5 Workshop DiscussionWhat methods can we use to protect the customer?
6 100% Inspection – Does it work? Workshop Discussion100% Inspection – Does it work?
7 Will 100% inspection protect the customer? ScenarioOakland’s Marketing Department are very proud of the publications they produce.The customers of Oakland expect the highest quality publications.Therefore, the manager of the publications department has decided to employ you as an inspector at the end of the printing process to ensure that the text produced is accurate.You have 30 seconds to inspect the following set of text and count how many times the letter ‘F’ appears, (upper & lower case) including the title.
8 F-TestFinished files are the results of many years of sceintific studies combined with the experience of many years of effort
9 How many did you see? Have another look! F-TestHow many did you see?Have another look!
10 F-TestFinished files are the results of many years of sceintific studies combined with the experience of many years of effort
11 Did anyone change their mind? F-TestDid anyone change their mind?
12 F-TestFinished files are the results of many years of sceintific studies combined with the experience of many years of effort
13 Did you spot anything else? F-TestDid you spot anything else?
14 F-TestF-TestFinished files are the results of many years of sceintific studies combined with the experience of many years of effort
15 100% Inspection – Does it work? Workshop Discussion100% Inspection – Does it work?
16 Process Improvement Methodology Objective Waste Elimination / Defect ReductionEfficiency / Yield ImprovementImproved Customer SatisfactionHigher Shareholder Value
18 Act Plan Check Do Plan, Do, Check, Act What now? What focus? ReviewProject revisionStandardisationShare learningsFurther improvementPlanWhat focus?Project goals/measuresSet up teamMap processMeasure processIdentify key problemsFind root causesIdentify solutionPlan for implementationDoWhat action?Prepare for implementationTrainingCommunicationImplement improvementChange managementProject managementCheckWhat happened?MeasurementAssessmentAnalysis
19 Global 8D 0. Emergency Response Action 1. Identify the team Protect the customer1. Identify the teamBuild cross-functional team2. Define the problemWhere, when, etc.Is/Is not analysisProcess mapMeasure and set objective3. Contain the symptomShort-term solutionRescue affected customers4. Identify root causesUse FMEA, Five WhysIdentify and check root cause5. Choose corrective actionFocus on fixing root causesSet targets and owners for implementation6. Implement corrective actionImplement to planCollect data to prove successThis is a more recent variant of the improvement cycle.It is popular in the automotive industries and actually originates in Ford.A good idea that it contains is ‘containing the symptom’ – this is like putting a sticking plaster on a bleeding wound before you go to the hospital. In practice, it may mean taking short-term steps to resolve a customer problem whilst also working on fixing the root cause that caused the problem in the first place.7. Make change permanentDocumentationRevise targets, FMEAs, etc.8. Recognise the teamRecognise individuals and the teamCelebrate success
20 Define Measure Analyse Improve Control DMAIC Identify champion and ownerInitial assessment of situationDefine scope and goals of projectMap processValidate measurement systemCalculate process capabilityAnalyse for sources of variationIdentify potential root causesVerify actual root causeDevelop solutionCreate new process mapCost / benefit analysisStandardiseSustain the gainDevelop control strategy
21 DRIVER A European Lean Six Sigma Improvement Methodology DefineDefine the scope and goals of the improvement project in terms of customer and/or business requirements and the process that delivers these requirements.RReviewMap the ‘as-is’ process and measure the current process performance to understand the ‘value-add’IInvestigarAnalyse the gap between the current and desired performance, prioritise problems and identify root causes of problems.VVerbessernGenerate the improvement solutions to fix the problems and prevent them from reoccurring so that the required financial and other performance goals are metEExecuteThis phase involves implementing the improved process in a way that “holds the gains”. Standards of operation will be documented in systems such as EN 9100 and standards of performance will be established using techniques such as Statistical Process ControlRenforcerCapitalise the improvement by ‘learning the lessons’ and establishing process re-assessment for continuous improvement
25 Lean PrinciplesLean principles are based on the Toyota Production System (TPS)TPS was developed after benchmarking the Ford Motor Company River Rouge plant in Detroit in the 1950’s.The key characteristics of TPS / Lean are:Only producing what is required, when it is requiredClose links throughout the supply chain – just in timeProducing right first timeA lean mindset & company cultureThe elimination of non-value added activity (waste)
26 Remove Waste, don’t Improve the Value-Add Total Throughput Time=Value-add time+Non-Value Add + Other timeUsual FocusWork longer-harder-faster,add people, complexity or equipmentLeanEliminate Waste to Improve the Value StreamWorld Class Companies: ‘NVA’ = 80% TTTTypical ‘NVA’ = 99% TTT26
27 1 7 2 WASTE 6 3 5 4 The 7 wastes Over-production Defects (Scrap/Rework)Over-productionInventory172MotionOver-processingWASTE6354A useful way to remember the 7 wastes is is TIM WOODTransportationWaiting
28 A Lean Example LEAN Concepts Standardised Work Waste Elimination Parallel ProcessingCell LayoutBatch ReductionQuick ChangeoverLine BalancingOther ConceptsVisual Management5 SError Proofing
