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Radiation. Radiation Scare Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima Aug. 6,1945 Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 Three Mile Island - 1979 Chernobyl - 1986.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiation. Radiation Scare Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima Aug. 6,1945 Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 Three Mile Island - 1979 Chernobyl - 1986."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiation

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6 Radiation Scare Atomic Bomb - Hiroshima Aug. 6,1945 Nagasaki Aug. 9, 1945 Three Mile Island Chernobyl

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16 Radiation - Positive Uses Medical Diagnosis Medical Treatment Food Irradiation Mail Irradiation Energy Defense Industrial

17 Nuclear Scientist Ernest Rutherford Wilhelm Roentgen Henri Becquerel Pierre & Marie Curie Niels Bohr Max Planck James Chadwick Otto Hahn

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22 Einsteins Formula E=MC 2

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25 Atomic Scientist

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28 Manhattan Project J. Robert Oppenheimer General Leslie R. Graves Edward Teller, Luis Alvarez, Eugene Wigner, Maurice Wilkins, etc, etc Los Alamos billion cost 125,000 people involved

29 Atomic Bomb August 2, Einsteins letter to FDR warning about Germanys effort to purify U- 235 Manhattan Project July 16, 1945 first bomb exploded - Gadget Los Alamos NM August 6, 1945 Hiroshima August 9, 1945 Nagasaki

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33 Hiroshima August 6, 1945 dropped from Enola Gay Little Boy 4&1/2 tons 10 kiloton 66,000 killed 69,000 injured Total vaporization one half mile Total destruction one mile Everything burned 2 1/2 miles

34 Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Plutonium bomb - Fat Man 10 kilotons 39,000 killed 25,000 injured Used only 1/10 of 1 percent of explosive capability

35 Atomic Bomb Effects Blast - speed of sound 12.5 miles/min Heat - fireball vaporizes, inverse square law Radiation - prompt, inverse square law Radiation - fallout

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37 Fallout Products Iodine-131 Strontium-90 Cesium-137 Over 200 radioactive products

38 Byproducts of A- Bomb Radioactive fallout for miles in rain Radiation poisoning Increased incidence of cancer - leukemia Genetics effects on future generations Massive disruption of communications, travel and machinery Electro - Magnetic pulse scrambles electronics in copper wires - 50 miles

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41 Blast Effects 20 Megatons Vaporization 8.75 Total Destruction 14 Severe Blast Damage 27 Severe Heat Damage 31 Severe Fire, Wind 35

42 Blast Effects 20 Megatons Vaporization 8.75 Total Destruction 14 Severe Blast Damage 27 Severe Heat Damage 31 Severe Fire, Wind 35

43 Dirty Bomb Uses conventional explosives Radioactive material inside Most likely radioactive material is Cesium-137 Half life 30years Creates more terror, havoc and panic rather than immediately kill

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45 Radiation Units R - Roentgen amount of ionization in air Rad - radiation absorbed dose Rem - radiation equivalent man Sievert (Sv) - international unit of radiation equivalency Gray (Gy) - unit for energy absorbed 1Gy = 1Sv = 100 rad = 100 rem

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47 Curie & Becquerel (Bq) 1 Bq is 1 disintegration/sec 1 curie = 37 Billion Bq 3.7X10x10 1 MBq = 27 microcuries 1 GBq = 27 millicuries 37 GBq = 1curies 1 TBq = 27 curies

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49 Background Radiation Sources Earth - food and water Space - cosmic rays Atmosphere - Radon gas from earths crust

50 Airport X-Ray Security Scanners Backscatter superficial scanning Dose microsevert Would need to go through the scanner 1000X times to equql a chest X-ray or 200,000 times to equal a CT scan Scan daily for your entire life wouldnt equal a CT scan

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53 Types of Radiation Alpha Particles Beta Particles Gamma & X-Rays

54 Exposure Pathways Inhalation Ingestion Direct (external) Exposure

55 Radiation Exposure Acute Effects Cancer Risk Genetic Risks Teratogenic Risks

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59 Radiation Dose - very serious 4 Sievert (Sv) or 400 rad total body exposure

60 Radiation Conversions 100 rem = 1 sv (sievert) 1 mrem =.01 msv

61 Acute Effects of Radiation

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63 Long Term Effects Radiation

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65 Typical Medical Doses Medical X-Ray mremmSV Chest Cervical Spine Pelvis27.27

66 Typical Medical Doses

67 Environmental Doses

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69 Yearly Dose Examples Living next to nuclear power plant: mvs Sleeping next to a human being 8hrs/night:.02mvs Radiation in granite in US Capitol:.85mvs NY to Tokyo flights for airline crew: 9msv/yr.

70 Yearly Dose Examples Background Radiation in US - 3 msv Average Radiation Dose for Americans 6.2 msv

71 Radiation Dose Reduction Time Distance Shielding

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77 Healthcare Facts 2.3 Trillion per year 8,000 dollars per person 13,000 per person by billion of the 2.3 Trillion is for Imaging, largest share of healthcare cost

78 Imaging Facts 64 Million CT scans/yr 20 Million CT scans probably unnecessary 24 Million MR scans 1.5 million PET scans, 60% increase 800 billion of 2.3 Trillion in Healthcare Cost

79 ED - Children CT Scans , Million

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83 Typical Medical Doses

84 Radiation Dose & Effects 10,000 mSv 1,000 mSv mSv 50 mSv Radiation Sickness & Death Radiation Sickness, Death Unlikely Increased risk of carcinogenesis Associated with increased cancer risk, MPD worker

85 Radiation Dose Chest X-Ray Chest CT Cardiac CT Renal Stone CT Abd, Pelvis, CT Body PET/CT.04 mSv 8 mSv mSv 10 mSv 20 mSv


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