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Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May 2012 1 ARTISANAL MINING IN AFRICA: FINDING A WAY FORWARD PROPOSAL FOR A 3 YEAR PROJECT By Prof. Kim HEIN University.

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Presentation on theme: "Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May 2012 1 ARTISANAL MINING IN AFRICA: FINDING A WAY FORWARD PROPOSAL FOR A 3 YEAR PROJECT By Prof. Kim HEIN University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May ARTISANAL MINING IN AFRICA: FINDING A WAY FORWARD PROPOSAL FOR A 3 YEAR PROJECT By Prof. Kim HEIN University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg

2 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal mining An artisanal miner or small-scale miner is, in effect, a subsistence miner. They are not officially employed by a mining company, but rather work independently, mining or panning for gold using their own resources. Small-scale mining includes enterprises or individuals that employ workers for mining, but generally working with hand tools An estimated million men, women, and children from over 50 developing countries are directly engaged in the artisanal mining sector Globally, artisanal mining contributes up to 12% or 330 tonnes of annual gold production

3 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Over two and a half million men, women, and children in more than 25 African countries are artisanal and small-scale miners. ARTISANAL MINING IN AFRICA

4 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission An example: Artisanal production of gold in Niger, Year Production (kg) Value (in millions CFA) Data on artisanal mining of gold are mostly underestimated due to: - Authorized buyers of gold and owners of gold mining claims provide data on extracted gold on entirely voluntary basis, - Gold production is not systematically controlled by the state, - Significant proportion of gold is sold on black market.

5 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May Artisanal gold mining in African countries is regulated and subject to numerous laws and directives All African countries declare a state monopoly on purchase of gold In most of African countries it is forbidden by law to use in artisanal mining the following: -application of chemical agents, -extraction of gold from depths exceeding m, -driving of horizontal mine workings, -application of explosives, -extraction of gold during the rainy season. BUT: Relevant laws and regulations are mostly inconsistently implemented and systematic monitoring of compliance with the legislation is lacking

6 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May What problems are generated by artisanal mining?

7 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Efflorences of salts (hexahydrite, anhydrite) on the surface of contaminated stream sediments. Siltation of stream sediments after artisanal mining Impacts of artisanal mining on the environment include: - billions of tons of waste, - thousands of abandoned mine workings, - reduction of biodiversity, - contamination of soils and stream sediments, of surface and ground waters. Tagounga artisanal mining site, Niger

8 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Health hazards: The use of cyanide compounds Poura region, Burkina Faso Cyanide is bought by miners involved in small-scale gold mining and largely used for gold leaching (gold cyanidation)

9 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Health hazards: Use of mercury, gold amalgamation Toxic vapors of mercury are released during burning of the amalgam. About 80% of mercury are easily absorbed via respiratory tract causing mercury poisoning. High concentrations of mercury were detected in breast milk of women living in artisanal communities. Mercury in breast milk, artisanal communities,Tanzania and Zimbabwe, median level 1.87 μg/l, up to 149 μg/lUS EPA "Reference Dose" :0.3 μg Hg/kg body weight/day

10 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Mining: Mineral deposits rich in gold are developed by underground mining to depths reaching max. 90 m. Drift mining is also common. Many accidents and injuries are reported during mining operations Yanfolila gold district, Mali

11 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Mineral processing: Gold recovery during the ore treatment is mostly poor. Dry panning and sluicing show particularly poor recovery of gold Inata gold deposit, Burkina Faso Yanfolila gold prospect, Mali

12 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Social problems connected with artisanal mining: - high crime rate, - contagious diseases, - venereal diseases, - drug addiction,alcoholism, - low level of communal hygiene

13 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Poura region, Burkina Faso Another problem involves women and child labor particularly in placer gold mining Foulga Alga Orpaillage, Burkina Faso

14 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal mining often coincides with large-scale exploration and mining A significant issue in artisanal and small-scale arises when larger mining companies gain rights to develop deposits that are currently worked by artisanal minings. Relocation or resettlement of artisanal miners and their communities appears to be one of the major problems for mining companies to cope with.

15 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission AMIRA-WAXI PROJECT: ARTISANAL MINING IN AFRICA: FINDING A WAY FORWARD PROPOSAL FOR A 3 YEAR PROJECT by Prof. Kim HEIN University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg

16 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining in Africa: finding a way forward Research currently available World Bank reports (1995; 2005) IIED MMSD Report No 70 (2002) Amnesty International report (2006) UN, UNDP, UNESCA, UNIDO, UNSCouncil reports (1996; 2002; 2003; 2005). CASM (Communities and small-scale mining group, Africa) reports Researchers: Gyan-Balfour (1997), Hilson (2003), Banchirigah (2006), Hilson & Pardie (2006), Shen & Gunson (2006), Maconachie & Binns (2007), Yakovleva (2007) & others Numerous newspaper articles on artisanal mining in Sub-Sahara Africa IGCP/SIDA projects No. 594 and 606 Works of many, many more groups & individuals

17 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining i n Africa: finding a way forward Many studies are couched in social anthropology which is not useful for understanding mining practice, extraction technologies, metallurgy & ore dressing, small scale mine planning (if any), or for long term ASM sites, tenure, parcel allocation & organisation over time A large part of our knowledge about ASM practices is from oral tradition => QUALITATIVE & SUBJECTIVE. RESULT? Emotive response with little intervention in a way that suits the key stakeholders. We dont manage to get government & the ASM community on-board. What is lacking in existing research

18 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining i n Africa: finding a way forward AIM To build on existing work & new research to develop a practical framework to enhance exploration, development & beneficiation of Africas small scale mineral resources, whilst delivering EDUCATION, ENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL improvements. OUTPUT INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT TOOLS & POLICIES when dealing with ASM in Africa & providing all stakeholders with best practice guidelines on how to deal with the issues in an environment of mutual respect & trust.

19 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May 2012 Module 1Review of previous research & learnings from industry practices Module 2 Geosciences Relationship between geology & practice at ASM sites Mapping of ASM sites Environmental impact of an ASM site Module 3 Mining & Metallurgy Metallurgy & Ore Dressing processes ASM modelling (if it existing) In-migration mining Module 4 Social – Anthropology Social organization of artisanal mining sites Child labour Women & ASM History & Archaeology of ASM Module 5 Business Strategies Trading & markets Supply chains ASM management business models Module 6 Legal aspects Provide evidence-based information to permit governments to formulate policies to regulate ASM Understand the role of national governments, local government, civil societies & ASM communities

20 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining in Africa: finding a way forward forward West Africa Central Africa Southern Africa AFRICA MINING VISION AFRICA DEVELOPMENT BANK UN EU COMMISION FOR AFRICA Proposed study areas & key links

21 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining in Africa: finding a way forward Collaborators University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg under the Mining Institute School of Geology (SOG) School Mining Engineering (SOM) School of Chemistry & Metallurgy Centre for Sustainability in Mining (CSMI) Wits School of Business Universiteit Leiden (Cultural Anthropology/Development Sociology) Geological Surveys in Niger, Senegal & Mali Council of Geosciences in South Africa Community of Artisanal Miners (CASM) INDUSTRY SPONSORS ?

22 Annual Sponsors Meeting, Dakar 2-4 May © – Not for duplication or circulation without permission Artisanal Mining i n Africa: finding a way forward You are invited to join us


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