Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 2 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Philosophy & Reference Documentation This Training has been developed in an attempt to increase the skill level of the Falcon 4 pilot. All the subject matter has been laid out to create a natural progression of skill sets from basic to advanced topics. Theory is taught and then put into practice during a training flight. Read the Training Philosophy page on the website for more info. The training is a continuation of what you learned during previous Basic Flight Lessons. The FreeBirds SOP are practiced every time we fly so that we can reduce any ambiguity during the transition from the windows desktop to sitting in the cockpit. You are expected to memorize the SOPs and use them. Refer to the the Multi-Player SOPs page on the website for the latest SOPs. Our training is designed to be a compliment to all of the documentation that has been established to date. The goal is to fill in the blanks and elaborate on subjects where needed. This means you will need be familiar with the contents of each reference document to complete the training course. It is expected that before or during the basic course you will have read through the documents listed below. Focus on the Falcon 4.0 manual and the SP3 Manual. Information References The Latest SP Manuals The BMS DASH 34 Manuals The RP 5 Manual (Located on our website under tactical Reference) The Mid Life Update Documents (Located on our website under tactical Reference) The Navigation Chart Tutorial (Web-Site )Web-Site The FreeBirds VFW Website (http://www.freebirdswing.org/)http://www.freebirdswing.org/ The rest of the World Wide Web, forums, and message boards Basically, read as much as you can get your hands on!
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 3 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Learning Objectives Instrument Flying Navigation via the HIS Instrument Landing System Command Steering Standard Instrument Departures (SID) Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) This course material has been written so that it can be utilized in Open Falcon by the Basic Flight School pilot. It is not a complete and in depth study into instrument flight and approach to landing and many topics and terms have been simplified and or changed for our purposes.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 4 http://freebirds.org November 2007Definitions SID - Standard Instrument Departure Procedure: A planned air traffic control departure procedure (usually IFR) used to govern the conduct of the flight from take-off to a pre-determined particular point in the climb at which separation of traffic can be guaranteed by other means. SIDs are printed for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form. It is absolutely mandatory that these procedures must be adhered to immediately after takeoff. The horizontal and vertical components, turns, speed, and altitude restrictions of a SID must be followed usually because of hazards of surrounding terrain or noise abatement restrictions. SIDs are a type of DP. DP - Departure Procedure: Air Traffic Control (ATC)-coded departure procedures that have been established at certain airports to simplify clearance delivery procedures. STAR - Standard Terminal Arrival Route: A planned air traffic control arrival procedure (usually IFR) used to govern control transition from the en route air traffic structure to an outer fix or an instrument approach fix in the terminal area. STARs are printed for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form. A STAR are one type of IAP. IAP - Instrument Approach Procedure: Designed to provide a safe IFR descent from the enroute environment to a point where a safe landing can be made. Approach - The transition from standard flight in preparation to land. Airport Diagrams - Specifically designed to assist in the movement of ground traffic at locations with complex runway/taxiway configurations and provide information for updating geodetic position navigational systems aboard aircraft. DME - Distance Measuring Equipment: This system allows us to use radio signals to determine distance from the transmitting station. FIX - A Fix is a point in space reference some navaid. FAF - Final Approach Fix: The point where we begin our transition down to the airfield, the Tower gives us further clearance to land here, also where we can descend to the MDA.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 5 http://freebirds.org November 2007Definitions MDA - Minimum Descent Altitude: The altitude restriction placed after the FAF that you can not descend below UNTIL you have visual of the runway environment. IFR - Instrument Flight Rules: A set of rules governing the conduct of flight under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). VFR - Visual Flight Rules: The rules that govern the procedures for conducting flight under visual conditions. The abbreviation "VFR" is also used to indicate weather conditions that are equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements. In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to indicate a type of flight plan (FP). IAF - Initial Approach Fix: The fix of an instrument approach procedure (IAP) at which the aircraft leaves the en route phase of operations to commence the approach. Missed Approach – A flight manoeuvre to gain altitude and clear traffic/obstacles, in preparation for another approach. MAP - Missed Approach Point: Point where the decision to land or go around must be made. OM - Outer Marker: A VHF facility installed at the site of the outer marker of an instrument landing system (ILS). PP - Penetration Point: The location where an aircraft begins a penetration turn to proceed in bound within the ILS area and fly to the Outer Marker. Its purpose is to permit an aircraft to lose considerable altitude within reasonably limited airspace. When the Navaid is located on the airport, an aircraft is considered to be on final approach upon completion of the penetration turn.