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Day 1 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each.

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Presentation on theme: "Day 1 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Day 1 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED Working seismic Stations: 10 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5

3 Day 1 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. Working seismic Stations: 10 Seismic events over past hour: 14 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5

4 Day 1 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 13 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months).

5 Day 1 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 11 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days.

6 Day 2 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 10 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. - Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano.

7 Day 2 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 11 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. -Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity.

8 Day 2 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 15 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - New GPS data processed. The E and W walls of the crater have moved 2 meters farther away from each other in the past 7 days. Seismic data show earthquake activity is strongest less than 1.8 km beneath the summit; 12 distinct events in the last hour. ALERT LEVEL UPDATE REQUESTED - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. -Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit.

9 Day 2 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Recorded 14 new seismic events, mostly centered approximately 1.8 km beneath the summit. - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. -Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM.

10 Day 2 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 14 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Seismic station COV1 s battery has died, and VC1 is out also. Next available helicopter flight to replace it will be tomorrow. Thirteen more moderate earthquakes last hour. Only 8 of 10 Coto seismic stations are working (NAS2 and BMOR have been out for months) distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. -Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation.

11 Day 2 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 9 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct events were recorded on top of the general background seismicity (small events) that has been seen for the past several days. -Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation. - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM.

12 Day 2 6:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 8 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Another 11 quakes jolted the mountain this hour and their locations seem to be focused in the region 2-3 km beneath summit of the volcano. - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation. - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM. - 8 more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km.

13 Day 2 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 10 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - No change in seismic activity. - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation. - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM. - 8 more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km. - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth.

14 Day 2 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 14 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Slight increase in number of seismic events this hour. Especially strong LP readings are coming from station BTAM, the closest working station to the summit. - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation. - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM. - 8 more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km. - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth. - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April 24.

15 Day 2 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 18 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - The Mayor of Quito has requested an update by 10AM. - The seismometers are still active. There are rumors from the local farmers of a small pyroclastic flow in the last hour. Part of your team has a flight scheduled for 9AM to survey the area and confirm the situation. - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM. - 8 more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km. - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth. - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now.

16 Day 2 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 22 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Not much change in activity. The Mayor is still expecting an update BY 10AM. - 8 more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km. - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth. - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now. - - Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas.

17 Day 2 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 18 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: more distinct tremors were detected. No tremor has been associated with the activity of the last 10 hours. However, the quakes have remained directly beneath the volcano. One outlying quake was pinpointed to have occurred 0.8km NE of the summit at a depth of 3 km. - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth. - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now. - - Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement.

18 Day 2 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 20 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - No real change in the activity. All quakes were centered beneath the volcano and between 1.8 and 2.5 km depth. - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now. - - Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit.

19 Day 2 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 18 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - The stations around the perimeter of the volcano are picking up an increase in background seismicity. All of the major activity is still focused directly below the summit. New GPS data indicate that the center of the crater has inflated an additional 0.5 m since the last reading on April A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now. - - Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Little to no apparent change in conditions.

20 Day 2 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 21 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - A flight to survey the volcano has just left. Seismic activity continues as it has for the last 12 hours or so without any lapse. The mayor s update is due in…now. - - Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes.

21 Day 2 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 26 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 -- Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT.

22 Day 2 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 24 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: Your team reports back from their overview. There was no evidence of a pyroclastic flow, but there may be a bulge in the crater floor; there definitely was less snow cover than usual in the crater. A small rock slide seems to have occurred on the west side of the volcano, due to an oversteepened slope. It was minor and was not near any populated areas. - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour.

23 Day 2 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 38 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Seismic activity persists. New gas emission data just came in, with a 980 +/- 5 tons of SO 2 per day measurement. - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km.

24 Day 2 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 29 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Seismic activity continues with a mixture of LP (predominantly) and some VT events, focused at depths from km below the summit. - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon.

25 Day 2 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 44 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 5 - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day.

26 Day 2 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 42 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Somewhat reliable reports of steam clouds/plumes over the summit. Need to be verified, though. Occurrence of tremor lasting several minutes. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon.

27 Day 2 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 56 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Again, no significant (>2.5) seismic activity. THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Two earthquakes greater than M2.5 were recorded. They were both located below the crater complex at depths of 3.2km and 2.1km, respectively. - No seismic activity other than the constant background of minor tremors. There is a protest outside of the control center. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito from the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez. - At 6:48 PM, one M2.6 earthquake was recorded directly beneath the crater at a depth of 2.6km. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - Three seismic events Seismic occurred last hour. 2 of the events were located directly below the crater complex at depths of 1.8km and 3.2km. The other event was located approximately 2.5 SSE of the summit complex and at a depth of 4km. - THE MAYOR WOULD LIKE ANOTHER UPDATE BY 9PM TONIGHT. - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW.

28 Day 2 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 55 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Nothing new to report, other than minor tremor accompanied the 24 distinct seismic events in the past hour distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - The battery in seismic station VC1 has been replaced, but the geologists couldn t reach COV1 before dark. Over 50 seismic events were recorded in the past day, most between 3 and 1.9 km depth.

29 Day 2 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 52 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct LP + VT events were recorded in the past hour. They were located below the crater complex at depths between 3.2km and 1.9 km. - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - The battery in seismic station VC1 has been replaced, but the geologists couldn t reach COV1 before dark. Over 50 seismic events were recorded in the past day, most between 3 and 1.9 km depth distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice.

