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1 2 3 Europeans come to the New World 4 To better understand the reasons for European exploration, think back to sixth grade social studies when you.

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Presentation on theme: "1 2 3 Europeans come to the New World 4 To better understand the reasons for European exploration, think back to sixth grade social studies when you."— Presentation transcript:

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4 3 Europeans come to the New World

5 4 To better understand the reasons for European exploration, think back to sixth grade social studies when you learned about

6 5 cultural connection people have with one another pride and devotion to your country

7 6 Remember that extreme nationalism can lead to And all of this can effect the

8 7 A spirit of was brewing throughout Europe in the 1400s, 1500s, 1600s,…. and continues today.

9 8 One way they could show their strength was to

10 9 The Big Three countries in Europe who were competing for land were

11 10 All three countries explored for the same reasons--- The Three Gs

12 11 At this time, explorers were searching for

13 12 And once they began to explore the New World, they thought they would find lots of gold.

14 13 Nationalism and desire for gold caused the people to want for their homeland.

15 14 The third reason they explored was to spread their religion.

16 15 So remember...The Three Gs So remember...The Three Gs

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18 17 From 1492-1519, Spain focuses on establishing colonies in the Indies. From 1492-1519, Spain focuses on establishing colonies in the Indies. Spaniards on expeditions heard there were great civilizations in the interior, which included great wealth. Spaniards on expeditions heard there were great civilizations in the interior, which included great wealth. Explorers looking for wealth were known as conquistadors. Explorers looking for wealth were known as conquistadors.

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20 19 Europe Eyes the Americas Christopher Columbus lived during a time when Spain was at war and many people were in poverty. Christopher Columbus lived during a time when Spain was at war and many people were in poverty. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus to go on an expedition to find a new passage to China. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus to go on an expedition to find a new passage to China. Expedition: a journey undertaken by a group of people with a definite purpose

21 20 King Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella Christopher Columbus

22 21 In 1492 COLUMBUS Sailed the Ocean Blue Columbus quickly learned the earth was round. He thought he could sail to Asia westward faster and easier than traveling eastward. Columbus quickly learned the earth was round. He thought he could sail to Asia westward faster and easier than traveling eastward. He could then establish profitable routes to Asia. (He could trade along the way.) He could then establish profitable routes to Asia. (He could trade along the way.) Queen Isabella thought this would be a great idea because it would establish trade with Asia ($) and would help spread the Catholic faith. Queen Isabella thought this would be a great idea because it would establish trade with Asia ($) and would help spread the Catholic faith.

23 22 Columbus sighted land and thought it was the Indies. He got off the boat and named (and called) the friendly people indios. He wasnt in the Indies…He was in the Bahamas! He continued to sail on to find the riches he had promised the Spanish monarch. (He was also going to get to keep a portion of these riches for himself.)

24 23 On his voyages, Columbus established the first permanent colony on Hispaniola (named Santo Domingo). On his voyages, Columbus established the first permanent colony on Hispaniola (named Santo Domingo). Columbus did not find gold or the new passage to China, but his voyages did inspire others to seek their fortunes in America. Columbus did not find gold or the new passage to China, but his voyages did inspire others to seek their fortunes in America.

25 24 Columbus…not such a nice guy Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand got word that Columbus and others had enslaved, tortured, and killed thousands of native Taino people in the Caribbean. Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand got word that Columbus and others had enslaved, tortured, and killed thousands of native Taino people in the Caribbean. This angered the monarchs and made them withdraw their support for further explorations by Columbus. This angered the monarchs and made them withdraw their support for further explorations by Columbus.

26 25 Did Columbus really discover America? Did Columbus really discover America? According to the Europeans, the answer is YES. According to the Europeans, the answer is YES. Werent the Indians already occupying parts of America, including our focus….TEXAS?

27 26 COLUMBUSS FOUR VOYAGES

28 27 Columbus Finds Land

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30 29 Hernan Cortes Cortes was a Spanish conquistador. Cortes was a Spanish conquistador. Conquistadores were soldiers and adventurers searching The 3 Gs Conquistadores were soldiers and adventurers searching The 3 Gs Cortes left Cuba in 1519, with the goal of conquering the Aztec Empire. Cortes left Cuba in 1519, with the goal of conquering the Aztec Empire.

31 30 The Aztecs The Aztecs were the most powerful Indian culture in all of Central America. The Aztecs were the most powerful Indian culture in all of Central America. They were fierce warriors who worshipped the sun and performed human sacrifices. They were fierce warriors who worshipped the sun and performed human sacrifices.

32 31 Montezuma II Montezuma was the leader of the Aztecs. Montezuma was the leader of the Aztecs. He ruled an empire that covered over 200,000 square miles. He ruled an empire that covered over 200,000 square miles.

