2 What is Human Trafficking? Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery such as child labor / servitude, serfdom, debt bondage, forced labor, forced marriages and sale of wives.
3 Dimensions of Human Trafficking Human trafficking - third most profitable illicit trade, after that of arms and drugsGenerates about US$ 217 billion in revenue, annually, - linked to other organized crimes - human smuggling, drug trafficking, and money launderingILO - there are 2.45 million trafficking victims currently under exploitative conditions - estimated that another 1.2 million persons are trafficked annually
5 “Push-Pull” factors Large supply of potential victims: Economic difficulties, lack of employment opportunities, poverty, illiteracy, lack of awarenessGrowing demand for women and children for sex trafficking / forced/ exploitative labourOrganized criminal networks exploit supply and demand situation:Trafficking in persons is regarded as a high profit – low risk crime
6 Purpose of Women & Child Trafficking – The various forms it takes Sexual Exploitation¤ Forced prostitution¤ Sex tourism¤ PornographyIllegal Activities¤ Begging¤ Organ trade¤ Drug peddling and smugglingLabour¤ Bonded labour¤ Domestic work¤ Agricultural labour¤ Construction work¤ Carpet industry, garment industryEntertainment, Sports, Adoption, Marriage
7 Who might be the traffickers? They may be in the form of syndicates, family/friends/community networkFamily - ¤ Parents ¤ Relatives ¤ HusbandCommunity - ¤ Friends, ¤ School teachers ¤ Local politicians, ¤ Villagers and village headmen, ¤ Unemployed adults who become agents in flesh trade as they find it a lucrative business ¤ Temple priests in case of prostitution with religious sanctionOrganised Crime Syndicates - ¤ Employment agents ¤ Local criminal nexus ¤ Corrupt officials, including local police, border police, officials on duty at the airport, passport officials etc.¤ Traffickers operating as social workers ¤ Government and non-governmental institutions such as children’s homes, crèches etc. ¤ Pimps ¤ Women who are already in the flesh trade ¤ Brothel owners ¤ Customers/clients of prostitutes ¤ Tourists and travel agencies ¤ Labour contractors
8 Legal instruments – International The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 1979Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 – Palermo ConventionProtocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, 2002Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, 2002The ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182)Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, 2002
9 Legal instruments – Regional SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating the Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, 2002SAARC Convention on Regional Arrangements for the Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia, 2002
10 Legal instruments – India The Constitution of India, 1950Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956 (SITA)The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929The Prohibition of Child Marriage act, 2006The Criminal Law Amendment Ordinance, 1944The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976The Child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986The Indian Evidence Act, 1872The Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994The Information Technology Act, 2000The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000Andhra Pradesh Devadasi (Prohibiting Dedication) Act, 1989Goa’s Children’s Act, 2003The Indian Penal Code, 1860
11 Institutional Mechanisms – National level The National Commission for Women (NCW)The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC)The National Commission for Protection of child rightsThe Central Advisory Committee (CAC) for preventing and combating trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitationThe sate government also have such institutional mechanisms at state level
12 Policies and Protocols Integrated plan of action to prevent and combat human trafficking with special focus on child and womenThe National plan of action for children 2005National policy for empowerment of women 2001Protocol for pre-rescue, rescue and post rescue operations of child victims of traffickingProtocol on prevention, rescue, repatriation and rehabilitation of trafficked and migrant child labourProtocol on inter state rescue and post rescue activities relating to trafficked persons
13 Govt. of India initatives Launched schemes like ‘Ujjawala’, Swadhar/short stay homes, child line services, Integrated child protection scheme, National child labour project scheme and economic empowerment schemes like SGSY, MNREGA, SGRY etc..Training and capacity building for stakeholders and gatekeepersAnti trafficking Nodal cellAnti human trafficking Units (AHTUs)
14 Major Gaps / Challenges Government Interventions:Severely flawed Legal FrameworkState Governments not Utilizing ITPAPoorly resourced Protection HomesPlethora of Laws leading to confusion between judiciaries & law enforcementFragmentation of Efforts due to vested interests across several departmentsCourts overloaded with criminal cases / Lack of special courtsInsufficient Penalties / Punishments for traffickersMajority of Govt. initiatives focus on Prevention & ProtectionLack of assessment of trafficking cases resulting into punishment of victimsLack of compensation packages
15 Major Gaps / Challenges Non-Government Interventions:Lack of coordination amongst NGOs & HT NetworksInsufficient documentation for actual status of Human TraffickingLack of fundingFewer trained Experts on the subjectCoordination with GovernmentProsecution last priority for NGOs as well as Donors
16 How do we address human trafficking? Women and Child friendly border management – Life Guard Center in coordination with SSB/ Facilitating safe and informed migrationStrengthening the law enforcement response against trafficking through training and capacity BuildingRegional Anti human trafficking Network (CBATN)- to facilitate rescue, repatriation and reintegration and follow support for trafficked survivorsSensitization and capacity building of media, judiciary, parliamentarians, and interfaith groupsRecruitment Agencies network to safe guard rights of migrantsLivelihood development programs for at risk groups
17 Major Activities Monitoring mechanisms at un manned routes to (a) encourage and strengthen public action & participation (b) monitor the violence situation and take civil actions, (c) rescue deceived/forced migrantsCommunity based intervention for high risk groupsYouth development network in villages for safeguarding the rights of children.Generating self employment among women through Agri-based enterprises, microfinance etc.Improving access to Govt. schemes & programsBuilding community based monitoring mechanisms, especially related to women and children
18 Major ActivitiesRights based booth - To facilitate safe and informed mobility and combat human traffickingCounseling of migrants on human trafficking, migrant rights, safe migration channels.Promoting safe remittance (Indo-Nepal remittance scheme)Providing information about the destination areas, service providers and entitlementsSupport for those who are trafficked under the shadow of migration.Repatriation of identified apparent victims in coordination with Nepal administration and Indian administrationFacilitating right based repatriation of apparent victims.
19 Major Activities Media coalition Cross border governance To visualize migrant rights violation and advocate for migrant friendly policiesCross border governanceBuilding positive partnerships to augment and reinforce the ongoing efforts of different stakeholdersJoint initiative by MSS/CBATN – SSB in migration managementPartnership with Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) in Indian side of the border to facilitate migrant and victim friendly border management
20 Major ActivitiesSSB is supporting MSS at 4 Border Out-Posts of Sonauli, Thoothibari, Aligadawa, and Badhni with counseling of cross border Migrants and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Repatriation of apparent victims of human trafficking.SSB is distributing IEC materials developed by MSS to cross border migrants through its 12 border check posts.
21 Outreach volunteers engaging with vulnerable migrants Right Based Booth: NGO/Police modelOutreach volunteers engaging with vulnerable migrants28 cases registered under IPC, CLPA 1986 & ITPA 1956 against traffickers
22 Major Activities Regional parliamentarian/legislatives forum to integrate voice of migrants/victims in their agendaCoalition of Recruitment AgenciesFor prevention of Illegal MigrationStrengthening civil society organizationsto address unsafe migration and human trafficking
23 The question is no longer: What can be done about human trafficking but rather how we can do more and do it better. There is no time to lose or waste”THANK YOUFor more information log on toor write to us at