30 Day 3 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 41 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Ongoing seismic activity. There is a protest outside of the Instituto Geofisico in Quito, though. There is significant resentment of the USGS presence in Quito, stirred up primarily by the quasi-religious group led by Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez, who claims his Chihuahua is telling him that the volcano is going to erupt very soon. - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - The battery in seismic station VC1 has been replaced, but the geologists couldn t reach COV1 before dark. Over 50 seismic events were recorded in the past day, most between 3 and 1.9 km depth distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice. - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP.

31 Day 3 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 44 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - There were over 40 distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP + VT. New SO2 data from this afternoon: 1020 tons/day. - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - The battery in seismic station VC1 has been replaced, but the geologists couldn t reach COV1 before dark. Over 50 seismic events were recorded in the past day, most between 3 and 1.9 km depth distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice. - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP. - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano.

32 Day 3 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Continued seismic activity, again over 40 events in the past hour. The mayor s update is due soon. - No seismic activity. The mayor s update is due…NOW. - The battery in seismic station VC1 has been replaced, but the geologists couldn t reach COV1 before dark. Over 50 seismic events were recorded in the past day, most between 3 and 1.9 km depth distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice. - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP. - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano. - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth.

33 Day 3 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice. - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP. - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano. - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth. - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT.

34 Day 3 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct LP (mostly) events in the past hour. It s too dark to see if the elevated seismicity has had any effects on the volcanic edifice. - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP. - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano. - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth. - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT. - No seismic data available.

35 Day 3 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Slight drop in seismicity in the past hour, slight increase in VT relative to LP events, but still significant LP. - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano. - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth. - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT. - No seismic data available.

36 Day 3 6:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Similar activity to the last hour. Still too dark to see the volcano. - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth. - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT. - No seismic data available.

37 Day 3 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - The signal coming from all of the seismic stations on Cotopaxi just disappeared. The most likely cause of this is that the signal relay station in southern Quito is no longer working. A call has been placed to local authorities to see if anyone can check on it. The only working seismic station is PITA. PITA s distance from the volcano will only allow for the detection of large (M3.5 or greater) and there is no hope of being able to pinpoint location or depth. - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT. - No seismic data available. - No seismic data available, but one radio station has reported a white plume over Cotopaxi s summit.

38 Day 3 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 52 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Local police were able to get to the seismic relay station and found that all of the equipment had been looted. A replacement set of equipment has been requested, but it will take at least a few hours to get a new relay link up and running. Until that time, little seismic data will be available. THE MAYOR IS EXPECTING A 9AM REPORT. - No seismic data available. - No seismic data available, but one radio station has reported a white plume over Cotopaxi s summit. - The plume appears to be just clouds. The seismic relay station equipment was replaced at 7:21 AM and seismic readings are at similar levels to before data access was lost, with 52 separate events. The mayor s report is due…NOW.

39 Day 3 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 47 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - No seismic data available. - No seismic data available, but one radio station has reported a white plume over Cotopaxi s summit. - The plume appears to be just clouds. The seismic relay station equipment was replaced at 7:21 AM and seismic readings are at similar levels to before data access was lost, with 52 separate events. The mayor s report is due…NOW. - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station. New SO2 data as of this AM: 2270 tons/day.

40 Day 3 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 55 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - No seismic data available. - No seismic data available, but one radio station has reported a white plume over Cotopaxi s summit. - The plume appears to be just clouds. The seismic relay station equipment was replaced at 7:21 AM and seismic readings are at similar levels to before data access was lost, with 52 separate events. The mayor s report is due…NOW. - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km.

41 Day 3 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 58 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - No seismic data available. - No seismic data available, but one radio station has reported a white plume over Cotopaxi s summit. - The plume appears to be just clouds. The seismic relay station equipment was replaced at 7:21 AM and seismic readings are at similar levels to before data access was lost, with 52 separate events. The mayor s report is due…NOW. - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km. - Continued LP-dominated seismic activity. All were centered beneath the crater complex (between km depth).

42 Day 3 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 46 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - The plume appears to be just clouds. The seismic relay station equipment was replaced at 7:21 AM and seismic readings are at similar levels to before data access was lost, with 52 separate events. The mayor s report is due…NOW. - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km. - Continued LP-dominated seismic activity. All were centered beneath the crater complex (between km depth). - Tiltmeter readings have shown inflation over the past 48 hours of 0.5 cm at the altitude about halfway up the flanks of the edifice. The inflation is relatively uniform and the volcano does not seem to be bulging out to any side. Seismic activity remains consistent (46 distinct events in last hour, mostly LP, some VT).

43 Day 3 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 34 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km. - Continued LP-dominated seismic activity. All were centered beneath the crater complex (between km depth). - Tiltmeter readings have shown inflation over the past 48 hours of 0.5 cm at the altitude about halfway up the flanks of the edifice. The inflation is relatively uniform and the volcano does not seem to be bulging out to any side. Seismic activity remains consistent (46 distinct events in last hour, mostly LP, some VT). - A proposal by IG personnel to climb to near the summit and sample gases has been denied by the park officials, having been deemed too risky.

