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Africa – North and West Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Africa – North and West Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Africa – North and West Chapter 15, Sections 1 & 2

2 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 1. What are some characteristics of a hunting- gathering society? Small Groups Somewhat nomadic – their food is not necessarily in the same place at all times Few possessions, shelters tend to be temporary and limited Rely on hunting and gathering for survival They have some weapons – they are all designed to help the group survive.

3 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 2. Why are written laws not necessary in these societies? Each band or family makes its own rules Arguments are settled through long discussions Group members can leave if they dont like it Sharing is the norm – especially when talking about possessions and food

4 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 3. What are some characteristics of a stateless society? Society divided into lineages – group traces its collective ancestry to a common ancestor Authority is balanced among the various lineages – families. No single group holds a majority of power. Operate through sharing of ideas and possessions, and cooperation is how they assume that society will operate.

5 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 4. What are some advantages of an age-set system? Each member can help others to pass through the various stages of life – they can also help each other obtain the specific individual benchmarks of each stage. Teach discipline, community service, and leadership all together

6 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 5. What are some characteristics of a Muslim theocracy? Islamic (Sharia) law is the basis of the legal code Everyone, at least to some level, agrees that the basis of the Quran is valid Religious leaders function as governmental advisors Islamic law regulates most areas of human life See page 258

7 Section 1- North and Central African Societies 6. How did Muslim law affect individual Islamic states? Maintained many of their individual national characteristics Made the laws of the various countries compatible – thereby increasing travel and trade Helped the region unify and become prosperous

8 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffect 1. Berbers discovered that camels cover greater distances than other pack animals and could travel up to ten days without water. New trade routes cris-crossed the Sahara and other dry areas of Africa, spreading both trade and culture

9 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 2. The Muslim Almoravids disrupted the gold-salt trade that Ghana had controlled. Ghana ceased to be a major player in the gold-salt trade. The wealth that had been there disappeared, and Ghana lost its empire.

10 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 3. Ghana was a weak nation, allowing the people to seek wealth and power in new ways, in new places. These new miners found gold farther east, allowing the people of Mali to dominate the gold trade and assume power. The people of Mali, who lived in the region of the new trade routes, were able to seize power.

11 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 4. After a period of prosperity, a series of weak leaders destroyed its political leadership. New gold fields were discovered farther east, causing the trade routes to move again, bypassing Mali. The empire of Mali weakened.

12 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 5. The people of Morocco had better weapons: Gunpowder and cannons were used to destroy Songhai and capture its wealth. Moroccan troops quickly defeated the Songhai warriors.

13 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 6. The city-states of Kano and Katsina were located along the route that linked other West African states with the Mediterranean. These Hausa states briefly became powerful and wealthy. They became wealthy by supplying the needs of the trading caravans.

14 Section 2: West African Empires and Civilizations CausesEffects 7. The largest Yoruba kingdoms produced surplus food, which was sent to the cities. The city-dwellers became traders and craftspeople. They specialized in bronze, wood, terracotta, brass, copper, and ivory.


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