2MEMBERS: JUAREZ DELGADO JULIO CESAR LUIS SANABRIA DAFNE JACQUELINE PONCE GUERRERO MARIA ELENASEBASTIAN RIVERA DANIEL
3INTRODUCTIONThis work deals with the constant effect that greenhouse gases emissions have contributed to Global Warming and it helps to awareness about what our planet is happening.But we don’t pretend to stop it, cause that’s impossible. Global Warming have been a natural process since the past but in these last years humans activities have increased it.Since the Industrial Revolution began around 1750, human activities have contributed substantially to climate change by adding CO2 and other heat-trapping gases to the atmosphere. These greenhouse gas emissions have increased the greenhouse effect and caused Earth’s surface temperature to rise. The primary human activity affecting the amount and rate of climate change is greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels.And that’s why is important to minimize this effect as much as possible with this new renewable energy.It is up to us to save the planet where we are living.
4What is the global warming? Global Warming is the increase of Earth's average surface temperature due to effect of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels or from deforestation, which trap heat that would otherwise escape from Earth.This is a type of greenhouse effect.
5However, greenhouse gas emissions have increased especially since the Industrial Revolution began around The recent warming trend reflects its impacts.The rising temperatures present a huge threat to our ice-caps.
7What causes global warming? Carbon dioxide and other air pollution that is collecting in the atmosphere like a thickening blanket, trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up.Coal-burning power plants are the largest U.S. source of carbon dioxide pollution -- they produce 2.5 billion tons every year. Automobiles, the second largest source, create nearly 1.5 billion tons of CO2 annually.
9What Is The Greenhouse Effect? Energy from the sun drives the earth’s weather and climate, and heats the earth’s surface;In turn, the earth radiates energy back into space;Some atmospheric gases (water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases) trap some of the outgoing energy, retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse;These gases are therefore known as greenhouse gases;The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature on Earth as certain gases in the atmosphere trap energy.
11Some effects …Global warming is a complex phenomenon, and its full-scale impacts are hard to predict far in advance. But each year scientists learn more about how global warming is affecting the planet, and many agree that certain consequences are likely to occur if current trends continue.
12Among these:Melting glaciers, early snowmelt and severe droughts will cause more dramatic water shortages in the American West.
13Rising sea levels will lead to coastal flooding on the Eastern seaboard, in Florida, and in other areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico.
14Warmer sea surface temperatures will fuel more intense hurricanes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts.Forests, farms and cities will face troublesome new pests and more mosquito-borne diseases.Disruption of habitats such as coral reefs and alpine meadows could drive many plant and animal species to extinction.
18Effects of Global Warming Global warming is already underway with consequences that must be faced today as well as tomorrow. Evidence of changes to the Earth's physical, chemical and biological processes is now evident on every continent.Effects such as changes in temperatures and rainfall patterns that alter plant and animal behavior and have significant implications for humans.
19Effect of Global Warming We can divide the global warming effects in different categories. For instance, in this work will group the effects in five main categories:FreshwaterOceansEcosystemsTemperatureAnd finally, Effects on People
20Effects of Global Warming FRESHWATERExtreme Wet and Extreme DryA warmer climate spurs the evaporation of water from land and sea and allows the atmosphere to hold more moisture—thus setting the stage for more extreme precipitation.Northern Scandinavia and South and North Korea recorded precipitation increases of 3-15 percent per decade between 1979 and 2005.In the U.S. Northeast, the number of days with very heavy precipitation rose by 58 percent over the last 50 years.Yet even as rainfall occurs in heavier events, the periods between these extremes are likely to become longer, warmer, and drier. In conclusion: Wet places tend to get wetter (and dry places tend to get drier).
21Effects of Global Warming FRESHWATERExtreme Wet and Extreme DryIn dry areas, the Global warming is expressed in two ways:Increased drought in dry areas. Precipitation has declined in the tropics and subtropics since Southern Africa, the Sahel region of Africa, southern Asia, the Mediterranean, and the U.S. Southwest, for example, are getting drier.Expansion of dry areas. Scientists expect the amount of land affected by drought to grow by mid-century—and water resources in affected areas to decline as much as 30 percent.