44 Day 3 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 41 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Seismic activity remains consistent. Data problems prevent the determination of depths, as the seismometers are recalibrated, but all appear to be beneath the crater complex. The police believe that Gonzalez s radical religious protest movement was to blame for the looting of the relay station seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km. - Continued LP-dominated seismic activity. All were centered beneath the crater complex (between km depth). - Tiltmeter readings have shown inflation over the past 48 hours of 0.5 cm at the altitude about halfway up the flanks of the edifice. The inflation is relatively uniform and the volcano does not seem to be bulging out to any side. Seismic activity remains consistent (46 distinct events in last hour, mostly LP, some VT). - A proposal by IG personnel to climb to near the summit and sample gases has been denied by the park officials, having been deemed too risky. - The LP-intensive nature of the seismic activity has not changed since this morning. The locations of the quakes beneath the volcano are starting to focus in beneath the crater complex, but very slightly (no more than 1/4km).

45 Day 3 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 30 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: seismic events in the past hour. Depths ranged from 5.3 km (for one of them) to 1.4 km, most around 2 km. - Continued LP-dominated seismic activity. All were centered beneath the crater complex (between km depth). - Tiltmeter readings have shown inflation over the past 48 hours of 0.5 cm at the altitude about halfway up the flanks of the edifice. The inflation is relatively uniform and the volcano does not seem to be bulging out to any side. Seismic activity remains consistent (46 distinct events in last hour, mostly LP, some VT). - A proposal by IG personnel to climb to near the summit and sample gases has been denied by the park officials, having been deemed too risky. - The LP-intensive nature of the seismic activity has not changed since this morning. The locations of the quakes beneath the volcano are starting to focus in beneath the crater complex, but very slightly (no more than 1/4km). - People in the Machachi area have become somewhat restless owing to them feeling some of the larger VT events. Meanwhile at the IG, protests are increasing in intensity and tension is high. The last hour saw a decrease to 30 distinct events, but with a slightly shallower average depth km.

46 Day 3 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 28 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - Tiltmeter readings have shown inflation over the past 48 hours of 0.5 cm at the altitude about halfway up the flanks of the edifice. The inflation is relatively uniform and the volcano does not seem to be bulging out to any side. Seismic activity remains consistent (46 distinct events in last hour, mostly LP, some VT). - A proposal by IG personnel to climb to near the summit and sample gases has been denied by the park officials, having been deemed too risky. - The LP-intensive nature of the seismic activity has not changed since this morning. The locations of the quakes beneath the volcano are starting to focus in beneath the crater complex, but very slightly (no more than 1/4km). - People in the Machachi area have become somewhat restless owing to them feeling some of the larger VT events. Meanwhile at the IG, protests are increasing in intensity and tension is high. The last hour saw a decrease to 30 distinct events, but with a slightly shallower average depth km. - Only 28 distinct seismic events in the past hour. At least one IG geologist has proposed that perhaps this is just another Cotopaxi seismic swarm that will pass as they have in the past, and questions having brought the VDAP team in at all.

47 Day 3 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 34 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - A proposal by IG personnel to climb to near the summit and sample gases has been denied by the park officials, having been deemed too risky. - The LP-intensive nature of the seismic activity has not changed since this morning. The locations of the quakes beneath the volcano are starting to focus in beneath the crater complex, but very slightly (no more than 1/4km). - People in the Machachi area have become somewhat restless owing to them feeling some of the larger VT events. Meanwhile at the IG, protests are increasing in intensity and tension is high. The last hour saw a decrease to 30 distinct events, but with a slightly shallower average depth km. - Only 28 distinct seismic events in the past hour. At least one IG geologist has proposed that perhaps this is just another Cotopaxi seismic swarm that will pass as they have in the past, and questions having brought the VDAP team in at all. - Afternoon SO2 levels from COSPEC readings at Tambopaxi are 2870 tons/day. Seismicity similar to last hour.

48 Day 3 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 44 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - The LP-intensive nature of the seismic activity has not changed since this morning. The locations of the quakes beneath the volcano are starting to focus in beneath the crater complex, but very slightly (no more than 1/4km). - People in the Machachi area have become somewhat restless owing to them feeling some of the larger VT events. Meanwhile at the IG, protests are increasing in intensity and tension is high. The last hour saw a decrease to 30 distinct events, but with a slightly shallower average depth km. - Only 28 distinct seismic events in the past hour. At least one IG geologist has proposed that perhaps this is just another Cotopaxi seismic swarm that will pass as they have in the past, and questions having brought the VDAP team in at all. - Afternoon SO2 levels from COSPEC readings at Tambopaxi are 2870 tons/day. Seismicity similar to last hour. - Reports from a military flyover late this afternoon are that little snow cover remains on the crater floor.

49 Day 3 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 43 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 4 - People in the Machachi area have become somewhat restless owing to them feeling some of the larger VT events. Meanwhile at the IG, protests are increasing in intensity and tension is high. The last hour saw a decrease to 30 distinct events, but with a slightly shallower average depth km. - Only 28 distinct seismic events in the past hour. At least one IG geologist has proposed that perhaps this is just another Cotopaxi seismic swarm that will pass as they have in the past, and questions having brought the VDAP team in at all. - Afternoon SO2 levels from COSPEC readings at Tambopaxi are 2870 tons/day. Seismicity similar to last hour. - Reports from a military flyover late this afternoon are that little snow cover remains on the crater floor events focused between 1.6 and 2.0 km (mostly) as well as a cluster around 4.0 km in the past hour. ANOTHER REPORT FOR THE MAYOR/PRESS RELEASE IS DUE BY 11PM.

