17SHOW ME THE MONEY...or the gold! From , Spain focuses on establishing colonies in the Indies.Spaniards on expeditions heard there were great civilizations in the interior, which included great wealth.Explorers looking for wealth were known as conquistadors.
19Europe Eyes the Americas Christopher Columbus lived during a time when Spain was at war and many people were in poverty.Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand paid for Columbus to go on an expedition to find a new passage to China.Expedition: a journey undertaken by a group of peoplewith a definite purpose
20King Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella Christopher ColumbusKing Ferdinand of Spain and Queen Isabella
21“In 1492 COLUMBUS Sailed the Ocean Blue” Columbus quickly learned the earth was round. He thought he could sail to Asia westward faster and easier than traveling eastward.He could then establish profitable routes to Asia. (He could trade along the way.)Queen Isabella thought this would be a great idea because it would establish trade with Asia ($) and would help spread the Catholic faith.
22Columbus sighted land and thought it was the Indies. He got off the boat and named (and called) the friendly people indios.He wasn’t in the Indies…He was in the Bahamas!He continued to sail on to find the riches he had promised the Spanish monarch (He was also going to get to keep a portion of these riches for himself.)
23On his voyages, Columbus established the first permanent colony on Hispaniola (named Santo Domingo). Columbus did not find gold or the new passage to China, but his voyages did inspire others to seek their fortunes in America.
24Columbus…not such a nice guy Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand got word that Columbus and others had enslaved, tortured, and killed thousands of native Taino people in the Caribbean.This angered the monarchs and made them withdraw their support for further explorations by Columbus.
25THE BIG QUESTIONDid Columbus really discover America?According to the Europeans, the answer is YES.BUTWeren’t the Indians already occupying parts of America, including our focus….TEXAS?
29Hernan Cortes Cortes was a Spanish conquistador. Conquistadores were soldiers and adventurers searching The 3 G’sCortes left Cuba in 1519, with the goal of conquering the Aztec Empire.
30The AztecsThe Aztecs were the most powerful Indian culture in all of Central America.They were fierce warriors who worshipped the sun and performed human sacrifices.
31Montezuma II Montezuma was the leader of the Aztecs. He ruled an empire that covered over 200,000 square miles.
32Cortes Conquers the Aztecs Cortes sailed from Spanish Cuba to the eastern coast of what is now Mexico.Cortes and his 200 men, defeated an Aztec army of over 100,000.They captured the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan, and built present day Mexico City on top of it.This increased the wealth and power of Spain, greatly expanded its American empire and led to the founding of New Spain.
33IMPORTANT 1519 EVENT AND THE CONSEQUENCES Hernan Cortes, a Spanish explorer, conquered the Aztec empireWealth and power of Spain increasedExpanded the size of the Spanish empireLed to the founding of New SpainMexico became a base of Spanish exploration
341519 Short-Term Effects Long-Term Effects Cortés and his army sail to what is now Mexico.Short-Term EffectsLong-Term Effectsincreased Spain’s powerestablished Mexico as a base from which Spain could launch explorationsexpanded Spain’s American empire, which covered much of North and South America by 1600conquered the Aztec Empirekilled or enslaved many Aztecgained Spain the Aztec’s wealth and landbuilt Mexico City on top of the ruins of Tenochtitlán, which became the capital of New Spainincreased the empire and wealth of Spain
35The Spanish Come to Texas Following Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.
37Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda and Hernan Cortes Pineda’s mission was to map the coastline of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colony. He was first to discover the Texas coastline.Cortez, who was sent to find a city of gold, cut Pineda’s journey short. He saw Pineda as a threat to his journey, so he arrested some of Pineda’s men!1519
38IMPORTANCE OF PINEDA’S VOYAGE TO TEXAS First known European to see and map the Texas coastEstablished a settlement near present day Mexican city TampicoNever landed in TexasLed to further Spanish exploration of Texas
391519 begins his conquest of the Aztec Empire. Spanish explorerHernan CortésAlonso Álvarez dePinedaFerdinandMagellanbegins his conquest of the Aztec Empire.explores the Gulf of Mexico and maps part of it.begins the first round-the-worldVoyage.
