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Women & Child Trafficking

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Presentation on theme: "Women & Child Trafficking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Women & Child Trafficking

2 What is Human Trafficking?
Human trafficking is the illegal trade in human beings for the purposes of reproductive slavery, commercial sexual exploitation, forced labor, or a modern-day form of slavery such as child labor / servitude, serfdom, debt bondage, forced labor, forced marriages and sale of wives.

3 Dimensions of Human Trafficking
Human trafficking - third most profitable illicit trade, after that of arms and drugs Generates about US$ 217 billion in revenue, annually, - linked to other organized crimes - human smuggling, drug trafficking, and money laundering ILO - there are 2.45 million trafficking victims currently under exploitative conditions - estimated that another 1.2 million persons are trafficked annually

4 Trafficking network web…

5 “Push-Pull” factors Large supply of potential victims:
Economic difficulties, lack of employment opportunities, poverty, illiteracy, lack of awareness Growing demand for women and children for sex trafficking / forced/ exploitative labour Organized criminal networks exploit supply and demand situation: Trafficking in persons is regarded as a high profit – low risk crime

6 Purpose of Women & Child Trafficking – The various forms it takes
Sexual Exploitation ¤ Forced prostitution ¤ Sex tourism ¤ Pornography Illegal Activities ¤ Begging ¤ Organ trade ¤ Drug peddling and smuggling Labour ¤ Bonded labour ¤ Domestic work ¤ Agricultural labour ¤ Construction work ¤ Carpet industry, garment industry Entertainment, Sports, Adoption, Marriage

7 Who might be the traffickers?
They may be in the form of syndicates, family/friends/community network Family - ¤ Parents ¤ Relatives ¤ Husband Community - ¤ Friends, ¤ School teachers ¤ Local politicians, ¤ Villagers and village headmen, ¤ Unemployed adults who become agents in flesh trade as they find it a lucrative business ¤ Temple priests in case of prostitution with religious sanction Organised Crime Syndicates - ¤ Employment agents ¤ Local criminal nexus ¤ Corrupt officials, including local police, border police, officials on duty at the airport, passport officials etc.¤ Traffickers operating as social workers ¤ Government and non-governmental institutions such as children’s homes, crèches etc. ¤ Pimps ¤ Women who are already in the flesh trade ¤ Brothel owners ¤ Customers/clients of prostitutes ¤ Tourists and travel agencies ¤ Labour contractors

8 Legal instruments – International
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 1979 Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990 United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime, 2000 – Palermo Convention Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children, 2002 Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, 2002 The ILO Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour, 1999 (No. 182) Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography, 2002

9 Legal instruments – Regional
SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating the Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution, 2002 SAARC Convention on Regional Arrangements for the Promotion of Child Welfare in South Asia, 2002

10 Legal instruments – India
The Constitution of India, 1950 Suppression of Immoral Traffic in Women and Girls Act, 1956 (SITA) The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 The Probation of Offenders Act, 1958 The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 The Prohibition of Child Marriage act, 2006 The Criminal Law Amendment Ordinance, 1944 The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act, 1956 The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 The Child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 The Indian Evidence Act, 1872 The Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994 The Information Technology Act, 2000 The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2000 Andhra Pradesh Devadasi (Prohibiting Dedication) Act, 1989 Goa’s Children’s Act, 2003 The Indian Penal Code, 1860

11 Institutional Mechanisms – National level
The National Commission for Women (NCW) The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) The National Commission for Protection of child rights The Central Advisory Committee (CAC) for preventing and combating trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation The sate government also have such institutional mechanisms at state level

12 Policies and Protocols
Integrated plan of action to prevent and combat human trafficking with special focus on child and women The National plan of action for children 2005 National policy for empowerment of women 2001 Protocol for pre-rescue, rescue and post rescue operations of child victims of trafficking Protocol on prevention, rescue, repatriation and rehabilitation of trafficked and migrant child labour Protocol on inter state rescue and post rescue activities relating to trafficked persons

