining was used on ancient gold-bearing gravel bed. A high-pressure hose directed a powerful stream or jet of water at gold-bearing gravel beds. The loosened gravel and gold would then pass over sluices with the gold settling to the bottom where it was collected by "hydraulicking". This style of hydraulic mining later spread around the world.
22Famous People - Samuel Brannan Samuel Brannan was the first millionaire because of the California Gold RushBrannan established the first newspaper in San Francisco called the California Star and also organized the first schoolBrannan was elected to the California State Senate in He also gave money for developing banks, railroads, and telegraph companies.
23Famous People - H. Wells & W. Fargo They decided to profit from Gold Rush by providing services to miners.They created Wells & Fargo Co. for banking, mail, and stage coach services.
24Famous People - Levi Strauss *He ran a successful dry-goods store*He patented canvas pants with riveted pockets which are nowcalled jeans.
25The negative effects of the Gold Rush Native Americansbecame the victims ofdiseases, starvation andgenocidal attacks.The Native American population in 1845 was 150,000The Native American population in 1870 was less than 30,000.Many people who went to Californiafrom around the worldnever reached it.The Donner party- A group of 87 people from various families set out for California and became snowbound in the Sierra Nevada. Only 48 of the 87 pioneers survived.
26The positive effects of the gold rush Towns and cities werefounded.Roads, schools, and churches were built.Transportation was improved between California and the east coastAll of thesedevelopments led to thestatehood of Californiaon September 9th, 1850as the 31st state.