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 6 http://freebirds.org November 2007Definitions PT - Penetration Turn: An arrival procedure involving a turn or series of turns during descent from a cruising altitude that will position the aircraft for a landing during a high- level approach DH - Decision Height: The point on an ILS instrument approach where the pilot must have the minimum ceiling and visibility mandated by the instrument approach plate to continue the approach to a landing. At that point, if the runway environment is not in sight, further descent is not authorized, and a missed approach must be made. VOR - VHF Omni directional Range station: A ground-based electronic NAVAID that transmits very high frequency navigation signals 360° in azimuth (radials). No Distance information is sent unless DME accompanies the VOR system. VDP - Visual Descent Point: A defined point on the final approach course of a non- precision straight-in approach procedure from which normal descent from the minimum descent altitude (MDA) to the runway touchdown point may be commenced, provided that the approach threshold of the runway, or approach lights, or other markings identifiable with the approach end of that runway are clearly visible to the pilot. VA - Visual Approach: An approach wherein an aircraft on an IFR flight plan (FP), operating in VFR weather conditions under the control of ATC and having ATC authorization, may proceed to the airport of destination. ILS – Instrument Landing System: A radio navigation beacon that is aligned with the center line of the runway. Designed to guide the pilot down to the MDA and have him aligned with the center line of the runway.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 7 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Instrument Flight Used if you Are flying in bad weather or clouds Have no HUD Have no MFDs Use small, steady, smooth control inputs Make a control input change, let aircraft/indicators react, make a correction to the aircrafts reaction and so on….. Juggling the instruments In flight, things are always changing so expect the see the gauges move Use an instrument scan technique and stick to it (follow the numbers in the pic) Consistently and constantly continue your scan pattern of the instruments Dont fixate on one instrument or the rest will run away from you Easier to fly precisely on Instruments Instrument flying practice will help you fly better in visual and combat situations 3 1 2 4 5
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 8 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Instrument Flight Climbs Fly up/down to your altitude not through it Lead your leveling off based on your Ascent/Descent rate, use 10% of Accent/Descent rate At 4,000 fpm rate, start leveling off 400 ft before desired altitude Turns Start to roll out of your turn about 1/3 of your bank angle in degrees before you reach your desired heading. Example: In a 30 ° bank angle, roll out 10 ° prior to desired heading. Tell-Tail Indications Increasing airspeed without an increase in throttle indicates a descent Decreasing airspeed without a decrease in throttle indicates a climb Each Pitch Line is 5° 60° 30° 90° 360° 60° 90° 120° 180° 210° 240° 270° 300° 330° Each Line is 125 fpm 0° 10° 20° Bank Angle
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 9 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Tactical Air Navigation System Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN), Pronounced tackan Beacon (fixed antenna) on airbase (or really anywhere) Transmits Radio beams called radials outward in every direction, 360° Includes range information (DME) Antenna on aircraft receives radio beam Aircraft processes signal and transmits info to HSI Note: If you are due Northeast of a TACAN you are on the 045 degree radial, It does not matter which direction you are headed. If you are pointed Northeast you are on the 045 degree radial. If you are pointed Southwest you are still on the 045 degree radial. Each TACAN station has corresponding code Codes are preset into your Flight Computer You can manually set codes using ICP Land based beacons use an X code Airborne (Tankers) use a Y code Each beacon has a range in which it operates. See the SP Checklists for a list of ranges for each Navigational aid in F4. The distance error flag will be displayed if you are out of range of the beacon. Compass Rose TACAN Antenna
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 10 http://freebirds.org November 2007 The Horizontal Situation Indicator Bearing Pointer (Red Arrowhead) points to TACAN Station or Steerpoint Instrument Mode Selector Switch Range Indicator Window Course Selector Window Course Set Knob Heading Set Knob Compass Card Upper Lubber Line Aircraft Symbol Course Needle (Yellow Line) set with Course Set Knob To-From Indicator Course Deviation Indicator Heading Marker (Green Bar) set with Heading Set Knob Course Deviation Scale Each dot is: 2.5 o in TCN/ILS or NAV/ILS mode 5 o in NAV or TCN mode Tail of Bearing Pointer Course ILS Warning Flag Distance Error Flag
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 11 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Operating the HSI Aligning with a Radial: Setting the CRS knob on the HSI sets the Radial you wish to intercept. Use the course deviation indicator to align with the Radial. Note that if you are aligned with the TACAN signal you are on the Radial that matches the Course you selected on the HSI. See the following examples: North of the TACAN heading South: inbound on 360 Radial South of the TACAN heading South: outbound on 180 Radial North of the TACAN heading North: outbound on 360 Radial South of the TACAN heading North: inbound on 180 Radial Radial Intercepts: Intercepting a Radial means that you either align with the radial or cross it. If you turn to fly along a radial to reduce/grow range, you have intercepted the radial. If you cross the radial (indicated by the course deviation indicator crossing from one side of the course pointer to the other) you have intercepted it. When following a DME ARC, you will cue off the course deviation indicator moving rapidly across the HSI to indicate interception of a desired Radial Maintaining a DME ARC Holding on a DME ARC requires you to orbit the TACAN station at a fixed distance.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 12 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI): An instrument which displays bearing and distance to a navigation aid, heading, track/course and track/course deviation. NAV Mode Display references the selected steerpoint (chosen using the ICP) NAV/ILS Mode Display references the selected steerpoint AND Instrumented Landing System (ILS) Localizer Deviation (LD) and Glideslope Deviation (GD) bars are active. These bars only appear on the ADI within about 10 NM of the TACAN beacon and after contacting the tower for landing instructions (T 1 keys). Range to Steerpoint: 17 Nm Direction to steerpoint: (340 o T) GD Bar LD Bar Direction to steerpoint: (220 o ) Range to Steerpoint: 31 Nm Radio Navigation with the HSI in NAV Mode