29 Workshop DiscussionAre Lean principles only applicable to manufacturing processes?
31 What is Six Sigma?Six Sigma is focused on improving the quality of our products and servicesHow do we define the term ‘quality’?The generic definition of quality is ‘meeting or exceeding the customer requirements’The customer of a process can be internal or externalTherefore, Six Sigma improves quality, thus, improving customer satisfaction
32 Six Sigma Satisfying the Customer DefectsAcceptableLSLUSLCustomer RequirementProcess PerformanceSigma is a capability metric that compares process performance against customer requirements
33 Is 99% Quality Good Enough? 3.8 Sigma99% Good6 Sigma% Good2 short or long landings at an airport per day (200 daily flights)1 short or long landing every 5 yearsUnsafe drinking water for almost 15 minutes each dayUnsafe drinking water one minute every seven months5,000 incorrect surgical operations per week (500,000 operations per week)1.7 incorrect operations per week10,700 defects per million opportunities3.4 defects per million opportunities
34 Quantifying Process Capability }Sigma is a universal measure of process performance
35 Variable Process Capability Analysis Variable process capability is the ability of a process output to ‘fit’ between the specification limits which are defined by the customer requirements.43567Can this distribution from a process outputfit between the specification limits of 51?
36 Variable Process Capability Analysis Capability is an assessment of: process spread as a ratio of the process tolerance. – Cp / PpLSL USLToleranceProcess spreadCpk / Ppk is the location of the process mean with respect to both process specification limits.LSL USLMean
41 DRIVER The Process Focus Define: Grasp the problem & identify objectivesY: OutputReview: Map ‘as-is’ process & current performance40–60 x’s: InputsInvestigar: Analysis & root cause identification3-5 x’sVerbessern: Solution generation & prioritisation3-5 x’sExecute: Implement solutions to ‘sustain the gain’3-5 x’sRenforcer: Share best practice & lessons learntOptimised Process
42 DRIVER Deployment Structure Inverting the hierarchal triangleCustomers of Products and ServicesGreen BeltsBlack BeltsProject ChampionsMaster Black BeltsExecutive Black BeltsDRIVER deployment is led by executives to ensure company wide support
46 MTAD - Improve super plastic forming process EF-2000 slats ContextSituation : Deviations in slat spar position cause scraps and repairs at assembly leading to non quality costs and manufacturing lead-time increase.Performance :On-quality 27% spar position values. 8.5% scrap.€ non quality costsEF-2000 Slat Superplastic forming processWhat has been doneAchievementsD – Stake-holder analysis, DoE training, Pareto analysis for scoping.R – Process map & key parameters, run charts, histograms.I – Run charts, Process capability analysis, Scatter plot.V – Variance & correlation analysis, Pareto, Rules determination.ER – SPC, KPI monitoringMETRICBASELINERESULTS% NON CONFORMING VALUES (REPAIRS)73%23%%SCRAP8.5%1.3%%CONCESIONS89%20%%HNC´S100%60%LEAD TIME50 days42 daysWORK IN PROCESS333,774 €280,946 €NON QUALITY COST REDUCTION (*)€
47 User Help Desk Process Improvement PerformanceContextSituation :Information Management integration at company level with numerous local processesPerformance :On time Incident Resolution performance fluctuated a great deal from process to processWhat has been doneAchievementsD Processes identification, Prioritisation, Voice of Customer, Voice of BusinessR Process mapping, waste identificationI Statistical analysis (process capability, Pareto), root causeV Solution generation, waste reduction, external benchmark, business caseE Responsibility charting, implementationR Full deployment proposalBuy-in facilitated by the DRIVER methodPerformance increased by 40% (increase of calls closed by UHD)Cost base sustainable benefit exceeding 400 K€ per year for Germany and France