2 AimTo develop the skills to use the aviation charts and publications we need to prepare our flight plan and to navigate in flight.
3 ObjectivesBe able to identify the different types of chart projections and state their properties and use in aerial navigationBe able to identify different scales and their use in different types of chartsIdentify specific aviation charts and how they are used in flight and be able to identify geographical, man made features, airspace and other information on chartsBe able to extract from ERSA and other aviation publications information required for flight planning and in flight
4 1. Chart ProjectionsThe problem we have in describing the Earth on a Chart is in converting a curved section of the Earth onto a flat piece of paper.Various “Projections” are used to overcome this problem and to suit specific chart applications.All Projections are a compromise and have their own limitations including how they depict shapes, sizes and distances.For use in aviation we ideally need charts with the following features;Correct angular representation between surface features such that parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude intersect at right anglesSurface features are displayed with true shapeConstant scale across the chartRhumb Lines should be represented on a chart as a straight lineGreat Circles should be represented as a straight line however this will not be possible where a Rhumb line is represented as a straight line
5 1. Chart Projections Lambert Conformal Conic Projections The World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) and the Visual Navigation Chart (VNC) are Lambert Conformal Conic Projections.
6 1. Chart Projections Properties of Lambert Charts Conformal - Angles and bearings between features are correct. Actual shapes of surface features are correctly displayed.Latitude – Longitude Grid - Parallels of Latitude and Meridians of Longitude all intersect at 90 degrees.Great Circles - Great Circles on a Lambert Chart are straight lines.Rhumb Lines - On Lambert Charts Rhumb Lines are curved, concave to the nearest Pole.Scale – Adjustments are made to made to the latitude scale to limit distortion of latitudes.Distance – For all practical purposes we can assume a constant scale for distance.East/West Charts - can be joined perfectly because they come from the same cone.North/South Charts - can never be joined perfectly because they come from different cones.
7 1. Chart Projections Projections Transverse Mercator ProjectionSince the central meridian of the Transverse Mercator can be chosen at will, it may be used to construct highly accurate maps (of narrow width) anywhere on the globe.The Visual Terminal Chart (VTC) is a Transverse Mercator Projection.
8 1. Chart Projections Properties of Transverse Mercator Charts The VTC is designed to provide detailed information on the features and airspace surrounding major airports.A Transverse Mercator Projection is accurate over a small area such as the area represented by a VTC.Longitude - Meridians of Longitude can be considered to be straight and parallel.Great Circles - Great Circles on a Transverse Mercator Chart are a curved line, convex to the nearest Pole.Rhumb Lines - A straight line must cut each meridian at the same angle and represents a Rhumb Line.Scale – For all practical purposes we can assume a constant scale for distance.
9 2. Identify Aviation Charts Chart ScaleA Chart is a representation of the Earth’s surface and to ensure an accurate as possible representation a constant scale is used across the chart.The “larger” the scale the more detail can be shown on a Chart.Scale = Chart Length/Earth DistanceIt follows that we should in preparing for a flight and in flight use the largest scale Chart available.VTC = 1:250,000, VNC = 1:500,000, WAC = 1:1,000,000Graduated Scale LineEvery Chart has a Scale Line so you can calculate the actual distance represented by a line drawn between 2 points on the Chart.
10 2. Identify Aviation Charts Visual Terminal Chart (VTC)Largest scale chart, 1:250,000 Shows the greatest detail and used whenever possibleOnly produced for areas with high volumes of trafficFeatures include:Visual reporting pointsVFR routesDanger/Restricted areasTerminal informationAerodromesControlled airspaceSpot heightsVisual navigation aidsinset for major GA airfields
11 2. Identify Aviation Charts Visual Navigation Chart (VNC)1:500,000 scaleUsed for planning and in flightShows less detail then a VTC but covers the east coast and other major centres
12 2. Identify Aviation Charts World Aeronautical Chart (WAC)1:1,000,000 scaleUsed on navigation exercises in areas not covered by the VNCA lot less information than the VTC or VNC. Uses contours and hypsometric tints to show terrain shape and height
13 2. Identify Aviation Charts Low Altitude En Route Chart (ERC L)The ERC (L) are drawn to various scales to accommodate significant air traffic route areas and show controlled airspace, prohibited, restricted and danger areas, air routes, ATS and radio navigation services.Primarily used for IFR flights.Used by VFR pilots when navigating through areas not covered by a VTC or VNC.You will need a ERC when you undertake a solo flight to Mildura as a part of your navigation training
14 2. Identify Aviation Charts Planning Chart Australia (PCA)1: scaleCovers the entire countryUsed primarily during the pre-flight planning stages to track weather systemsThe back of the PCA also has a list of aerodromes, sorted alphabetically by name showing the four letter ICAO identifier of the location and the ARFOR area in which the aerodrome is located
15 3. Chart Features Chart Legends Each Chart has a legend explaining what the symbols on the Chart represent.You need to be familiar with the legend to be able to quickly identify in flight key geographical features.Charts (other than WAC) also provide you with radio frequencies, navigation aids and airspace boundaries.You must carry Charts in flight for the area you expect to navigate through and they must be current.
