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The Israeli – Palestinian Conflict Three Formative Pairs Shaul Arieli 2012 www.shaularieli.com.

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1 The Israeli – Palestinian Conflict Three Formative Pairs Shaul Arieli 2012

2 The Israeli – Palestinian Conflict Three Formative Pairs 1.The Balfour declaration (1917) and the mandate (1922) recognizing the right for self-determination and its tools of implementation 2.The partition resolution (1947) and the independence war (1948 – 1949) the establishment of the state and the inheritance 3.The six day war (June 1967) and resolution 242 (November 1967) the assets the basis of the conflict resolution

3 Opening Shot Balfour Declaration (1917) The Mandate (1922)

4 Balfour and others Balfour – His majesties government looks favorably towards the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Israel with hopes to endeavor to facilitate the achievement of the project … (Nov. 1917) Combo – It would only be the justice and compensation, to support, with the help of the powers, the revival of the Jewish nation from the country it was expelled from centuries ago. The French government, has nothing to say but support your victory June (1917) Wilson – "I am convinced that the allies, with full consent of our government and people, agree that in Palestine the foundation is laid for a Jewish community (1919)

5 Balfour for the Zionist movement: 1: The support of the central world powers, Great Britain, within the vision of the Zionist Movement. 2: Historical right for the land of Israel – it is completely justified, that exiled Jews all around the world, will have a national center and a national home, where they can come together as one. And where could that place be if not in the land of Israel, where they are connected with for over 3000 years on such a deep and close level… (Winston, 1919) 3: The need of the hour: Is the Zionism wrong or right, for better or worst, it revives from centuries of tradition, present needs and future hopes, and it has a much deeper significance many times more than the aspirations and prejudices of the 700,000 Arabs which inhabit this ancient land (Balfour, 1917)

6 What's in the Balfour declaration The term Palestine – region of Israel in general. The British governments desire to avoid any commitment - The latest draft that was rejected his majesties government accepts the printable that the land of Israel must rise again as the national home for the Jewish people. The land of Israel during the ottoman empire – 1914 (separation of 1988) Tzur Haifa Nablus Petah – Tiqwa Jerusalem Damascus Jenin Gaza Tel Aviv – Jaffa Ber shebba Hebron The sanjak of Eglon The wailyah of Beirut Rational Wayilyah (provenience) Sanjuk (district)

7 Gaza Allied plan concerning the Israel May – 1916 – Sykes Picot Rational A new region within British, Russian and French custody French region An Arabic state under British custody An Arabic state under French custody British enclave Egypt (under British control) Haifa Tzur Jerusalem Tel Aviv Ber shebba

8 45 – 50,000 km Rational The Zionist organizations Proposition for the borders of Israel Egypt (under British control) The Zionist organization proposal during the peace conference in Paris 1919

9 "The principle of self-determination is not applied to Palestine during the British Mandate created in 1922 due to the desire to enable the establishment of the Jewish national home." "The will of the Arab people of Palestine to ensure their national existence is a natural desire indeed. However, a nationalist Palestinian state, as opposed to Arab nationalism is in itself a phenomenon created not long ago and came into being only after the division of the Arab region by the settlement at the end of the First World War." (Distribution Report, 1947) "We can not accept Zionist claims to include the Transjordan territory of the Land of Israel because there are no Jewish colonies there, and the local population publicly expressed its desire to join the Syrian Arab country" For the Arabs of Palestine 673,400 Arabs 83,790 Jews 28,000 km Rational Border lines according to the mandate Arab settlement Jewish settlement Co-existing territories Mandate for Palestine – Israel Jewish – Arab settlements

10 Hussein - McMahon Faisal - Weizmann Cyprus (British) Wailyah of Haleb Wailyah of Damascus Rational Pure Arabic area (as declared by Hussein Ben Ali the sheriff from Mecca The border lines in the west of outside the Arabic state (as proposed by the British commissioner Mcmahon) HijazianTrain tracks Wailyah of Beirut