33 32 Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Cortes sailed from Spanish Cuba to the eastern coast of what is now Mexico. Cortes sailed from Spanish Cuba to the eastern coast of what is now Mexico. Cortes and his 200 men, defeated an Aztec army of over 100,000. Cortes and his 200 men, defeated an Aztec army of over 100,000. They captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, and built present day Mexico City on top of it. They captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, and built present day Mexico City on top of it. This increased the wealth and power of Spain, greatly expanded its American empire and led to the founding of New Spain. This increased the wealth and power of Spain, greatly expanded its American empire and led to the founding of New Spain.

34 33 IMPORTANT 1519 EVENT AND THE CONSEQUENCES Hernan Cortes, a Spanish explorer, conquered the Aztec empire Hernan Cortes, a Spanish explorer, conquered the Aztec empire Wealth and power of Spain increased Wealth and power of Spain increased Expanded the size of the Spanish empire Expanded the size of the Spanish empire Led to the founding of New Spain Led to the founding of New Spain Mexico became a base of Spanish exploration Mexico became a base of Spanish exploration

35 34 1519 Cortés and his army sail to what is now Mexico. Short-Term EffectsLong-Term Effects increased Spains power established Mexico as a base from which Spain could launch explorations expanded Spains American empire, which covered much of North and South America by 1600 conquered the Aztec Empire killed or enslaved many Aztec gained Spain the Aztecs wealth and land built Mexico City on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlán, which became the capital of New Spain increased the empire and wealth of Spain

36 35 Following Columbuss lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission. Following Columbuss lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.

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38 37 Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda and Hernan Cortes Pinedas mission was to map the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony. He was first to discover the Texas coastline. Pinedas mission was to map the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony. He was first to discover the Texas coastline. Cortez, who was sent to find a city of gold, cut Pinedas journey short. He saw Pineda as a threat to his journey, so he arrested some of Pinedas men!

39 38 IMPORTANCE OF PINEDAS VOYAGE TO TEXAS First known European to see and map the Texas coast First known European to see and map the Texas coast Established a settlement near present day Mexican city Tampico Established a settlement near present day Mexican city Tampico Never landed in Texas Never landed in Texas Led to further Spanish exploration of Texas Led to further Spanish exploration of Texas

40 39 begins his conquest of the Aztec Empire. explores the Gulf of Mexico and maps part of it. 1519 Spanish explorer Hernan Cortés 1519 Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda 1519 Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan begins the first round-the- world Voyage. 1519

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42 41 EXPERIENCES OF Narvaez Set out in 1527 for Spain Set out in 1527 for Spain Explored Tampa, Florida Explored Tampa, Florida Left his crew when they did not return Left his crew when they did not return

43 42 The Narvaez Expedition In 1526 Panfilo de Narvaez was granted the land of Florida by the king of Spain. In 1526 Panfilo de Narvaez was granted the land of Florida by the king of Spain. His expedition traveled up the western coast of Florida. He then built rafts to sail to Mexico. His expedition traveled up the western coast of Florida. He then built rafts to sail to Mexico. A hurricane in 1528 drowned many of the men at sea, including Narvaez. A hurricane in 1528 drowned many of the men at sea, including Narvaez.

44 43 The Narvaez Expedition Out of the 400 men and 82 horses that Narvaez started with on his expedition, only 80 or so survived the hurricane. They arrived at Galveston Bay. They were the first known Europeans to set foot in the present- day Texas.

45 44 THE ENDING OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION Shipwrecked along the Texas Coast Shipwrecked along the Texas Coast Suffered from hunger and American Indian attacks Suffered from hunger and American Indian attacks Became stranded and ate horses to survive Became stranded and ate horses to survive Captured and enslaved by the Karankawa Indians or died Captured and enslaved by the Karankawa Indians or died

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47 46 What Happens 400 men started out from Florida to Mexico 400 men started out from Florida to Mexico They thought this would be a short trip. They thought this would be a short trip. They had only enough food for everyone to have ½ handful of maize They had only enough food for everyone to have ½ handful of maize There was a hurricane! There was a hurricane! They never made it to Mexico, instead they (80) ended up in Texas (Galveston Bay). They never made it to Mexico, instead they (80) ended up in Texas (Galveston Bay).

48 47 They were cold, naked, starving, and had no food, shelter, or clothing. They were cold, naked, starving, and had no food, shelter, or clothing. They met up with the Karankawa Indians who gave them fish, roots, and walnuts. They met up with the Karankawa Indians who gave them fish, roots, and walnuts. When they received no more food from the Indians, they ate their shipmates that had died. When they received no more food from the Indians, they ate their shipmates that had died.

