Presentation on theme: "Africa – North and West Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:
1Africa – North and WestChapter 15, Sections 1 & 2
2Section 1- North and Central African Societies 1. What are some characteristics of a hunting-gathering society?Small GroupsSomewhat nomadic – their food is not necessarily in the same place at all timesFew possessions, shelters tend to be temporary and limitedRely on hunting and gathering for survivalThey have some weapons – they are all designed to help the group survive.
3Section 1- North and Central African Societies 2. Why are written laws not necessary in these societies?Each band or family makes its own rulesArguments are settled through long discussionsGroup members can leave if they don’t like itSharing is the norm – especially when talking about possessions and food
4Section 1- North and Central African Societies 3. What are some characteristics of a stateless society?Society divided into lineages – group traces its collective ancestry to a common ancestorAuthority is balanced among the various lineages – families. No single group holds a majority of power.Operate through sharing of ideas and possessions, and cooperation is how they assume that society will operate.
5Section 1- North and Central African Societies 4. What are some advantages of an age-set system?Each member can help others to pass through the various stages of life – they can also help each other obtain the specific individual benchmarks of each stage.Teach discipline, community service, and leadership all together
6Section 1- North and Central African Societies 5. What are some characteristics of a Muslim theocracy?Islamic (Sharia) law is the basis of the legal codeEveryone, at least to some level, agrees that the basis of the Qu’ran is validReligious leaders function as governmental advisorsIslamic law regulates most areas of human lifeSee page 258
7Section 1- North and Central African Societies 6. How did Muslim law affect individual Islamic states?Maintained many of their individual national characteristicsMade the laws of the various countries compatible – thereby increasing travel and tradeHelped the region unify and become prosperous
8Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffect1. Berbers discovered that camels cover greater distances than other pack animals and could travel up to ten days without water.New trade routes cris-crossed the Sahara and other dry areas of Africa, spreading both trade and culture
9Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects2. The Muslim Almoravids disrupted the gold-salt trade that Ghana had controlled.Ghana ceased to be a major player in the gold-salt trade. The wealth that had been there disappeared, and Ghana lost its empire.
10Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects3. Ghana was a weak nation, allowing the people to seek wealth and power in new ways, in new places. These new miners found gold farther east, allowing the people of Mali to dominate the gold trade and assume power.The people of Mali, who lived in the region of the new trade routes, were able to seize power.
11Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects4. After a period of prosperity, a series of weak leaders destroyed its political leadership. New gold fields were discovered farther east, causing the trade routes to move again, bypassing Mali.The empire of Mali weakened.
12Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects5. The people of Morocco had better weapons: Gunpowder and cannons were used to destroy Songhai and capture its wealth.Moroccan troops quickly defeated the Songhai warriors.
13Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects6. The city-states of Kano and Katsina were located along the route that linked other West African states with the Mediterranean.These “Hausa” states briefly became powerful and wealthy. They became wealthy by supplying the needs of the trading caravans.
14Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects7. The largest Yoruba kingdoms produced surplus food, which was sent to the cities.The city-dwellers became traders and craftspeople. They specialized in bronze, wood, terracotta, brass, copper, and ivory.