50 Day 3 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 48 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Only 28 distinct seismic events in the past hour. At least one IG geologist has proposed that perhaps this is just another Cotopaxi seismic swarm that will pass as they have in the past, and questions having brought the VDAP team in at all. - Afternoon SO2 levels from COSPEC readings at Tambopaxi are 2870 tons/day. Seismicity similar to last hour. - Reports from a military flyover late this afternoon are that little snow cover remains on the crater floor events focused between 1.6 and 2.0 km (mostly) as well as a cluster around 4.0 km in the past hour. ANOTHER REPORT FOR THE MAYOR/PRESS RELEASE IS DUE BY 11PM. - Abundant VT quakes in the km depth range, with a total of 48 distinct seismic events in the past hour; very few LP events.

51 Day 3 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 55 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Afternoon SO2 levels from COSPEC readings at Tambopaxi are 2870 tons/day. Seismicity similar to last hour. - Reports from a military flyover late this afternoon are that little snow cover remains on the crater floor events focused between 1.6 and 2.0 km (mostly) as well as a cluster around 4.0 km in the past hour. ANOTHER REPORT FOR THE MAYOR/PRESS RELEASE IS DUE BY 11PM. - Abundant VT quakes in the km depth range, with a total of 48 distinct seismic events in the past hour; very few LP events. - Continued dominance of VT quakes. There were 55 seismic events in the past hour, 45 of which were VT and located ~3 km depth.

52 Day 3 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 57 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Reports from a military flyover late this afternoon are that little snow cover remains on the crater floor events focused between 1.6 and 2.0 km (mostly) as well as a cluster around 4.0 km in the past hour. ANOTHER REPORT FOR THE MAYOR/PRESS RELEASE IS DUE BY 11PM. - Abundant VT quakes in the km depth range, with a total of 48 distinct seismic events in the past hour; very few LP events. - Continued dominance of VT quakes. There were 55 seismic events in the past hour, 45 of which were VT and located ~3 km depth. - A bulletin just received from the local weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0301GMT: A strong front is moving towards the coast of Ecuador. It is unknown whether it will keep its present course, but if it does, it will bring heavy rain and high winds. There is currently a severe weather advisory for the Galapagos Islands, but this is expected to be extended to the coast of Ecuador within 24 hours. This front could make landfall within hours… The report for the mayor is due…NOW.

53 Day 3 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 50 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: events focused between 1.6 and 2.0 km (mostly) as well as a cluster around 4.0 km in the past hour. ANOTHER REPORT FOR THE MAYOR/PRESS RELEASE IS DUE BY 11PM. - Abundant VT quakes in the km depth range, with a total of 48 distinct seismic events in the past hour; very few LP events. - Continued dominance of VT quakes. There were 55 seismic events in the past hour, 45 of which were VT and located ~3 km depth. - A bulletin just received from the local weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0301GMT: A strong front is moving towards the coast of Ecuador. It is unknown whether it will keep its present course, but if it does, it will bring heavy rain and high winds. There is currently a severe weather advisory for the Galapagos Islands, but this is expected to be extended to the coast of Ecuador within 24 hours. This front could make landfall within hours… The report for the mayor is due…NOW. - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out.

54 Day 4 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 66 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Abundant VT quakes in the km depth range, with a total of 48 distinct seismic events in the past hour; very few LP events. - Continued dominance of VT quakes. There were 55 seismic events in the past hour, 45 of which were VT and located ~3 km depth. - A bulletin just received from the local weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0301GMT: A strong front is moving towards the coast of Ecuador. It is unknown whether it will keep its present course, but if it does, it will bring heavy rain and high winds. There is currently a severe weather advisory for the Galapagos Islands, but this is expected to be extended to the coast of Ecuador within 24 hours. This front could make landfall within hours… The report for the mayor is due…NOW. - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out. - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds.

55 Day 4 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 68 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Continued dominance of VT quakes. There were 55 seismic events in the past hour, 45 of which were VT and located ~3 km depth. - A bulletin just received from the local weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0301GMT: A strong front is moving towards the coast of Ecuador. It is unknown whether it will keep its present course, but if it does, it will bring heavy rain and high winds. There is currently a severe weather advisory for the Galapagos Islands, but this is expected to be extended to the coast of Ecuador within 24 hours. This front could make landfall within hours… The report for the mayor is due…NOW. - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out. - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds. - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth.

56 Day 4 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 42 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - A bulletin just received from the local weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0301GMT: A strong front is moving towards the coast of Ecuador. It is unknown whether it will keep its present course, but if it does, it will bring heavy rain and high winds. There is currently a severe weather advisory for the Galapagos Islands, but this is expected to be extended to the coast of Ecuador within 24 hours. This front could make landfall within hours… The report for the mayor is due…NOW. - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out. - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds. - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP.

57 Day 4 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 9 Seismic events over past hour: 78 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out. - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds. - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events.

58 Day 4 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 56 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Seismic activity still predominantly VT in character (50 distinct events this hour). There have been reports of fumaroles on the western side of the crater. These have not been verified visually yet because it s dark out. - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds. - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed).

59 Day 4 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 47 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - An overnight thermal imaging flight report just came in. The crater floor is without question significantly hotter than the rest of the volcano, but they could not get precise temperatures owing to interferences from clouds. - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed) events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range.

