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6/24/2004SEKE 20041 GOLD: A Grammar Oriented Parsing System Devin Cook and Du Zhang Department of Computer Science California State University Sacramento,

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Presentation on theme: "6/24/2004SEKE 20041 GOLD: A Grammar Oriented Parsing System Devin Cook and Du Zhang Department of Computer Science California State University Sacramento,"— Presentation transcript:

1 6/24/2004SEKE 20041 GOLD: A Grammar Oriented Parsing System Devin Cook and Du Zhang Department of Computer Science California State University Sacramento, CA 95819-6021

2 Introduction What is a Parser? –Software which breaks a source program into its various grammatical units w.r.t. a formal grammar –Used to convert a source program into an internal representation Parsing Algorithms –LL Parsers: top-down, predictive –LR / LALR Parsers: bottom-up, shift- reduce

3 Motivation The common approach to create parsers is through compiler-compiler, or parser generator Each parser generator is designed for a specific programming language. There is no consistent parser generator –Different grammatical notations –Features and interfaces of tools vary in both the look and the behavior

4 Goals Design and implement a generalized parsing system that supports development of multiple programming languages Offer a consistent development environment for the language developers

5 GOLD Grammar Oriented Language Developer. Separating the component that generates parse tables for a target grammar from the component that does the actual parsing. Support the full Unicode character set. Include a set of tools that can aid language development process.

6 System Structure Builder –Analyzes a target grammar and creates DFA and LALR parse tables –These tables are saved to a Compiled Grammar Table file Compiled Grammar Table file –Intermediary between the Builder and the Engine –The file format is platform independent –Format is designed to be very easy to read and extend in future versions Engine –Reads the tables & parses the source text –Can be implemented in different programming languages – as needed

7 Development Flow 1.Grammar is defined and loaded –Any text editor can be used 2.Builder –Grammar is analyzed and errors reported –The parse tables are created and saved to.cgt file 3.Engine –Reads the tables, parses the source string, and produces parsing results –Can be implemented in different programming languages – as needed

8 The Builder GOLD meta-language Compiled grammar table (.cgt) file Skeleton program creation for the Engine from program templates Interactive source string testing Display of various parse table information Export parse tables to a web page, XML file, or formatted text

9 GOLD Meta-Language The GOLD Meta-Language is used to define a target grammar It must not contain features that are programming language dependent Its notation is very close to the standards It supports all language attributes (including those which cannot be specified using BNF or regular expressions)

10 GOLD Meta-Language (contd.) Format –Parameters are used to specify attributes about the grammar –Character Sets are used to define the character domain for terminals –Terminals are defined using regular expressions –Rules are defined using Backus-Naur Form

11 Defining Parameters Used for Name, Author, Case Sensitive, Start Rule,.... Parameter names are delimited by double quotes Parameters –"Name", "Author", "Version", "About" are informative –"Start Symbol" specifies the initial / start rule in the grammar

12 Parameters "Name", "Version", "Author", "About" Informative fields. These have no effect on table generation. "Case Sensitive" If set to True, the system will construct case sensitive tokenizer tables. "Character Mapping" Some characters overlap ordinal values between ANSI and Unicode. If set the ANSI, the system will populate both. "Auto Whitespace" If not set to False, the system will automatically define a terminal to accept whitespace. "Start Symbol" The initial/start rule of the grammar. This parameter is required.

13 Example Parameters "Name" = 'My Programming Language' "Version" = '1.0 beta' "Author" = 'John Q. Public' "About" = 'This is a test declaration.' | 'Multiple lines are available' | 'by using the "pipe" symbol' "Case Sensitive" = 'False' "Start Symbol" =

14 Defining Sets Character sets are used to aid the construction of regular expressions used to define terminals Literal sets of characters are delimited using [ and ] Names of user-defined sets are delimited by { and } Sets can be defined by adding and subtracting previously declared sets

15 Example Sets {Bracket} = [']']] {Quote} = ['']' {Vowels} = [aeiou]aeiou {Vowels 2} = {Vowels} + [y]aeiouy {Set 1} = [abc]abc {Set 2} = {Set 1} + [12] - [c]ab12 {Set 3} = {Set 2} + {Digit}ab0123456789 {Hex Char} = {Digit} + [ABCDEF]0123456789ABCDEF

16 Pre-defined Character Sets There are many sets of characters which are not accessible via keyboard, or so commonly used that it would be repetitive and time-consuming to redefine in each grammar GOLD meta-language contains a collection of useful pre-defined sets These include sets often used for defining terminals as well as characters not accessible via keyboard

17 Individual Characters Some control characters that cannot be specified on a standard keyboard

18 Commonly used Character Sets {Digit} {Letter} {Alphanumeric} {Printable} {Whitespace} {Letter Extended} {Printable Extended} {ANSI Mapped} {ANSI Printable}