41EXPERIENCES OF Narvaez Set out in 1527 for SpainExplored Tampa, FloridaLeft his crew when they did not return
42The Narvaez Expedition In 1526 Panfilo de Narvaez was granted the land of Florida by the king of Spain.His expedition traveled up the western coast of Florida. He then built rafts to sail to Mexico.A hurricane in 1528 drowned many of the men at sea, including Narvaez.
43The Narvaez Expedition TEXAS!The Narvaez Expedition4/1/2017Out of the 400 men and 82 horses that Narvaez started with on his expedition, only 80 or so survived the hurricane.They arrived at Galveston Bay.They were the first known Europeans to set foot in the present-day Texas.Six years later, only 4 members of the original Narvaez expedition were still alive.CHAPTER 05
44THE ENDING OF THE NARVAEZ EXPEDITION Shipwrecked along the Texas CoastSuffered from hunger and American Indian attacksBecame stranded and ate horses to surviveCaptured and enslaved by the Karankawa Indians or died
46What Happens 400 men started out from Florida to Mexico They thought this would be a short trip.They had only enough food for everyone to have ½ handful of maizeThere was a hurricane!They never made it to Mexico, instead they (80) ended up in Texas (Galveston Bay).
47They were cold, naked, starving, and had no food, shelter, or clothing. They met up with the Karankawa Indians who gave them fish, roots, and walnuts.When they received no more food from the Indians, they ate their shipmates that had died.The Europeans gavethe Indians disease,killing 1/2 of them!
48THE LONE SURVIVORS Only 4 survived (out of 400)! Cabeza de Vaca and EstevanicoFirst Europeans to explore the interior of Texas
49EXPERIENCES OF CABEZA DE VACA Survivor of the failed Nararez expeditionExplored Tampa, Florida and Galveston, TexasTaken in by the Kawakawas IndiansEscaped and traveled among Indian villagesWorked as a healer, trader, and servantgained Indians’ respectFirst European to Explore the Texas interior
50Cabeza de VacaHe also wrote about his life with the Native Americans in a work of literature called La relacion.This was the first written work of Texas literature.
51TEXAS!4/1/2017Cabeza de VacaThe survivors from the 1528 hurricane beached at Galveston Bay and were helped by Karankawas.Six years later only four men were alive, two of which were Cabeza de Vaca and Estevanico..He and his men became the first Europeans to see the interior of Texas.They had learned how to use herbs for healing (from the Krankawas).CHAPTER 05
53EXPERIENCES OF Desoto Set out in 1539 for Spain Explored the Florida coast and South Eastern US until 1542Died of Fever
54Hernando de SotoCoronado’s expedition did not find the Seven Cities of Cibola, so Spain sent another expedition in search of gold.Hernando de Soto’s expedition also did not find any gold, but they explored east Texas. They were also the first exploration into the interior of North America.
55Hernando de SotoDe Soto explored present-day Georgia, the Carolinas, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas.When he and his expedition reached the Mississippi River, they were discouraged and running out of supplies. They turned back home.De Soto never made it back home. He died of an illness. His successor, Luis de Moscoso de Alvarado set out to find an overland route back to Mexico.
57THE CORONADO EXPEDITION Set out in 1540 for SpainCrossed the Texas Panhandle and the Llano EstacadoWas looking for Cibola and Quivira – cities of goldLearned there was no gold; only Pueblo villagesSaw American buffalo
58RESULTS OF THE CORONADO AND DE SOTO EXPEDITIONS Met the Texas Indians but did not find goldCoronado – explored the American Southwest and encountered IndiansDeSoto – explored the American Southwest; encountered the Caddo Indians
59Expedition Goals Results Fray Marcos & Estevanico (1539) Coronado (1540)De Soto–Moscosofind seven lost cities of goldEstevanico—reached a Zuni village and was killed; Fray Marcos—saw village from afar and reported it was filled with gold and treasureconquer Cibola;gain its treasureconquered Zuni village; crossed Texas Panhandle in search of Quivira; did not find any gold or treasureconquer Cibola;gain its treasureexplored what is now the south-eastern United States and East Texas; sailed to Mexico; did not find any gold or treasure
60Francisco Vasquez de Coronado Coronado was commissioned to find the legendary Seven Cities of Cibola. They were believed to have GOLD.Coronado and his men became the first Europeans to see West Texas
62Date Explorer/ Event Purpose 3 G’s Accomplishments3 G’s1519PinedaMap the coast line of the Gulf of Mexico and establish a Spanish colonyEstablished a settlement near present day Mexican city of Tampico.GloryCortesExplore the continent and report on the rich and powerful civilization.Brought gold and silver to Spain from Mexico as well as defeating the Aztecs.Glory and Gold