60 Day 4 6:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 88 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Almost 70 distinct seismic events in the past hour. The ratio of LPs to VTs is back to what it was a day ago (more LPs than VT quakes) and the focus of most quakes is shallower than 2 km depth distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed) events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range. - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM.

61 Day 4 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 72 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed) events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range. - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM. - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour.

62 Day 4 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 46 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed) events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range. - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM. - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour seismic events in the last hour including 2 minutes of continuous tremor.

63 Day 4 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 71 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Increase in seismicity again to 78 distinct events. - Another seismic station (BTAM) has stopped responding, most likely due to battery failure. A decision has been made to leave any attempt to fix/replace the station for an undetermined time in the future; the park will not let anyone climb the mountain owing to increasing rumors of fumarolic activity (still unconfirmed) events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range. - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM. - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour distinct seismic events, almost all LP and shallower than 2 km. The morning report is due NOW.

64 Day 4 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 65 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: events in the past hour, mostly LP and in the km depth range. - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM. - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour distinct seismic events, almost all LP and shallower than 2 km. The morning report is due NOW. - An update from the weather service: Quito, EQ 1502GMT: The front over the Galapagos Islands has been upgraded to Tropical Storm Derwood. Sustained winds of 45mph and heavy rainfall are being reported. The system is becoming more organized and is expected to increase in strength over the open water. Because such systems are rare this at this time of year, predicting a course or its potential strength cannot be done at this time…

65 Day 4 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 54 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - There were 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour, which includes 3 separate ~1 minute long intervals of tremor. No depths available on the tremor, but they appear to have a shallow source. The mayor would like his morning update by 10AM. - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour distinct seismic events, almost all LP and shallower than 2 km. The morning report is due NOW. - An update from the weather service: Quito, EQ 1502GMT: The front over the Galapagos Islands has been upgraded to Tropical Storm Derwood. Sustained winds of 45mph and heavy rainfall are being reported. The system is becoming more organized and is expected to increase in strength over the open water. Because such systems are rare this at this time of year, predicting a course or its potential strength cannot be done at this time… - New GPS data indicate that the crater floor has moved up an additional 0.6 meters since the last data were reported. There were 54 distinct seismic events in the past hour as well.

66 Day 4 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 63 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Gas emission data are in from the COSPEC at Tambopaxi. High winds and poor visibility made a high degree of accuracy difficult. The reading showed 4810 tons/day of SO2 with a margin of error of +/-300 tons/day. Minor tremor observed on several occasions in last hour distinct seismic events, almost all LP and shallower than 2 km. The morning report is due NOW. - An update from the weather service: Quito, EQ 1502GMT: The front over the Galapagos Islands has been upgraded to Tropical Storm Derwood. Sustained winds of 45mph and heavy rainfall are being reported. The system is becoming more organized and is expected to increase in strength over the open water. Because such systems are rare this at this time of year, predicting a course or its potential strength cannot be done at this time… - New GPS data indicate that the crater floor has moved up an additional 0.6 meters since the last data were reported. There were 54 distinct seismic events in the past hour as well. - The tiltmeters are also showing inflation that is edifice-wide of a few cm over the past few days (more precise data are unavailable at this time). There were 63 distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP.

67 Day 4 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 79 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events, almost all LP and shallower than 2 km. The morning report is due NOW. - An update from the weather service: Quito, EQ 1502GMT: The front over the Galapagos Islands has been upgraded to Tropical Storm Derwood. Sustained winds of 45mph and heavy rainfall are being reported. The system is becoming more organized and is expected to increase in strength over the open water. Because such systems are rare this at this time of year, predicting a course or its potential strength cannot be done at this time… - New GPS data indicate that the crater floor has moved up an additional 0.6 meters since the last data were reported. There were 54 distinct seismic events in the past hour as well. - The tiltmeters are also showing inflation that is edifice-wide of a few cm over the past few days (more precise data are unavailable at this time). There were 63 distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Several minutes of tremor (6-7) occurred during the past hour, interspersed with 79 distinct LP and VT events.

68 Day 4 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 82 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - An update from the weather service: Quito, EQ 1502GMT: The front over the Galapagos Islands has been upgraded to Tropical Storm Derwood. Sustained winds of 45mph and heavy rainfall are being reported. The system is becoming more organized and is expected to increase in strength over the open water. Because such systems are rare this at this time of year, predicting a course or its potential strength cannot be done at this time… - New GPS data indicate that the crater floor has moved up an additional 0.6 meters since the last data were reported. There were 54 distinct seismic events in the past hour as well. - The tiltmeters are also showing inflation that is edifice-wide of a few cm over the past few days (more precise data are unavailable at this time). There were 63 distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Several minutes of tremor (6-7) occurred during the past hour, interspersed with 79 distinct LP and VT events distinct seismic events in the past hour. Tremor continues at about the same frequency as last hour.

69 Day 4 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 88 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - New GPS data indicate that the crater floor has moved up an additional 0.6 meters since the last data were reported. There were 54 distinct seismic events in the past hour as well. - The tiltmeters are also showing inflation that is edifice-wide of a few cm over the past few days (more precise data are unavailable at this time). There were 63 distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Several minutes of tremor (6-7) occurred during the past hour, interspersed with 79 distinct LP and VT events distinct seismic events in the past hour. Tremor continues at about the same frequency as last hour. - Steam clouds from vents on the crater floor were confirmed during an overflight by a radio station helicopter (they took pictures, they didn t do the interpretations). Steam plumes seem to be rising approximately 500 m before being dispersed by the wind. 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour.