22Effects of Global Warming OCEANSSea Ice and Sea LevelHigher temperature derives in shrinking land ice, such as mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets; it is releasing water into the oceans rising the sea level.Why is it important? How does it affect us?Well, around 40% of world’s population lives in coastal areas. So, higher level of the sea has an economical impact because reduces beaches and affect properties in this areas.But, more dangerous is the fact that rise of sea level affects our natural protections (example: barrier islands) against natural catastrophes such as storms, hurricanes, tsunamis, etc.All of this is too dangerous to people and coast infrastructure.
23Effects of Global Warming ECOSYSTEMSLakes and RiversGlobal Warming produce problems in the Freshwater supply drying lakes and rivers. This affects to animals and plants living there and derives in effects such as:Displacement of species (rise of water temperature makes that species like fishes moving to colder waters).Dead zones (higher temperatures affects the normal level of oxygen in the water).Reproduction (rising amounts of precipitation that falls as rain rather than snow, and more severe and frequent flooding affect the reproduction of aquatic species like salmon).
24Effects of Global Warming TEMPERATUREAirRising air temperatures bring heat waves, spread disease, shift plant and animal habitat and cause extreme weather events, from drought to blizzards.Over the last 50 years, the number of cold days and record low temperatures in various locations has declined, while the number of hot days and heat waves has risen most places worldwide.The best projections show that average global temperatures are likely to increase ° F ( ° C) by the end of the century depending on the amount of carbon emissions.
25Effects of Global Warming TEMPERATUREOceans and FreshwaterHow we know, warmer oceans put coastal communities at risk, increase infrastructure costs, endanger polar creatures and threaten coral reefs and fisheries. Perhaps most alarmingly, rising ocean temperatures accelerate the overall warming trend.Not only are ocean surface waters getting warmer, but so is water 1,500 feet below the surface. These increases in temperature lie well outside the bounds of natural variation.Scientists also know that freshwater temperatures are rising because warm-water species are moving into areas that were formerly too cold, while cool- and cold-water species are likewise on the move.
26Effects of Global Warming TEMPERATUREGroundAs permafrost (frozen ground) thaws, it releases heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere, which accelerates global warming. It also alters local ecosystems and destabilizes infrastructure, necessitating costly repairs.Permafrost is very sensitive to direct changes in air temperature and snow cover, making it especially vulnerable to global warming.And as permafrost thaws, it can release both carbon dioxide and methane from carbon often stored in soil for thousands of years.The thawing of permafrost in northern forests could completely alter local ecosystems. Existing thawing is already destabilizing the human infrastructure, which require frequent repair.
27Effects of Global Warming PEOPLEHealthAs our climate changes, the risk of injury, illness, and death from the resulting heat waves, wildfires, intense storms, and floods rises.Extreme heat can be a killer especially when combined with high relative humidity.Changing precipitation patterns and prolonged heat can create drought, which can cause forest and peat fires, putting residents and firefighters in danger.Another effect is the smog. Higher air temperatures increase smog, creating problems to people’s health.
28Effects of Global Warming PEOPLEFoodClimate-related threats to global food production include risks to grain, vegetable, and fruit crops, livestock, and fisheries.Global warming alters seasonal rainfall patterns delaying planting and harvesting and creating scarcity of some foods (affecting their prices, too).Higher temperatures decrease productivity of ground. In other hand, increase pests because insect and plant pests may survive or even reproduce more often each year if cold winters no longer keep them in check.
29Effects of Global Warming PEOPLEEconomic EffectsClimate change also has important economic effects on people. Scientists and economists are beginning to grapple with the serious economic and environmental consequences if we fail to reduce global carbon emissions quickly and deeply. The most expensive thing we can do is nothing.Damage to property and infrastructure. Sea-level rise, floods, droughts, wildfires, and extreme storms require extensive repair of essential infrastructure such as homes, roads, bridges, railroad tracks, airport runways, power lines, dams, levees, and seawalls. All of this requires money, many money.