11 Map 6. Great Brittan and the Arabs 1917 and on Past Turkish territories, that were established with the British mandate in 1921, and later as independent countries Land of Israel Rational Past Turkish territories, that were left to be supervised by the French in 1920 and later received independence Arab states that were assisted by Britain in their war against Turkey, 1915 – 1918 and received financial support from Brittan Arab territories under the British authority or supervision in 1914 that have all received independence Saudi Arabia Egypt Golf Of Oman

12 Balfour for Arabs as designed for Palestine: 1: Definition in the statement has also been but in a negative way "non-Jewish testimony". Thus, religious communities without national rights. 2: Britain granted piece of land that is not of hers (in 1917 the area was within Turkish rule) to a group which is not entitled to it ( the Zionist movement) at the expense of the owners and those who are entitled to it (local Arabs) (Edward W. Said). 3: " In addition council confirms that the aggression on the Palestinian nation and the its territory began in 1917" (PLO Convention, 1964).

13 The Zionist movement- self definition in the state of Israel While the basis for the Jewish aspiration for national independence was not essentially different from the aspiration of other nations, the way in which the Jewish people fulfilled its right of self definition indeed was extraordinary- because the Jewish tragedy was extraordinary. Is the moral justification being lessened, in the case of the Jewish people? (Rubinshtain and Yaacobson, 2003) 28,000 קמ " ר Rational -Mandate Border lines -Arab villages -Jewish settlement -Integrated villages Egypt- Under British authority Jordanian River The Mediterranean sea

14 28,000 sq.km To create political, administrative and economical conditions in the state of Israel, that will promise the establishment of the National Jewish home The mandate document (1922) The Mediterranean sea Egypt- Under British authority Jordanian River

15 For the Zionist Movement 1: the Jewish peoples historical connection to Palestine was recognized and it is their right to reestablish their national home in this land. 2: "Both the Balfour Declaration and the mandate included an international commitment to the Jewish people as a whole. 3:During the last two to three generations the Jewish people created a settlement that now includes approximately 80 thousand in population and about a quarter of them are farmers. This settlement has its own political tools… its issues are being run in Hebrew as a spoken language and Jewish press is utilizing its needs. It has its special intellectual life in the city and in the village therefore it has national virtues

16 Establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in the land of Israel... being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may infringe the civil and religious non- Jewish committees... " (Balfour Declaration 1917) "... While preserving the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants of Palestine, irrespective of race or religion" Mandate in 2012

17 Israel - Identity, Borders and Regime Democracy GeographyDemographic Jewish State..And encourage the immigration of the Jewish masses to this land, so they can shape their destiny and establish their home

18 The rise of the national Palestinian movement (1920, 1921,1929, ) The White paper(1922, 1930, 1939) Eastern European Jews- The Bond and North America The holocaust ,000 Jews 1,325,000 Arabs United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine Jewish state Arab state The separate body

19 Reduction of the area - this is the price we pay for the delay of the Jewish people in building the country and for the rapid growth of the Arab Movement (Mordechai Namir, 1937)

20 " Certainly the Arab community in Israel has a right to self-determination and self-government, good faith dictates, that we will not deprive nor will we dismiss this right. Ben Gurion, Feb 1947

21 "Inheritance The" Partition Resolution (1947) The war of independence and the Nakba ( )

22 … only by the means of partition, can the two conflicting national aspirations portray themselves and allow their two nations to come to terms with their independent nations within the international community and United Nations… Partition Resolution (181) November 1947 (Partition Report Conference, 1947) 55% 45% Jewish state Arab state The separate body United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine

23 The Zionist Movement: The establishment of the state of Israel (May 14 th 1948)-.. The State of Israel was established as a Jewish State in the Land of Israel, by virtue of the historical connection between the Nation of Israel and its land and by the recognition and approval of the nations of the world. In the Declaration of Independence of the State of Israel, the new State was defined by the members of the National Council The Arabs of Israel: Recognition of the nation and its right for self-determintation