70 Day 4 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 92 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - The tiltmeters are also showing inflation that is edifice-wide of a few cm over the past few days (more precise data are unavailable at this time). There were 63 distinct seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP. - Several minutes of tremor (6-7) occurred during the past hour, interspersed with 79 distinct LP and VT events distinct seismic events in the past hour. Tremor continues at about the same frequency as last hour. - Steam clouds from vents on the crater floor were confirmed during an overflight by a radio station helicopter (they took pictures, they didn t do the interpretations). Steam plumes seem to be rising approximately 500 m before being dispersed by the wind. 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - Increase in number of LP events to 92 distinct seismic events (most were LP in the km depth range the few VT were 3-4 km deep).

71 Day 4 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 93 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Several minutes of tremor (6-7) occurred during the past hour, interspersed with 79 distinct LP and VT events distinct seismic events in the past hour. Tremor continues at about the same frequency as last hour. - Steam clouds from vents on the crater floor were confirmed during an overflight by a radio station helicopter (they took pictures, they didn t do the interpretations). Steam plumes seem to be rising approximately 500 m before being dispersed by the wind. 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - Increase in number of LP events to 92 distinct seismic events (most were LP in the km depth range the few VT were 3-4 km deep). - Number of seismic events is still elevated and mostly shallow LP. A radar installation at a nearby military base called to report anomalous clouds over the summit. Seismic station MO1V, one of the closest to the summit, has stopped responding. Afternoon COSPEC readings indicate a level of 6280 tons of SO2/day.

72 Day 4 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 89 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events in the past hour. Tremor continues at about the same frequency as last hour. - Steam clouds from vents on the crater floor were confirmed during an overflight by a radio station helicopter (they took pictures, they didn t do the interpretations). Steam plumes seem to be rising approximately 500 m before being dispersed by the wind. 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - Increase in number of LP events to 92 distinct seismic events (most were LP in the km depth range the few VT were 3-4 km deep). - Number of seismic events is still elevated and mostly shallow LP. A radar installation at a nearby military base called to report anomalous clouds over the summit. Seismic station MO1V, one of the closest to the summit, has stopped responding. Afternoon COSPEC readings indicate a level of 6280 tons of SO2/day. - People can see the fumarolic activity from the closest towns and are calling the IG to inquire about the state of the volcano. 89 distinct seismic events plus minutes of harmonic tremor (total in the past hour).

73 Day 4 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 87 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 0 Days until budget runs out: 3 - Steam clouds from vents on the crater floor were confirmed during an overflight by a radio station helicopter (they took pictures, they didn t do the interpretations). Steam plumes seem to be rising approximately 500 m before being dispersed by the wind. 88 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - Increase in number of LP events to 92 distinct seismic events (most were LP in the km depth range the few VT were 3-4 km deep). - Number of seismic events is still elevated and mostly shallow LP. A radar installation at a nearby military base called to report anomalous clouds over the summit. Seismic station MO1V, one of the closest to the summit, has stopped responding. Afternoon COSPEC readings indicate a level of 6280 tons of SO2/day. - People can see the fumarolic activity from the closest towns and are calling the IG to inquire about the state of the volcano. 89 distinct seismic events plus minutes of harmonic tremor (total in the past hour). - Reports are coming in from several farms and towns near the SW side of the volcano that explosions were heard in the past hour, and that a plume was spotted over the summit that was significantly higher than those observed in the past day.

74 Day 4 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 92 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 1 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Increase in number of LP events to 92 distinct seismic events (most were LP in the km depth range the few VT were 3-4 km deep). - Number of seismic events is still elevated and mostly shallow LP. A radar installation at a nearby military base called to report anomalous clouds over the summit. Seismic station MO1V, one of the closest to the summit, has stopped responding. Afternoon COSPEC readings indicate a level of 6280 tons of SO2/day. - People can see the fumarolic activity from the closest towns and are calling the IG to inquire about the state of the volcano. 89 distinct seismic events plus minutes of harmonic tremor (total in the past hour). - Reports are coming in from several farms and towns near the SW side of the volcano that explosions were heard in the past hour, and that a plume was spotted over the summit that was significantly higher than those observed in the past day. The mayor would like a report at 11 PM tonight. - The Ecuadorian weather service just called to report that there is indeed a 1.3 km high plume above the summit of Cotopaxi.

75 Day 4 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 85 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 1 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Number of seismic events is still elevated and mostly shallow LP. A radar installation at a nearby military base called to report anomalous clouds over the summit. Seismic station MO1V, one of the closest to the summit, has stopped responding. Afternoon COSPEC readings indicate a level of 6280 tons of SO2/day. - People can see the fumarolic activity from the closest towns and are calling the IG to inquire about the state of the volcano. 89 distinct seismic events plus minutes of harmonic tremor (total in the past hour). - Reports are coming in from several farms and towns near the SW side of the volcano that explosions were heard in the past hour, and that a plume was spotted over the summit that was significantly higher than those observed in the past day. The mayor would like a report at 11 PM tonight. - The Ecuadorian weather service just called to report that there is indeed a 1.3 km high plume above the summit of Cotopaxi distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP with increased tremor, some harmonic. An update from the weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0215GMT: Tropical Storm Derwood has stalled offshore of Ecuador. The coastline is experiencing heavy tidal surge and rain. The interior of Ecuador could experience showers or winds, but for now will not be affected by the storm.