63Spain establishes Missions 1528Cabeza de VacaHe was a survivor of the failed Navarez expedition who became an explorer.Became one of the first Europeans to explore the interior of Texas and he brought back stories of the 7 cities of GoldGlory and Gold1682Spain establishes MissionsMissions were established to spread Christianity.Corpus Christi de la Ysleta was the first successful Spanish mission in Texas (near El Paso).God
64Spain begins building missions To colonize Texas. 1690Spain begins building missionsTo colonize Texas.Establishment of the first mission in East Texas, Mission San Francisco de los Tejas.God1718Spain reclaims East TexasProvide a mid point for supply caravans traveling from central Mexico to East Texas.Establishment of Mission San Antonio de Valero and presidio San Antonio de Bexar (this would become the most important Spanish colony in Texas and later become the city of San Antonio.andGlory
65SPANISH EXPLORATION IN TEXAS Effects on SpainEffects on American Indiansestablished a claim to Texasgained knowledge about land and people of Texasgained new plants and animals from the Americasgained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the northlost equine military advantageconflict with Texas Indiansgained new plants and animals from Europe, such as horsesrise of a Plains Indian horse culturePlains Indians’ fighting and hunting abilities increased by horsesmany Texas Indian deaths from European diseasesconflict with the Spanish
67EFFECTS OF SPANISH EXPLORATION Established a claim to TexasGained knowledge about land and people of TexasGained new plants and animals from the AmericasObtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlement and American Indians/Europeans to the north
68SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION Established a claim to TexasGained knowledge about land and people of TexasThe Columbian ExchangeColumbian Exchange – term describing the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and other continents since the time of Columbus
69SPAIN PROFITS FROM ITS TEXAS EXPLORATION Obtained a buffer zone between Spanish settlements and American IndiansLearned about the Plains Indian horse culture
70THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE AND ITS EFFECT ON INDIANS Positive – led to a transfer of plants, animals between the Indians and SpanishNegative – led to the spread of diseases from Europe to the Americas
73The La Salle Expedition Set out in 1682 for FranceExplored the Mississippi River and Gulf of MexicoLa Salle get lost and ended up in TexasSet up a settlement in TexasName the area around the Mississippi River… Louisiana
74The French Explore Texas The international competition for land in the New World was intense.In 1682 La Salle claimed the Mississippi River and the surrounding land (dependent on the river) for France.He called it La Louisiane (Louisiana).They wanted to compete with Spain’s quest for riches and control trade.
75Fort St. LouisLa Salle established the first French colony in Texas on the Lavaca River.The colony had trouble from the beginning because they lost valuable supplies at sea.They were helped for a while by the Indians, but fighting soon broke out.
76Why did the Natives turn against LaSalle and his men? The Native Americans found the supplies that washed up on shore after La Belle sank.The French took the supplies back without asking for them or explaining what happened.
77Fort St. LouisLa Salle tried to find a way back to the Mississippi River, but was unsuccessful.Many of his men died.In 1687 La Salle tried to go home. He took 17 of the 20 survivors with him.On the ship, the men plotted against him and he was killed.Spanish explorers found the bodies of the remaining French colonists who had been killed by the Indians.
78FRENCH AND SPANISH CLAIMS ON NORTH AMERICA, 1682–1688
79Europe Eyes the Americas Columbus came to the New World looking for gold and a new trade route to Asia. Although he found neither, his four voyages inspired others to seek their fortunes in the Americas.The French Explore TexasSpain’s claims on Texas lands prompted France to establish a colony of its own. Although La Salle’s Texas colony did not survive, France’s presence renewed Spain’s interest in settling Texas.Spanish Explorers Come to TexasFollowing Columbus’s lead, Spain established colonies in the Caribbean and Mexico. Reports of riches drew the explorers north to Texas where they established a successful mission.
80Consequences for the Native Americans clipart/indian/indian.jpgNative Americans lived in Texas long before the Europeans explored there.The arrival of the Spanish and French explorers to Texas brought Native Americans severe consequences.Diseases such as smallpox killed thousands of Native Americans.