49 48 THE LONE SURVIVORS Only 4 survived (out of 400)! Only 4 survived (out of 400)! Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico First Europeans to explore the interior of Texas First Europeans to explore the interior of Texas

50 49 EXPERIENCES OF CABEZA DE VACA Survivor of the failed Nararez expedition Survivor of the failed Nararez expedition Explored Tampa, Florida and Galveston, Texas Explored Tampa, Florida and Galveston, Texas Taken in by the Kawakawas Indians Taken in by the Kawakawas Indians Escaped and traveled among Indian villages Escaped and traveled among Indian villages Worked as a healer, trader, and servant Worked as a healer, trader, and servant gained Indians respect gained Indians respect First European to Explore the Texas interior First European to Explore the Texas interior

51 50 Cabeza de Vaca He also wrote about his life with the Native Americans in a work of literature called La relacion. He also wrote about his life with the Native Americans in a work of literature called La relacion. This was the first written work of Texas literature. This was the first written work of Texas literature.

52 51 Cabeza de Vaca The survivors from the 1528 hurricane beached at Galveston Bay and were helped by Karankawas. The survivors from the 1528 hurricane beached at Galveston Bay and were helped by Karankawas. Six years later only four men were alive, two of which were Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico.. Six years later only four men were alive, two of which were Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico.. He and his men became the first Europeans to see the interior of Texas. He and his men became the first Europeans to see the interior of Texas.

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54 53 EXPERIENCES OF Desoto Set out in 1539 for Spain Set out in 1539 for Spain Explored the Florida coast and South Eastern US until 1542 Explored the Florida coast and South Eastern US until 1542 Died of Fever Died of Fever

55 54 Coronados expedition did not find the Seven Cities of Cibola, so Spain sent another expedition in search of gold. Coronados expedition did not find the Seven Cities of Cibola, so Spain sent another expedition in search of gold. Hernando de Sotos expedition also did not find any gold, but they explored east Texas. They were also the first exploration into the interior of North America. Hernando de Sotos expedition also did not find any gold, but they explored east Texas. They were also the first exploration into the interior of North America.

56 55 De Soto explored present-day Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas. When he and his expedition reached the Mississippi River, they were discouraged and running out of supplies. They turned back home. De Soto never made it back home. He died of an illness. His successor, Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado set out to find an overland route back to Mexico.

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58 57 THE CORONADO EXPEDITION Set out in 1540 for Spain Set out in 1540 for Spain Crossed the Texas Panhandle and the Llano Estacado Crossed the Texas Panhandle and the Llano Estacado Was looking for Cibola and Quivira – cities of gold Was looking for Cibola and Quivira – cities of gold Learned there was no gold; only Pueblo villages Learned there was no gold; only Pueblo villages Saw American buffalo Saw American buffalo

59 58 RESULTS OF THE CORONADO AND DE SOTO EXPEDITIONS Met the Texas Indians but did not find gold Met the Texas Indians but did not find gold Coronado – explored the American Southwest and encountered Indians Coronado – explored the American Southwest and encountered Indians DeSoto – explored the American Southwest; encountered the Caddo Indians DeSoto – explored the American Southwest; encountered the Caddo Indians

60 59 Fray Marcos & Estevanico (1539) Coronado (1540) De Soto– Moscoso (1539) find seven lost cities of gold conquer Cibola; gain its treasure conquer Cibola; gain its treasure ExpeditionGoalsResults Estevanicoreached a Zuni village and was killed; Fray Marcossaw village from afar and reported it was filled with gold and treasure conquered Zuni village; crossed Texas Panhandle in search of Quivira; did not find any gold or treasure explored what is now the south- eastern United States and East Texas; sailed to Mexico; did not find any gold or treasure

61 60 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Coronado was commissioned to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola. They were believed to have GOLD. Coronado was commissioned to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola. They were believed to have GOLD. Coronado and his men became the first Europeans to see West Texas

62 61 Matrix Spanish Exploration and Colonization

63 62 DateExplorer/ Event Purpose Accomplishments 3 Gs 1519PinedaMap the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony Established a settlement near present day Mexican city of Tampico. Glory 1519CortesExplore the continent and report on the rich and powerful civilization. Brought gold and silver to Spain from Mexico as well as defeating the Aztecs. Glory and Gold

64 63 1528Cabeza de Vaca He was a survivor of the failed Navarez expedition who became an explorer. Became one of the first Europeans to explore the interior of Texas and he brought back stories of the 7 cities of Gold Glory and Gold 1682Spain establishes Missions Missions were established to spread Christianity. Corpus Christi de la Ysleta was the first successful Spanish mission in Texas (near El Paso). God