24 Population – The Rural Villages Survey (April 1945) DistrictArabsJewsTotal Galilee Acre 184,46037,350230,840 Haifa 115,790104,310224,430 Jerusalem 284,440100,280384,880 Lod 207,210293,520501,040 Gaza 187,8303,040190,880 Samaria 217,09014,900232,220 Total 1,196,820553, %)) 1,764,320

25 Land Proprietary Right (April 1945) TotalCommunalJewsArabsDistrict 2,801,383398,633576,0281,815,536Galilee Acre 1,031,755208,047364,276434,666Haifa 4,333,534243,44639,6793,993,001Jerusalem 1,205,55896,591251,598828,812Lod 13,688,50110,806,967114,4912,766,709Gaza 3,262,287360,721145,6272,736,077Samaria 26,323,01812,114,4051,491,699 (5.7%) (10.6%) 12,574,801Total

26 "While 37% of the Jewish population in Palestine own only 7% of the field, 55% received their sovereignty from Israel, the Palestinians could not understand why they should pay the price for the occurrence Holocaust... They were unable to figure out why it is unfair that the Jews will be a minority in undivided Palestine while considered FAIR that the Palestinians who are living in the Jewish region, half the population is almost being of native-born ancestry - will override a minority subject to foreign rule "(Walid al - Khalidi, 1988) Israeli Arabs:

27 Article 16 of the Palestinian Covenant: "Distribution of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of Israel are essentially flawed, One is how it persist to exist, because they are contrary to the will of the Arab nation and the Palestinians and the natural right to its homeland, and since they Contradict the principles contained in the Declaration of the United Nations, and foremost - the right to self-determination. "

28 "Representative of the Jewish Agency told us yesterday that they are not the aggressor. Because it was the Arabs who started the conflicts and when the Arabs will stop firing, Jews will do too. As a matter of fact, we do not deny this fact.... We said to the world... that we do not agree that little Palestine should be divided.... and that we intend to fight against it " (Jamal al - Husseini, the Arab Higher Committee representative Security Council on April 16, 1948)

29 Results of the war IsraelisPalestinians Establishment of an independent state and a UN recognition De facto loss of the right to self- determination Armistice Agreements lest 78% of the land of Israel The division of Palestine between Israel and Jordan and Egypt demographic balance of towards the Jews about 711 thousand refugees, a small minority in Israel Control over the land and the refugeess property The destruction of over 400 villages, the abandonment of the 11 cities involved, massive property loss (3.5 to 4.6 million hectares...) Loss of 6,000 peopleLoss of 3,000 people About a million Jewish refugees from Arab and Muslim countries

30 "The military can conquer all territory between Jordan and the ocean. But what kind of country will we have, assuming that there are elections and Deir Yassin is not our policy. We will have a parliament with an Arab majority. Between the choice of the whole country or a Jewish."state, we chose a Jewish state The Zionist stand David Ben Gurion(Parliament debate, Volume 1, th4 April 1949) 1,000,000 JEWS 156,000 ARABS 78% 1.2% 20.8% Rational Jordan and the West Bank under its control -Armistice lines Egypt and Gaza under its authority UnExcessive region Israel 1949-Armistice lines

31 Assets and Solutions Six Day War / cover (June 1967) Security Council Resolution 242 (November 1967)

32 Rational 1967 border - lines -Israel Territories that were - occupied the war Israel and the territories in authority post six day war 1967 Israel Egypt Jordan Saudi Arabia Syria Sinai Peninsula

33 Israel, the Arab countries and the Palestinians 1. International legitimacy for the 1949 border lines in exchange for the occupation in Arab countries - the return of occupied sovereign territory (peace agreements). 3. Establishment of a Palestinian state only on 22% of the territory in exchange for the recognition of Israel (1988).