76 Day 4 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 99 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 1 Days until budget runs out: 2 - People can see the fumarolic activity from the closest towns and are calling the IG to inquire about the state of the volcano. 89 distinct seismic events plus minutes of harmonic tremor (total in the past hour). - Reports are coming in from several farms and towns near the SW side of the volcano that explosions were heard in the past hour, and that a plume was spotted over the summit that was significantly higher than those observed in the past day. The mayor would like a report at 11 PM tonight. - The Ecuadorian weather service just called to report that there is indeed a 1.3 km high plume above the summit of Cotopaxi distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP with increased tremor, some harmonic. An update from the weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0215GMT: Tropical Storm Derwood has stalled offshore of Ecuador. The coastline is experiencing heavy tidal surge and rain. The interior of Ecuador could experience showers or winds, but for now will not be affected by the storm. - Seismic activity has remained fairly high since the explosion late this afternoon, with significant tremor. The mayor s report is due NOW.

77 Day 4 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 84 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 1 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Reports are coming in from several farms and towns near the SW side of the volcano that explosions were heard in the past hour, and that a plume was spotted over the summit that was significantly higher than those observed in the past day. The mayor would like a report at 11 PM tonight. - The Ecuadorian weather service just called to report that there is indeed a 1.3 km high plume above the summit of Cotopaxi distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP with increased tremor, some harmonic. An update from the weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0215GMT: Tropical Storm Derwood has stalled offshore of Ecuador. The coastline is experiencing heavy tidal surge and rain. The interior of Ecuador could experience showers or winds, but for now will not be affected by the storm. - Seismic activity has remained fairly high since the explosion late this afternoon, with significant tremor. The mayor s report is due NOW. - The plume from the explosion earlier this evening has dissipated, according to the weather service. No further reports owing to it being dark out. Over 80 seismic events, including significant tremor.

78 Day 5 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 88 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 2 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The Ecuadorian weather service just called to report that there is indeed a 1.3 km high plume above the summit of Cotopaxi distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP with increased tremor, some harmonic. An update from the weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0215GMT: Tropical Storm Derwood has stalled offshore of Ecuador. The coastline is experiencing heavy tidal surge and rain. The interior of Ecuador could experience showers or winds, but for now will not be affected by the storm. - Seismic activity has remained fairly high since the explosion late this afternoon, with significant tremor. The mayor s report is due NOW. - The plume from the explosion earlier this evening has dissipated, according to the weather service. No further reports owing to it being dark out. Over 80 seismic events, including significant tremor. - At 11:55 PM, more explosions from Coto were heard by people as far away as Alaquez, with people in Latacunga reporting explosions and/or what they thought was thunder. The weather service reports a plume exceeding 1.5 km and rising.

79 Day 5 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 79 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 2 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events in the last hour, mostly LP with increased tremor, some harmonic. An update from the weather bureau: Quito, EQ 0215GMT: Tropical Storm Derwood has stalled offshore of Ecuador. The coastline is experiencing heavy tidal surge and rain. The interior of Ecuador could experience showers or winds, but for now will not be affected by the storm. - Seismic activity has remained fairly high since the explosion late this afternoon, with significant tremor. The mayor s report is due NOW. - The plume from the explosion earlier this evening has dissipated, according to the weather service. No further reports owing to it being dark out. Over 80 seismic events, including significant tremor. - At 11:55 PM, more explosions from Coto were heard by people as far away as Alaquez, with people in Latacunga reporting explosions and/or what they thought was thunder. The weather service reports a plume exceeding 1.5 km and rising seismic events in the past hour, most LP, some VT, significant tremor. Signal came in this hour from L-RMARI (acoustic flow monitor), but can t distinguish this as a lahar with certainty, as this station has been unreliable over the past few months. No visual observations reported from the area yet either.

80 Day 5 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 80 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Seismic activity has remained fairly high since the explosion late this afternoon, with significant tremor. The mayor s report is due NOW. - The plume from the explosion earlier this evening has dissipated, according to the weather service. No further reports owing to it being dark out. Over 80 seismic events, including significant tremor. - At 11:55 PM, more explosions from Coto were heard by people as far away as Alaquez, with people in Latacunga reporting explosions and/or what they thought was thunder. The weather service reports a plume exceeding 1.5 km and rising seismic events in the past hour, most LP, some VT, significant tremor. Signal came in this hour from L-RMARI (acoustic flow monitor), but can t distinguish this as a lahar with certainty, as this station has been unreliable over the past few months. No visual observations reported from the area yet either. - 2:05 AM: reports of another series of explosions from the summit, audible as far as Latacunga; no data on plume height or whether ash is being produced. Authorities in the towns SW of Cotopaxi are calling the IG for advice.