19 Unicode Character Sets GOLD meta-language contains 43 pre-defined Unicode character sets The names of those sets are based on standard names of the Unicode Consortium

20 Comments GOLD meta-language allows both line comments and block comments

21 Defining Terminals Terminals are used to define reserved words, symbols, and recognized patterns (identifiers) in a grammar Each terminal is defined using a regular expression which is used to construct the Deterministic Finite Automata used by the tokenizer Implicit declaration of frequently used reserved words and symbols

22 Example Terminals Example1 = a b c*ab, abc, abcc, abccc,... Example2 = a b? cabc, ac Example3 = a|b|ca, b, c Example4 = a[12]*bab, a1b, a2b, a12b, a21b,... Example5 = {Letter}+cat, dog, Sacramento,... ListFunction = c[ad]+rcar, cdr, caar, cadr,...

23 Defining Rules Use Backus-Naur Form Nonterminals are delimited by angle brackets Terminals are delimited by single quotes or not delimited at all

24 Example: Lists Lists are specified using recursive rules Identifier = {Letter}{Alphanumeric}* ::= ',' | ::= Identifier Recursion

25 Example: Optional Rules Optional rules are specified with a production containing no terminals This allows the developer to both specify a list containing 0 or more members ::= | ::= '' | Optional Rule zero or more

26 "Name" = 'LISP' "Author" = 'John McCarthy' "Version" = 'Minimal' "About" = 'LISP organizes ALL data around "lists".' "Start Symbol" = {Atom Char} = {Printable} - {Whitespace} - [()"\''] Atom = ( {Atom Char} | '\'{Printable} )+ ::= Atom | '(' ')' | '(' '.' ')' ::= | ::= '' | Example: LISP Grammar

27 "Name" = 'LISP' "Author" = 'John McCarthy' "Version" = 'Minimal' "About" = 'LISP organizes ALL data around "lists".' "Start Symbol" = "Start Symbol" = {Atom Char} = {Printable} - {Whitespace} - [()"\''] Atom = ( {Atom Char} | '\'{Printable} )+ ::= Atom | '(' ')' | '(' '.' ')' ::= | ::= '' | Example: LISP Grammar Parameters Initial Rule

28 "Name" = 'LISP' "Author" = 'John McCarthy' "Version" = 'Minimal' "About" = 'LISP organizes ALL data around "lists".' "Start Symbol" = {Atom Char} = {Printable} - {Whitespace} - [()"\''] Atom = ( {Atom Char} | '\'{Printable} )+ ::= Atom | '(' ')' | '(' '.' ')' ::= | ::= '' | Example: LISP Grammar Set Definition Set Literal

29 "Name" = 'LISP' "Author" = 'John McCarthy' "Version" = 'Minimal' "About" = 'LISP organizes ALL data around "lists".' "Start Symbol" = {Atom Char} = {Printable} - {Whitespace} - [()"\''] Atom = ( {Atom Char} | '\'{Printable} )+ ::= Atom | '(' ')' | '(' '.' ')' ::= | ::= '' | Example: LISP Grammar Terminal Definition

30 "Name" = 'LISP' "Author" = 'John McCarthy' "Version" = 'Minimal' "About" = 'LISP organizes ALL data around "lists".' "Start Symbol" = {Atom Char} = {Printable} - {Whitespace} - [()"\''] Atom = ( {Atom Char} | '\'{Printable} )+ ::= Atom ::= Atom | '(' ')' | '(' ')' | '(' '.' ')' | '(' '.' ')' ::= ::= | ::= '' ::= '' | Example: LISP Grammar Optional Rule Recursive Rule Rules

31 Compiled Grammar Table File A file format designed to store parse tables and other information generated by the Builder Design considerations –Easy to implement on different platforms –Flexibility for data structures to be added or expanded –Room for future growth (additional new types of data)

32 .cgt File Structure The file consists of a number of records Each record contains a number of entries

33 .cgt Record The header contains name and version info A record has the following format

34 Parameter Record Parameter record which only occurs once in the.cgt file. It contains information about the grammar as well as attributes that affect how the grammar functions. The record is preceded by a byte field contains the value 80, the ASCII code for the letter 'P'.

35 Table Size Record Table size record : that appears before any records containing information about symbols, sets, rules or state table information. The first field of the record contains a byte with the value 84 - the ASCII code for the letter 'T Each value contains the total number of objects for each of the listed tables

36 Other Types of Records Character set table member Symbol table member Initial states (for both DFA and LALR) Rule table member DFA state table member LALR state table member

37 An Example cgt File An example grammar "Name" = 'Example' "Version" = '1.0 "Author" = 'Devin Cook' "About" = 'N/A' "Start Symbol" = ::= | ::= if then end | Read Id | Write ::= Id '+' | Id '-' | Id