34 Israel / Palestine Size square kilometers Population Israel Jews million Arabs million West Bank + Gaza + East Jerusalem Arabs million Jews million

35 The new threat Eastern Front - surface missiles and terrorism, including rockets and mortars

36 Palestinian state 1. Conventional capabilities 2. Terrorism

37 Regions = security Security = demilitarization 1.Demilitarization for the exchange of strategic depth 2.International Presence 3.Warning stations 4.Aerial space

38 Development of Israel's position in the negotiations regarding the permanent border Anapolis 7% Taba

39 What is the Israeli stance toward the old secure territories ?

40 What is the Israeli stance toward strategic roads?

41 Control over waters?

42 Airport Landing routes?

43 Israeli borders Beyond the Green Line Judea and Samaria 324 thousand Jews In 124 communities East Jerusalem 193 thousand Jews In 12 neighborhoods Total persons beyond the Green Line 517 thousand Jews borders Jewish settlements – Jewish Infrastructure/farming – area – Palestinian village - Settlements that were evacuated in Rational Israel the west bank Jerusalem

44

45

46 Territory and borders The Israeli proposal 85% ISRALIES 6.5% TERRITORIES borders -The historical basin -Annexed territory to Israel 6.5% -Annexed territory to Palestine 5.8% -Jewish settlement that will be annexed to Israel -Jewish settlement outside of Israels borders -Palestinian village Palestine (the west bank) Israel Jerusalem Rational

47 Territory and borders The Palestinian proposal 70-75% ISRALIES 2 % TERRIROTIES borders -The historical basin -Annexed territory to Israel 2% -Annexed territory to Palestine 2% -Jewish settlement outside of Israels borders -Palestinian village Israel Palestine (the west bank) Jerusalem Palestine (Gaza strip ) Rational

48 Two Capitals in Jerusalem

49 United Jerusalem(2010) KM 500,000 JEWS (64%) (193,000 IN THE EASTERN SIDE) 281,000 ARABS (36%) The issue of Jerusalem borders -Jerusalem municipal borders -Old city -Israeli settlement -Palestinian village -Jewish settlement -Jewish infrastructure/ Agriculture WEST BANK Jerusalem Israel

50 In many ways I think Jerusalem is advancing said Olmert and immediately altered... I'm talking about West Jerusalem. I'm talking about neighborhoods where Jews live, even the parts that were not part of the city until Regarding other parts of Jerusalem, where no Jews live, there is no big change. "I've reached very sad conclusions regarding Jerusalem's future as a united city.. No Israeli government, since the year of 67, has made even the smallest effort to unite the city in the practical sense. Even the government I led didnt do everything in its power to turn Jerusalem to a united city. While we did invest in Jerusalem, we consciously invested in the western part of city, primarily the new neighborhoods like Har Homa, Pisgat Ze'ev, Ramot Gilo. We avoided from investing in territories that I believed were not going to be apart of Jerusalem under Israeli sovereignty. Ehud Olmert, May 2012.

51 Jerusalem Israeli proposal Israel Jerusalem Palestine borders -Municipal Borders of Jerusalem -The historical basin -Annexed territory to Israel 6.5% -Annexed territory to Palestine 5.8% -Jewish settlement that will be annexed to Israel -Jewish settlement outside of Israels borders -Palestinian village

52 Jerusalem Palestinian Proposal Israel Jerusalem - Palestinian Proposal – Annapolis (2008) 1967 Borders Jerusalem's municipal boundaries The Old City The historic basin An attached territory to Israel Palestine An attached territory to Palestine Israeli settlement Jewish settlement Jewish Industrial/Agriculture Zone Palestinian settlement Jerusalem Bethlehem Gush Etzion Ramallah Mount Scopus Giv'at Ze'ev Efrat

53 2.5 קמ " ר 60,000 Residents Palestinians - Demographic division Israel- International Management Solution in the historic basin The historic basin The Old City 1967 Borders 2.5 Square Kilometer Jerusalem - The historic basin Annapolis (2008) Jerusalem The Old City The Temple Mount Kidron Valley Mount of Olives Mount Zion Gehenna

54 Refugees

55 Refugees Absorption Israel – 1000\5000 for 5 years Palestinians – 10,000 for 10 years It will be unreasonable to ask Israel to absorb 5 million refugees or even a million refugees, says Abu Mazen. The meaning of that will be the end of the state of Israel.

