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Preview of Webinar Response to Questions & Comments -The persistence of language ideology -Review a-prefixing -Review r-dropping -Dialect and the media.

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Presentation on theme: "Preview of Webinar Response to Questions & Comments -The persistence of language ideology -Review a-prefixing -Review r-dropping -Dialect and the media."— Presentation transcript:


2 Preview of Webinar Response to Questions & Comments -The persistence of language ideology -Review a-prefixing -Review r-dropping -Dialect and the media North Carolina Language History Introduction to Regional Dialects Regional Dialects of the Carolinas, including: –Language and dialect endangerment –Outer Banks language history –Appalachian language history –Cherokee language

3 On the Persistence of Language Ideology We are socialized into beliefs about language and language differences. This ideology is expressed in common terms such as good and bad English, correct and incorrect, proper and improper, grammatical, and ungrammatical Language prejudice and discrimination are common and pervasiveand typically tolerated even by those who proactively pursue social equality in other areas Language bias and prejudice is most effectively confronted by inductive learning about language patterning and an understanding of history, culture, and society The two most-frequently mentioned benefits from our curriculum (from both students and teachers) focus on the themes of language patterning and language prejudice

4 Reviewing A-Prefixing From the workbook 1.The team was playing real hard. 2. The team won by playing great defense. 3. The team was remembering the game.

5 1___ The Kings Speech was surprising. 2 ___ Walt was planning new sentences. 3 ___ They kept on working on dialects Can you Apply A-Prefixing?

6 Understanding R- Dropping Rules for r- dropping: After a vowel: e.g. fear, far, porch, NOT program, ride Not before a vowel: e.g. fear nothing but NOT fear everything From the workbook 1.The teacher picked on three students for an answer 2.Four cars parked far away from the fair Applying the Rule 3.Three features of this here exercise are patterned.

7 6 From the Atlas of North American English The Atlas of North American English (Labov et al. 2006)

8 Dialect Quizzes A quiz for the US: map/map.html map/map.html OR: A quiz for North Carolina: OR:

9 8 The Southern Shift hit kids set bed Danny grade beatin Guy wipin

10 9 The Northern Cities Vowel Shift

11 10 head desk boss busses block socks mat The Northern Cities Shift

12 Native American History Paleo-Indians: 10,000 BCE Stone weapons for hunting large animals (woolly mammoths) Buried dead in mounds Migratory First permanent Native American settlements: 1000 BCE Pottery Bow hunting Agriculture At least 34 languages; 4 major groups Iroquoian, Algonquian, Siouan, and Muskogen Lexical contribution: Pamlico, Roanoke, Croatan, Hatteras, Waccamaw, Catawba, Pee Dee, Cheraw, etc. Pocosin, woodchuck, raccoon, pecan, hominy, kayak, hickory, etc.

13 Native American Language Groups

14 Native American Languages

15 European Settlement English Lost Colony (Manteo), 1584-1587 Jamestown, VA, 1607 Bath, NC, incorporated March 8, 1705 Scots-Irish (ca. 1740) Great Wagon Road Coastal settlement Germans and Moravians (ca. 1750) Present day Winston-Salem area Welsh Present day Onslow Co., Pender Co., Duplin Co. areas (Jacksonville, NC) French Huguenots and Swiss Inland coastal regions: Cape Fear, Neuse, and Tar River areas Highland Scots Scotland Co., Robeson Co., and Hoke Co., Moore Co., Cumberland Co.

16 Early British Highland Scots Scots-Irish Germans Welsh French African Slaves British 15 Scots-Irish

17 Regional Dialects of the Carolinas

18 NC Dialect Regions Today

19 The Sociohistorical Context and Transformation of the Outer Banks One of the earliest settlements of European Americans, 1630s, migration from coastal Virginia via waterways Longstanding, marine based economy isolated from mainland Development of unique, iconic coastal dialect; hoi toiders, Banker speech, Brogue, etc. Mid-twentieth century: the economic base shifts from a relatively self-sufficient marine economy to one dependent on the tourist industry Social networks extend beyond the island; social relationships with mainlanders become more commonplace