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 13 http://freebirds.org November 2007 TCN (TACAN) Mode Display references the TACAN beacon for the Airfield pre-selected and displayed in the DED (chosen using the ICP) in Up Front Control (UFC) or the airfield/tanker as selected and using the CNI Backup Mode. Set the TACAN Station Selector appropriately (TR for runways AA/TR for Tankers) TCN/ILS Mode Display references the TACAN Beacon AND ILS Localizer Deviation (LD) and Glideslope Deviation (GD) bars are active. These bars only appear on the ADI within about 10 NM of the TACAN beacon and after contacting the tower for landing instructions (T 1 keys). You wont see the bars if tracking a tanker using TACAN. Range to TACAN Beacon: 79 Nm Direction to TACAN Beacon: (240° T) GD Bar LD Bar Direction to steerpoint: (240 o ) Range to Steerpoint: 1 Nm Radio Navigation with the HSI in TACAN Mode
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 14 http://freebirds.org November 2007 The Instrument Landing System (ILS) Used in conjunction with the Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) or Steer Point NAV ILS antenna emit additional signals Localizer Deviation indicates if you are left/right of the runway Active within approx. 18nm Glideslope Deviation Indicates above/below proper glide slope for landing. Active within 10nm The LD and GD Bars are viewable in the HUD and ADI when Instrument Mode Selector Switch is in ILS/TAC or ILS/NAV position Intercept the LD an GD by steering to the needle Example Above the glide slope (GD bar is below the center) and left of the runway (LD bar is right of center) Steer and come right to correct to the course and glide path GD Bar LD Bar
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 15 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Using the Horizontal Situation Indicator
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 16 http://freebirds.org November 2007 COMMAND STEERING Guides the pilot to intercept the ILS beacon on runway heading Set ILS frequency in DED Set Course in DED to desired runway heading Highlight CMD STRG in DED Set course on HSI to runway heading Ensure Tacan is set to TR Runway heading ILS Frequency Command Steering On
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 17 http://freebirds.org November 2007 COMMAND STEERING CUES Localizer deviation Bar Glide Slope Deviation Bar Command Steering Cue Appears 45 0 either side of selected runway heading
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 18 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Fly towards Command Steering Cue to line up with Flight Path Marker and Localizer Bar Localizer Bar Flight Path Marker Command Steering Cue Lining up Command Steering Indicators
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 19 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Tic indicates pitch steering is active If an X appears over the fat part of the Cmd Strng Cue then you have lost pitch steering. Adjust power and pitch to get back on the Glide Slope deviation line Glide Slope Deviation Bar Pitch Steering Indicator
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 20 http://freebirds.org November 2007 On Final, Lined Up for Landing Final Sight Picture
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 21 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Standard Instrument Departure (SID) FreeBirds VFW utilizes the Falcon Simulator Standard Instrument Departure procedure for KIMPOs runway 14L is given here as an example (see the AF-OF Kimpo_departure1.gif included with this lesson download package). This is a navigational procedure that utilizes the aircrafts avionics. The goal is for you to be able to achieve this completely HEADS DOWN It is recommended that you practice each of these procedures as needed prior to the Flight Test. Each airbase has its own procedures, therefore it is advisable that you refer to Falcon AF and / or the Open Falcon Navigation Checklists in order to determine the appropriate TACAN and ILS information.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 22 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) FreeBirds VFW utilizes the Falcon Simulator Standard Terminal Arrival Route (STAR) procedure for Kimpos runway 14L is given here as an example (see the AF-OF Kimpo14L.gif included with this lesson download package). This is a navigational procedure that utilizes the aircrafts avionics. The goal is for you to be able to achieve this completely HEADS DOWN It is recommended that you practice each of these procedures as needed prior to the Flight Test. Each airbase has its own procedures, therefore it is advisable that you refer to Falcon AF and / or the Open Falcon Navigation Checklists in order to determine the appropriate TACAN and ILS information.
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 23 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Lesson Summary You should now understand Instrument Flying Navigation via the HSI Instrument Landing System Command Steering Standard Instrument Departures (SID) Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) You should now be very comfortable withy comms and using brevity
Lesson 6: Instrument Flight 24 http://freebirds.org November 2007 Flight School Demonstrate Instrument Flying Navigation via the HSI Instrument Landing using ILS and Command Steering Standard Instrument Departures (SID) Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) That you can use navigation terminology and proper comms