56 Key Issues And Parameters for The Arrangement Borders – 67 borders as a base (With territorial exchanges in ratio of 1:1) Security - demilitarization of the Palestinian state and ending the terror and violence. Jerusalem – dividing east Jerusalem to two capitals. Refugees - solving the refugee problem not by returning to Israel.

57 I was within touching distance from a peace agreement. The Palestinians never rejected my proposals. And even if in the 1,000 th time there will be factors that will try to claim that they rejected my proposals, the reality was different. They didnt accept them, and there is a difference. They didnt accept them because the negotiation didnt end, it was almost done. If I was to stay prime minister for four-six more months, I believe that you could reach a peace agreement. The differences were very small, we reached the last stretch Ehud Olmert, May 2012

58 Molcho and Erekat Conversation at Amman TerritorySecurity IsraelHow many more Israelis and less Palestinians under Israeli sovereignty Israel will maintain a presence in the Jordan Valley for a certain time Israel will annex the large settlement blocs The border in Jerusalem will not be discussed Palestinians1967 borders as a base.Demilitarization of the Palestinian state army and heavy weapons 1:1 land swaps in the amount of 1.9% Placing an international force in the borders.

59 Demographic Forecast Percentage of Jews : Land of Israel (100%) State of Israel (78%) Year 48.6%80.8% %78.3% %77%2050

60 What is the proposed alternative for the division?

61 The Religious Sect and The Recruited Religion There is no national or international law to change our position, our rights… The fate of these areas, according to Jewish law, as the Land of Israel under Jewish rule, and overall there is sovereignty, Jewish property and ownership.. (Rabbi Goren, 1995) In term of pure religion… Every knowingly concession (of areas in Israel) is a intentional violation of the sanctity of the land and Covenant of the pieces (The Chief Rabbis, 1937).

62 We Returned Home Here, in Bet El 3,800 years ago the Land of Israel was promised to the People of Israel by the Creator of the Universe By virtue of this promise we are living today in Haifa, Tel Aviv, Shilo and Hevron

63 Under the wing of Islam, it is possible for the followers of the three major religions - Islam, Christianity and Judaism - to coexist in peace and quiet with each other. Peace and quiet would not be possible except under the wing of Islam. Past and present history are the best witness to that (The Hamas Covenant, 1987). The land of Palestine is one unit that cant be divided, there is no difference between Haifa or Nablus, between Lod or Ramallah, and between Jerusalem and Nazareth… the land of Palestine is a Waqf land consecrated for the benefit of all Muslims, from east and from west. No one has the right to divide it or give any part of it. (PA Radio, 1999) The Religious Dimension and the Recruited Religion

64 We pray three times a day "and forecasts eyes return to Zion in mercy." We want to return to Israel. But the question if this whole land of Israel, or a half or a quarter of it is not a religious question. Our sources anywhere [...] No command of "one inch." On the contrary [...] is your responsibility here and now [...] reality in which you live. And if after all the horrors of the 20th century finally gathered here five million Jews, we are responsible for them [...]. I am totally against Christianity, it can kill and cause us to lose this country. Yonatan Bassi 2005 "You come to the conclusion that in very difficult circumstances you must withdraw. But the withdrawal is made while internalizing that there is no other choice and without doubting your right. You say: It is my absolute right and justice is with me, but in this generation I do not have the power to exercise it. " Ze'ev Hever, Zambish, before the disengagement in 2005

65 It is inconceivable that because of these precious places... We shall give up the acquisition of new real options (meaning country)... across the country we poured blood, we created spiritual values, built tombstones. However, we now face the possibilities to be a great power in the land, without getting our facilities and tombstones. We must find in us Potency moral decision. Moshe Sharett, Zionist Congress 1937