20 Languages of the World

21 Language and Dialect Endangerment 90% of the worlds language approximately 6,000 languages will become extinct during the twenty-first century California alone has lost 50 languages during the last century By comparison, 8% of mammals are endangered and 3% of birds are endangered When a language dies, history, culture, and essential scientific data are lost Languages like Cherokee and dialects like the Outer Banks are considered endangered

22 Research Findings on the Ocracoke Brogue: Orderly erosion of dialect markers over generations, except for one group of middle-aged men labeled the Poker Game Network Gender intersection based on age Unusual maintenance/intensification of past tense werent regularization Some features of speech take on iconic status whereas others operate without much social commentary

23 Location of Ocracoke

24 Location of Smith Island

25 Comparing Ocracoke and Smith Island Dissipation vs. Intensification: Front-gliding of ou in sound (saind)

26 Comparing Ocracoke and Smith Island Dissipation vs. Intensification: Backing of long i in tide (as toid")

27 Symbolic Dialect Performance: Ocracoke Came out there and said, said, "I'm studying speech." I said, "Well, it's high [hoi] tide [toid] on the sound [saund] side [soid], last night the water fire [far], tonight the moon shine, no fish [feesh]. No fish [feesh]. Whatcha suppose the matter, Uncle Woods?

28 Symbolic Dialect Performance: Smith Island JK:Well, my mother was from Tylerton. I say, um, house [hæIs], brown [bræIn], you know, just as flat and broad as it can be. But they--she still says house [haUs] and brown [braUn]. FW:Just like--like I would. JK:Yeah, mmhmm. They say it down [dæIn] there... down [dæIn], down [daUn]. I don't know if she says--I don't know about down [dæIn]. I know about house [haUs]. I know about that. FW:Now she would say, just like this: Would she say house [haUs]? JK:Uhhuh. Yep. And I say house [hæIs]. I heard her say house [haUs], but I say house [hæIs]. Cause that's how Tylerton says that. I can pick up a--I don't know how to say it, up at Rhodes Point [another Smith Island community], it seems like they say--use the long uh i [aI]. Like I say pie [paI]. And maybe that's right, but it's like they go pie [paI]. It's like a long /ay/ or something in there. I can just pick it up. I don't even know if I'm saying.. FW:You can't necessarily copy it, but you can hear it. JK:No, no, I can't say it.

29 Review of Outer Banks Pronunciations Long i: toim and toid for time and tide Long i for ow: hice and saind for house and sound h with it and aint: hit and haint Final t after s: oncet, twicet, accrosst er for ow: feller, yeller, winder ar for ire: far and tar for fire and tire

30 Review of Outer Banks Grammar Werent for wasnt Plural absence on some nouns a-prefixing Use of locative to instead of at Double helping verbs Multiple negation

31 Plural –s Absence LIST A: Nouns that Require -s 1.We caught two hundred cats 2.How many dogs does he have? 3.There are two bucks sitting in the back yard 4.They have lots of ponies down below 5.They have three sisters 6.Its about six teachers LIST B: Nouns that Do Not Require -s to be Plural 1.We caught two hundred pound_ of flounder 2.How many bushel_ does he have? 3.There are two pint_ sitting in the back yard are lots of gallon_ of water 5.They have three acre_ for building 6.Its about six mile_ up the road

32 Plural –s Absence LIST B: Nouns that Do Not Require -s to be Plural 1.We caught two hundred pound_ of flounder 2.How many bushel_ does he have? 3.There are two pint_ sitting in the back yard are lots of gallon_ of water 5.They have three acre_ for building 6.Its about six mile_ up the road LIST C: Nouns that Require -s 1.We had pounds of flounder that spoiled 2.Sometimes people use bushels instead of pounds 3.The pints of ice cream are in the freezer 4.We had gallons of water in the skiff 5.The best acres are owned by the government 6.The beautiful beach goes for miles

33 Plural –s Absence LIST D: Predicting Plural –s Absence 1.____She had three pound__ of fish left 2.____ She had pound__ of fish left 3.____ Its forty inch__ to the top 4.____ Its inch__ to the top 5.____ There are rat__ in the yard 6.____ There are six rat__ in that yard No quantifier No quantifier and not a measure noun Not a measure noun