16 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) Aeronautical Information Package (AIP)Airservices Australia are the government body responsible for Air Traffic Control services and the provision of government air law publications.The following Airservices Australia Aeronautical Information Service (AIS) publications are available either online or in hard copy format:Aeronautical Information Package (AIP) BookAIP Supplements and Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)Departure and Approach Procedures (DAP)Designated Airspace Handbook (DAH)En Route Supplement Australia (ERSA)For visual flight you will need a current copy of the AIP and the ERSA.to order hard copies including an amendment subscription. You can view and print the information from their web site.
17 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) Jeppesen Airway ManualJeppesen a company owned by Boeing provides the same information as contained in the AIP.Some pilots prefer the “Jepps” and you may also findthe company you work for has standardised on Jeppsfor its operations.CASA permits students to use the Jeppesen AirwayManual in lieu of the AIP in exams.Note you can either use the AIP or the Jepps in CASA exams but you cannot use parts of each in the exams.See the CASA web site for details on what you can and cannot take into each exam.
18 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) En Route Supplement Australia (ERSA)The ERSA brings together information you need to both plan and a flight and to navigate successfully to your destination and land.On your navigation flights you must carry a current ERSA.For the visual pilot ERSA includes information on;Airport details including ATC services, runway map anddescription, fuel availability, owner contact detailsSpecial Procedures including Fly Neighbourly AdviceProhibited, Restricted, Danger Area details (PRD)In Flight Information ServicesWeather Information ServicesICAO Airport and Waypoint codesEmergency Procedures and Survival Guide if you are forced to landInformation on conversions and cross wind calculations
19 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) ERSA FACERSA FAC section includes the following information on both Registered and Certified Airports as well as Non Registered and Non Certified AirportsNameElevationAirfield and runway diagramRunway distance and surfaceOwner details, handling services & facilitiesLighting availability and typeATC communication facilitiesCTAF informationLocal traffic regulations and informationApplicable navigation chartsWhat activities happen at Waikerie airfield that you should be aware of?What is the CTAF frequency for Aldinga airfield?
20 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) ERSA Prohibited, Restricted and Danger AreasInformation relating to Prohibited, Restricted and Danger (PRD) areas can be found in the ERSA PRD section. It states the PRD areas identification, status, hours of operation, controlling authority and type of operations conducted.Restricted Area (RA) status indicates the likelihood of obtaining a clearance through the area.RA 1: Pilots may plan through the area and can expect a clearance from ATCRA 2: Pilots must not plan through the area unless on a route specified in the ERSA GEN FPR or under an agreement from the Department of Defence, ATC clearance is not assuredRA 3: Pilots must not plan through the area and clearance will not be availableWhat is the status of R255? What is the status of R292A?Explain the reason for establishing D285? When is it active?
21 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) ERSA ConversionsERSA GEN CON contains various conversion charts and tables including:Fuel Weight TableUS to Imperial to Metric ConversionsDistance ConversionsWind Component TablesHow many metres in 3,450 feet?How many US gallons in 100 litres of fuel?Wind is 320 at 20 knots, runway in use is 26, what is the X Wind Component?Does this exceed the Maximum Demonstrated X Wind Component for the C172?
22 4. Aviation Publications (AIP) ERSA Emergency informationERSA EMERG contains a wide range of information on a number of procedures and strategies you can use to survive an emergency including:MAYDAY and PAN PAN Use and CallsCommunication Failure ProceduresLight SignalsEmergency Change of Level in Controlled AirspaceActivation of ELT and Search ProceduresFirst Aid and Surviving After a Forced LandingInterception of Aircraft ProceduresFind the recommended MAYDAY and PAN PAN phraseologiesFind the procedure to be followed if you suffer a radio failure in Class D airspaceFind the Light Signals to be used in the event of a radio failure
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