13 Govt. of India initatives
Launched schemes like ‘Ujjawala’, Swadhar/short stay homes, child line services, Integrated child protection scheme, National child labour project scheme and economic empowerment schemes like SGSY, MNREGA, SGRY etc.. Training and capacity building for stakeholders and gatekeepers Anti trafficking Nodal cell Anti human trafficking Units (AHTUs)

14 Major Gaps / Challenges
Government Interventions: Severely flawed Legal Framework State Governments not Utilizing ITPA Poorly resourced Protection Homes Plethora of Laws leading to confusion between judiciaries & law enforcement Fragmentation of Efforts due to vested interests across several departments Courts overloaded with criminal cases / Lack of special courts Insufficient Penalties / Punishments for traffickers Majority of Govt. initiatives focus on Prevention & Protection Lack of assessment of trafficking cases resulting into punishment of victims Lack of compensation packages

15 Major Gaps / Challenges
Non-Government Interventions: Lack of coordination amongst NGOs & HT Networks Insufficient documentation for actual status of Human Trafficking Lack of funding Fewer trained Experts on the subject Coordination with Government Prosecution last priority for NGOs as well as Donors

16 How do we address human trafficking?
Women and Child friendly border management – Life Guard Center in coordination with SSB/ Facilitating safe and informed migration Strengthening the law enforcement response against trafficking through training and capacity Building Regional Anti human trafficking Network (CBATN)- to facilitate rescue, repatriation and reintegration and follow support for trafficked survivors Sensitization and capacity building of media, judiciary, parliamentarians, and interfaith groups Recruitment Agencies network to safe guard rights of migrants Livelihood development programs for at risk groups

17 Major Activities Monitoring mechanisms at un manned routes
to (a) encourage and strengthen public action & participation (b) monitor the violence situation and take civil actions, (c) rescue deceived/forced migrants Community based intervention for high risk groups Youth development network in villages for safeguarding the rights of children. Generating self employment among women through Agri-based enterprises, microfinance etc. Improving access to Govt. schemes & programs Building community based monitoring mechanisms, especially related to women and children

18 Major Activities Rights based booth - To facilitate safe and informed mobility and combat human trafficking Counseling of migrants on human trafficking, migrant rights, safe migration channels. Promoting safe remittance (Indo-Nepal remittance scheme) Providing information about the destination areas, service providers and entitlements Support for those who are trafficked under the shadow of migration. Repatriation of identified apparent victims in coordination with Nepal administration and Indian administration Facilitating right based repatriation of apparent victims.

19 Major Activities Media coalition Cross border governance
To visualize migrant rights violation and advocate for migrant friendly policies Cross border governance Building positive partnerships to augment and reinforce the ongoing efforts of different stakeholders Joint initiative by MSS/CBATN – SSB in migration management Partnership with Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB) in Indian side of the border to facilitate migrant and victim friendly border management

20 Major Activities SSB is supporting MSS at 4 Border Out-Posts of Sonauli, Thoothibari, Aligadawa, and Badhni with counseling of cross border Migrants and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Repatriation of apparent victims of human trafficking. SSB is distributing IEC materials developed by MSS to cross border migrants through its 12 border check posts.

21 Outreach volunteers engaging with vulnerable migrants
Right Based Booth: NGO/Police model Outreach volunteers engaging with vulnerable migrants 28 cases registered under IPC, CLPA 1986 & ITPA 1956 against traffickers

22 Major Activities Regional parliamentarian/legislatives forum
to integrate voice of migrants/victims in their agenda Coalition of Recruitment Agencies For prevention of Illegal Migration Strengthening civil society organizations to address unsafe migration and human trafficking

23 The question is no longer: What can be done about human trafficking but rather how we can do more and do it better. There is no time to lose or waste” THANK YOU For more information log on to or write to us at

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