34 Werent Regularization



37 How would an Ococker say the following? 1.You werent going to the dock 2.I wasnt here last night 3.They werent at the beach this morning 4.We werent fishing 5.She wasnt sick last week [no change] [I werent there last night] [She werent sick last week]

38 Research Findings: 15 Years Later Overall language recession continues in terms of socially marked features such as the long i of tide and the ow vowel of sound Selective focusing of features such as werent regularization remain as a part of the Ocracoke Brogue Changes in dialect do not occur in the lifespan of middle-aged and older speakers; younger speakers might show shifts as they establish their adult roles Generational changes take place within nuclear family units; families in which both parents are ancestral islanders may help impede traditional dialect erosion

39 The Effect of the Dialect Curriculum on Ocracoke The dialect curriculum we have taught for 18 years on Ocracoke has made a great difference in language attitudes and the community acceptance of the traditional dialect. Islanders now view their dialect heritage with pride and celebrate its unique status. But overall dialect revitalization has not taken placeapart from a few superficial vocabulary terms

40 The Relevance of Hyde County for Dialect Study One of the oldest counties in North Carolina (c. 1700); small rural communities separated by swampy areas Long-term co-existence of African-Americans (c. 33% of population in 1740 and 1990 census, 36% in 2010) and European Americans Relative geographic, economic, and social detachment from other inland regions of North Carolina 85% wetlands, farming, fishing, logging no airport, railroad, freeway no mall, movie theater, fast food Longstanding sparse population(1790 census: 4,120; 2010 census: 5,218); little in-migration Unique coastal dialect-Outer Banks Brogue

41 The Significance of Region and Culture In the next section (Worksheet 19, Listening Exercise 3) you will be listening to different generations of White and African American speakers from Hyde County. Listen to the different generations of speakers and consider the questions asked in the curriculum 1.How does the oldest speaker compare with the younger speaker? What changes do you see across the generations? 2.What do you think is happening in the Outer Banks Brogue over time in this family? 3.Why do you think some of these Changes are taking place?

42 Region and Culture QUEEN FAMILY

43 Comparison of Dialect Vocabulary

44 Dialect Vocabulary and Slang Dialect Vocabulary: The ways in which speakers of a certain dialect use different words to mean the same thing. Slang: words or phrases with special connotations of informality and in-group solidarity that replace words with more neutral connotations. These words often have a short lifespan.

45 Comparison of Pronunciation Features

46 Comparison of Grammar Features

47 The Cherokee Context: The Great Removal Act (1830)

48 The Trail of Tears Removal Act (1830) – President Jackson: Oklahoma (literally, red people) was established as the Indian's Promised Land by permanent treaty … for as long as grass grows and water flows 16,000 Cherokee resisted and were granted land in TN and GA until gold was discovered there Forcibly removed in 1838 Rev. Bushyhead: The trail where they cried Approximately 4000 Cherokee died en route (cf. 60% mortality rate with earlier groups)

49 The Cherokee Syllabary Developed by Sequoyah in the early 1800s Originally conceived of as a pictogram system Converted to a syllabary and completed in 1821 Has 85 symbols By 1830, 90% of Cherokee were literate (a rate not reached by white Americans until 1890) Books, pamphlets, and newspapers were printed The Cherokee Phoenix began production in 1828

50 Part of the Cherokee Syllabary



53 Homework (estimated time: 2 hours) 1.Watch: chapters 26, 27, and 34 2.From student workbook, complete exercises on pages: 31, 32, 36-37, & 42 3.Read: Teachers Manual Days 3-5 (check answers to exercises) 4.Write a brief reflection on the exercises 5.Watch: Spanish Voices: In Webinar box, click on Spanish Voices Write a brief reflection on Spanish Voices Submit responses to #4 and #6 as a single attached file or in the body of a single email by 5:00 PM, Friday, March 25 to: For a copy of this PowerPoint: Look in the Webinar Box-webinar2


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