38 Table Content Symbol Table ======================================== Symbol Table ======================================== Index Name ----- ------------ 0 (EOF) 1 (Error) 2 (Whitespace) 3 '-' 4 '+' 5 end 6 Id 7 if 8 Read 9 then 10 Write 11 12 13

39 Table Content (2) Rules ======================================== Rules ======================================== Index Name ::= Definition ----- ------ --- ------------------------ 0 ::= 1 ::= 2 ::= if then end 3 ::= Read Id 4 ::= Write 5 ::= Id '+' 6 ::= Id '-' 7 ::= Id

40 Table Content (3) Character Set Table ======================================== Character Set Table ======================================== Index Characters ----- --------------------------------- 0 {HT}{LF}{VT}{FF}{CR}{Space}{NBSP} 1 + 2 - 3 Ee 4 Ii 5 Rr 6 Tt 7 Ww 8 Nn 9 Dd 10 Ff 11 Aa 12 Hh

41 Table Content (3) DFA states ======================================== DFA States ======================================== Index Description Character Set -------- ------------------- ------------- 0 Goto 1 0 Goto 2 1 Goto 3 2 Goto 4 3 Goto 7 4 Goto 10 5 Goto 14 6 Goto 18 7 1 Goto 1 0 Accept (Whitespace) …………

42 Table Content (4) LALR states ======================================== LALR States ======================================== Index Configuration/Action -------- ------------------------------------ 0 if Shift 1 Read Shift 9 Write Shift 11 Goto 13 Goto 17 1 ::= if · then end Id Shift 2 Goto 7 …………

43 cgt File for the grammar To illustrate, only one of each record type is included

44 The Remaining Builder Features Besides meta-language and.cgt file, –Skeleton program creation for the Engine from program templates –Interactive source string testing –Display of various parse table information –Export parse tables to a web page, XML file, or formatted text

45 Online Help Application Layout Status Message Grammar Editor Next Button Toolbar

46 Program Templates When developing the Engine which is interacting with tables of rules and symbols in the.cgt file, manually typing constant definitions can be tedious and problematic Program templates are designed to help automate the Engine development The Builder can use a program template to create a skeleton program for an implementation of the Engine

47 Program Templates (contd.) Skeleton program contains –Necessary declarations of constants and variables –Function calls –Case statements, pre-processor statements –Ready-to-use programs Notation designed to not conflict with known languages Program templates are saved in a subfolder

48 Display of Symbol Table Symbol table display

49 Display of Rule Table Rule table display

50 Display of Log Information Log info: general information about the number of symbols, which ones were defined implicitly, table counts, and any errors that occur

51 Display of DFA State Table DFA state table

52 Display of LALR State Table LALR state table

53 Export Parse Tables Parse tables can be exported to a web page, formatted text, or an XML file

54 Web Page Export An example of webpage export

55 A Short Demo A simple grammar ANSI C

56 The Engine Different implementations of the Engine Object-oriented approach Its design is centered around the object of GOLDParser, which performs all the parsing logic The remaining objects are used for storage or to support GOLDParser object Available in: Visual Basic.NET, ANSI C, C#, C++ (MFC), Delphi 5 & 6, Java, Python, Visual Basic 6

57 Testing and Development Extensive tests on the Builders algorithms to generate the LALR and DFA tables –Small grammars –Grammars for the real world programming languages (e.g., ANSI C, BASIC, COBOL, LISP, Smalltalk, SQL, Visual Basic.NET, HTML, XML) A Visual Basic 6 version of the Engine was developed as an integral part of the GOLD system and was tested

58 Comparison Yacc: for C or C++ on UNIX platform ANTLR: OO parser generator that works for C++, C#, and Java Bison: Yacc compatible Elkhound: parser generator that is based on generalied LR algorithm GENOA: framework for code analysis tools that has a parsing front end

59 Free Parsing Systems LanguageGOLDYACCANTLRGrammatica ANSI C C++ C# Delphi 5 & 6 Java Python Visual Basic 5 & 6 Visual Basic.NET All.NET Languages All ActiveX Languages

60 Benefits of GOLD It supports development of multiple programming languages and the full Unicode character set It has a set of development tools Its meta-language is easy to understand and its Builder GUI is easy to use

61 Contributors to Different Engines Manuel AstudilloC++ implementation Max BattcherRecompiled.NET Source to a DLL Matthew HawkinsJava implementation Justin HolmesANSI C implementation Ibrahim KhachabModified Delphi version Marcus KlimstraC# implementation Milosz A. KrajewskiPython implementation Alexandre RaiDelphi implementation Eylem UgurelC++ implementation Martin van der GeerDelphi implementation Robert van LoenhoutC# implementation Reggie WilbanksPorted the Engine to Visual Basic.NET

62 Website The URL for the GOLD website On average, approximately 3000 copies of the Builder application are downloaded per month Latest news: known bugs, workarounds, new releases Contributor section Online documentation

63 Future Work Port the Builder to UNIX and Linux Enhancement to the meta grammar

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