66 A non-Jewish state It is better that the Palestinians would be citizens of Israel, than to divide the country," Parliament Speaker Rivlin, May "If Jordan was ready to absorb both territories and more population, it would have been much easier and natural. But Jordan does not agree. This is Why I say you can look at another option. An option for Israel to apply its law to Judea and Samaria and grant citizenship to a million and a half Palestinians" Moshe Arens, 2011 Begin the process culminating in the Palestinians' Blue identity card, a yellow number, social security and the right to vote for the Knesset. Uri Elitzur, The "one country, in which the children of settlers and Palestinian child will be on the same bus together" Emily Amrousi, July 2010

67 Non democratic state If the Palestinian leadership will continue in the one-sided political disturbance, the Prim Minister must act on the same coin: Apply immediate sovereignty on all Jewish settlements in Yehuda and Samaria. Parliament member Danon, April 2011 You have turn to to a positive action... to clarify that we are allowed to act unilaterally to declare the sovereignty of Judea and Samaria, or at least part of the territory (like the settlements territory), depending on the majority we can get in the parliament... swarm of sovereignty on the land and slowly move forward." (Parliament member Elkin, May 2011) "Israel will extend sovereignty over areas B and C in the West Bank, including all the Jewish settlements in the West Bank without any exception. Israel would allow the Palestinians in these areas to receive Jordanian - Palestinian national citizenship... in A, the IDF will continue to dominate in terms of security, in coordination with the Jordanian police Parliament member Orlev, 2011 The annexation should be done in stages, starting with the Jewish settlement. But the other half of the equation... the Arab residents of Judea and Samaria will be Israeli residents and citizens of the Palestinian state in Jordan.... The day is close, when the Arab spring will come to the Kingdom of Jordan, and the king will rule over the Palestinian people. Thus they will have their own state. Parliament member Eldad, 2011

68 The Anti Boycott Law and Inquiry committees are the first stage in a country that wishes to be ruled by a right-wing, because so people voted. And there is nothing more important to the public in Israel than the sovereignty, since it the most profound implementation of the people in Israel. We want sovereignty!.... This is something that will be politically possible only if a large popular movement will call the government to apply sovereignty to Judea and Samaria, and run counter to the media to pressure the left The first step must be applied sovereignty over the territory C. 100,000 Palestinians live in Area C in Total, this is the whole story. Accommodate 100,000 Palestinians is something that Israel can certainly deal with. It will be a important test to the large application of sovereignty. " "... The one who does not accept the solution of the Jewish state can not be a citizen with political rights. "(Parliament member Hotobuely, June 2011) "They tell us there is an issue, two values collide: the land of Israel or democratic government. Do not even compare the two. Eretz Israel is a vision, it's a target, it's a goal. Democracy is a rule, the tool, we should not be confused here, the issue is simple. How can you even compare the land of Israel and a democratic government or other? "Jewish Katzover, July 2011 Applying Israeli sovereignty unilaterally on Area C, providing blue identity cards to tens of thousands of West Bank residents and transfer of Gaza to Egypt Naftali Bennett February 2012

69 % JEWS IN THE LAND OF ISRAEL 82.3% JEWS IN THE STATE OF ISRAEL Position of the international community Recognition of the Palestinian people and their right to an independent state within the 1967 borders with Israel Palestinian offer Expected changes? Nuclearization in the Middle East? Weakening of the U.S.? Arab world led by the Islamic movements? Hamas - the PLO? Zero increase - refugees? Jordan - alternative homeland?

70 Website "Israeli negotiations territorial aspect - Palestinian permanent status Ron Pundak, Shaul Arieli, Rabin center 2004 "You've got great did not really see," Shaul Arieli, Carmel Publishing, 2006 "Injustice and Folly" Download site Floersheimer Institute, Shaul Arieli, Dubi Schwartz, Hadas Tagari, Homa Umihdal, aliat hagag publishing- Yediot books, Shaul Arieli and Michael Sfarad, 2008 "The right of thought, Shaul Ariely, Download in the website, 2010 Shaul Ariely,"People & Borders", Download in the website, 2010


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