65 64 1690Spain begins building missions To colonize Texas. Establishment of the first mission in East Texas, Mission San Francisco de los Tejas. God 1718Spain reclaims East Texas Provide a mid point for supply caravans traveling from central Mexico to East Texas. Establishment of Mission San Antonio de Valero and presidio San Antonio de Bexar (this would become the most important Spanish colony in Texas and later become the city of San Antonio. God and Glory

66 65 SPANISH EXPLORATION IN TEXAS Effects on SpainEffects on American Indians gained new plants and animals from Europe, such as horses rise of a Plains Indian horse culture Plains Indians fighting and hunting abilities increased by horses many Texas Indian deaths from European diseases conflict with the Spanish established a claim to Texas gained knowledge about land and people of Texas gained new plants and animals from the Americas gained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north lost equine military advantage conflict with Texas Indians

67 66 SPANISH EXPLORERS: 1519–1598

68 67 EFFECTS OF SPANISH EXPLORATION Established a claim to Texas Established a claim to Texas Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas Gained new plants and animals from the Americas Gained new plants and animals from the Americas Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north

69 68 SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION Established a claim to Texas Established a claim to Texas Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas Gained knowledge about land and people of Texas The Columbian Exchange The Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange – term describing the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and other continents since the time of Columbus

70 69 SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlements and American Indians Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlements and American Indians Learned about the Plains Indian horse culture Learned about the Plains Indian horse culture

71 70 THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON INDIANS Positive – led to a transfer of plants, animals between the Indians and Spanish Positive – led to a transfer of plants, animals between the Indians and Spanish Negative – led to the spread of diseases from Europe to the Americas Negative – led to the spread of diseases from Europe to the Americas

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74 73 The La Salle Expedition Set out in 1682 for France Set out in 1682 for France Explored the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico Explored the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico La Salle get lost and ended up in Texas La Salle get lost and ended up in Texas Set up a settlement in Texas Set up a settlement in Texas Name the area around the Mississippi River… Louisiana Name the area around the Mississippi River… Louisiana

75 74 The French Explore Texas The international competition for land in the New World was intense. The international competition for land in the New World was intense. In 1682 La Salle claimed the Mississippi River and the surrounding land (dependent on the river) for France. In 1682 La Salle claimed the Mississippi River and the surrounding land (dependent on the river) for France. He called it La Louisiane (Louisiana). He called it La Louisiane (Louisiana). They wanted to compete with Spains quest for riches and control trade. They wanted to compete with Spains quest for riches and control trade.

76 75 Fort St. Louis La Salle established the first French colony in Texas on the Lavaca River. La Salle established the first French colony in Texas on the Lavaca River. The colony had trouble from the beginning because they lost valuable supplies at sea. The colony had trouble from the beginning because they lost valuable supplies at sea. They were helped for a while by the Indians, but fighting soon broke out. They were helped for a while by the Indians, but fighting soon broke out.

77 76 Why did the Natives turn against LaSalle and his men? The Native Americans found the supplies that washed up on shore after La Belle sank. The Native Americans found the supplies that washed up on shore after La Belle sank. The French took the supplies back without asking for them or explaining what happened. The French took the supplies back without asking for them or explaining what happened.

78 77 Fort St. Louis La Salle tried to find a way back to the Mississippi River, but was unsuccessful. La Salle tried to find a way back to the Mississippi River, but was unsuccessful. Many of his men died. Many of his men died. In 1687 La Salle tried to go home. He took 17 of the 20 survivors with him. In 1687 La Salle tried to go home. He took 17 of the 20 survivors with him. On the ship, the men plotted against him and he was killed. Spanish explorers found the bodies of the remaining French colonists who had been killed by the Indians.

79 78 FRENCH AND SPANISH CLAIMS ON NORTH AMERICA, 1682–1688

80 79 Spains claims on Texas lands prompted France to establish a colony of its own. Although La Salles Texas colony did not survive, Frances presence renewed Spains interest in settling Texas. The French Explore Texas Columbus came to the New World looking for gold and a new trade route to Asia. Although he found neither, his four voyages inspired others to seek their fortunes in the Americas. Europe Eyes the Americas Following Columbuss lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission. Spanish Explorers Come to Texas

81 80 Consequences for the Native Americans Native Americans lived in Texas long before the Europeans explored there. Native Americans lived in Texas long before the Europeans explored there. The arrival of the Spanish and French explorers to Texas brought Native Americans severe consequences. The arrival of the Spanish and French explorers to Texas brought Native Americans severe consequences. Diseases such as smallpox killed thousands of Native Americans. Diseases such as smallpox killed thousands of Native Americans. www.rangerdj.com/ clipart/indian/indian.jpg


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