30Effects of Global Warming PEOPLEEconomic EffectsLost productivity. Disruptions in daily life related to climate change can mean lost work and school days and harm trade, transportation, agriculture, fisheries, energy production, and tourism, creating difficulties to people to make daily economic activities.One effect too severous of climate change are the «climate refugees»—people who are forced to leave their homes because of drought, flooding, or other climate-related disasters.
31“CLEAN ENERGY”Most of our electricity comes from power stations that use fossil fuels like coal and oil.The power stations burn the fossil fuels to make our electricity and in that process a LOT of greenhouse gas is made, including carbon dioxide and methane. This is why they are called dirty sources of energy.
32It is the greenhouse gases that are causing the Earth's atmosphere to warm, which scientists tell us will cause the climate to change. It is understood that this will cause more extreme weather, the spread of diseases and threaten the habitat of all living things.Coal, oil and gas are non-renewable sources of energy because we can only use what is available and once they have been used up, that's it!
33We have already found ways to tap into the energy of the sun, wind, waves and water, amongst other things.These sources of energy produce only very small amounts of greenhouse gas once operating, if any at all - now that's clean!They are also renewable which means they can be used over and over again.
34There are many forms of renewable energy There are many forms of renewable energy . Most of these renewable energies depend in one way or another on sunlight. Wind and hydroelectric power are the direct result of differential heating of the Earth's surface which leads to air moving about (wind) and precipitation forming as the air is lifted. Solar energy is the direct conversion of sunlight using panels or collectors.Biomass energy is stored sunlight contained in plants. Other renewable energies that do not depend on sunlight are geothermal energy, which is a result of radioactive decay in the crust combined with the original heat of accreting the Earth, and tidal energy, which is a conversion of gravitational energy.
35ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY The main and primary reason for using clean energies is because we need to stop the greenhouse gas emitting. It affects the planet earth with the global warming that in this last 60 years have been increasing too fast.ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY
36USA is already using “Clean Energy” and these are the results: Arkansas’ Clean Energy Resource Potential, Energy Advantages, and Environmental Benefits
37Solutions and tips Archangel Ancient Tree Archive is providing a real global warming solution.By locating and propagating trees with ancient and “champion” genetics that have the best chance for survival, and by reintroducing these trees back into the environment.
38Boosting energy efficiency: The energy used to power, heat, and cool our homes, businesses, and industries is the single largest contributor to global warming. Energy efficiency technologies allow us to use less energy to get the same—or higher—level of production, service, and comfort.
39Greening transportation: improving efficiency (miles per gallon) in all modes of transport, switching to low-carbon fuels, and reducing vehicle miles traveled through smart growth and more efficient mass transportation systems.
40 Phasing out fossil fuel electricity: Dramatically reducing our use of fossil fuels—especially carbon-intensive coal—is essential to tackle climate change. Key action steps include: not building any new coal-burning power plants, initiating a phased shutdown of coal plants starting with the oldest and dirtiest, and capturing and storing carbon emissions from power plants .
41Managing forests and agriculture: Taken together, tropical deforestation and emissions from agriculture represent nearly 30 percent of the world's heat-trapping emissions. We can fight global warming by reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and by making our food production practices more sustainable.
42Developing and deploying new low-carbon and zero-carbon technologies Research into and development of the next generation of low-carbon technologies will be critical to deep mid-century reductions in global emissions. Current research on battery technology, new materials for solar cells, harnessing energy from novel sources like bacteria and algae, and other innovative areas could provide important breakthroughs.
44CONCLUSION:The world is temporarily affected by hot and cold climate periods. The industrial revolution which started in 1875 changed weather conditions. The world has a tendency to warm up.The industrialization and the increasing population density are forcing governments to consume more fossil fuels and are affecting the artificial greenhouse gases' fluctuation.Even if the usage of fossil fuels could be prohibited, greenhouse gases extant in the atmosphere are going to remain for hundred years.The emission of greenhouse gases can't be stopped, but some precautions must be taken.