81 Day 5 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 35 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - At 11:55 PM, more explosions from Coto were heard by people as far away as Alaquez, with people in Latacunga reporting explosions and/or what they thought was thunder. The weather service reports a plume exceeding 1.5 km and rising seismic events in the past hour, most LP, some VT, significant tremor. Signal came in this hour from L-RMARI (acoustic flow monitor), but can t distinguish this as a lahar with certainty, as this station has been unreliable over the past few months. No visual observations reported from the area yet either. - 2:05 AM: reports of another series of explosions from the summit, audible as far as Latacunga; no data on plume height or whether ash is being produced. Authorities in the towns SW of Cotopaxi are calling the IG for advice. -C- Just received confirmation from a local farmer on SW flanks of Coto of a small lahar down Quebrada San Diego, reaching ~8 km from the summit (hard to quantify because it s still night), no report of damage. He also reported ash that began to fall after the second set of explosions. Only 35 distinct seismic events today but significant tremor as well.

82 Day 5 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 43 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: seismic events in the past hour, most LP, some VT, significant tremor. Signal came in this hour from L-RMARI (acoustic flow monitor), but can t distinguish this as a lahar with certainty, as this station has been unreliable over the past few months. No visual observations reported from the area yet either. -2:05 AM: reports of another series of explosions from the summit, audible as far as Latacunga; no data on plume height or whether ash is being produced. Authorities in the towns SW of Cotopaxi are calling the IG for advice. -Just received confirmation from a local farmer on SW flanks of Coto of a small lahar down Quebrada San Diego, reaching ~8 km from the summit (hard to quantify because it s still night), no report of damage. He also reported ash that began to fall after the second set of explosions. Only 35 distinct seismic events today but significant tremor as well. - Continued lower seismic activity, LP mostly plus significant tremor. Radar reports of a plume over the summit of ~2 km, with ash falling slightly on several points to the SW of the summit. No damage reported.

83 Day 5 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 23 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 -2:05 AM: reports of another series of explosions from the summit, audible as far as Latacunga; no data on plume height or whether ash is being produced. Authorities in the towns SW of Cotopaxi are calling the IG for advice. -Just received confirmation from a local farmer on SW flanks of Coto of a small lahar down Quebrada San Diego, reaching ~8 km from the summit (hard to quantify because it s still night), no report of damage. He also reported ash that began to fall after the second set of explosions. Only 35 distinct seismic events today but significant tremor as well. - Continued lower seismic activity, LP mostly plus significant tremor. Radar reports of a plume over the summit of ~2 km, with ash falling slightly on several points to the SW of the summit. No damage reported. - Acoustic flow monitor L-RMARI alarm went off 2 minutes ago, definitely a lahar signal this time and significantly larger than the last one. Only 23 distinct seismic events this hour, some LP, tremor mostly.

84 Day 5 6:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 8 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Just received confirmation from a local farmer on SW flanks of Coto of a small lahar down Quebrada San Diego, reaching ~8 km from the summit (hard to quantify because it s still night), no report of damage. He also reported ash that began to fall after the second set of explosions. Only 35 distinct seismic events today but significant tremor as well. - Continued lower seismic activity, LP mostly plus significant tremor. Radar reports of a plume over the summit of ~2 km, with ash falling slightly on several points to the SW of the summit. No damage reported. - Acoustic flow monitor L-RMARI alarm went off 2 minutes ago, definitely a lahar signal this time and significantly larger than the last one. Only 23 distinct seismic events this hour, some LP, tremor mostly. - The geologists at Tambopaxi have gone out to collect ash from the night s explosions to determine whether there is juvenile material in it or if it is just lithics from a phreatic explosion. Distinct seismic events down to 8 in the past hour, no tremor, only LP.

85 Day 5 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 7 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Continued lower seismic activity, LP mostly plus significant tremor. Radar reports of a plume over the summit of ~2 km, with ash falling slightly on several points to the SW of the summit. No damage reported. - Acoustic flow monitor L-RMARI alarm went off 2 minutes ago, definitely a lahar signal this time and significantly larger than the last one. Only 23 distinct seismic events this hour, some LP, tremor mostly. - The geologists at Tambopaxi have gone out to collect ash from the night s explosions to determine whether there is juvenile material in it or if it is just lithics from a phreatic explosion. Distinct seismic events down to 8 in the past hour, no tremor, only LP. - Only 7 distinct seismic events in the past hour, all LP and at approximately 1.3 km depth. Now that the sun is up, reports are trickling in of a significant lahar down the SW flank and of ~0.5 cm of ash throughout the SW region of Coto s flanks. There is a residual, ~1.5 km high plume over the volcano but no further reports of activity.

86 Day 5 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 8 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Acoustic flow monitor L-RMARI alarm went off 2 minutes ago, definitely a lahar signal this time and significantly larger than the last one. Only 23 distinct seismic events this hour, some LP, tremor mostly. - The geologists at Tambopaxi have gone out to collect ash from the night s explosions to determine whether there is juvenile material in it or if it is just lithics from a phreatic explosion. Distinct seismic events down to 8 in the past hour, no tremor, only LP. - Only 7 distinct seismic events in the past hour, all LP and at approximately 1.3 km depth. Now that the sun is up, reports are trickling in of a significant lahar down the SW flank and of ~0.5 cm of ash throughout the SW region of Coto s flanks. There is a residual, ~1.5 km high plume over the volcano but no further reports of activity. - Before they left to collect ash, the Tambopaxi group measured SO2 levels of 6540 tons/day before clouds moved in to obscure the summit. Unclear whether the clouds are simply weather-related or intense fumarole activity. The Tambopaxi team confirms a minor layer of ash across the southwestern flanks of the volcano, but have not reached the potential location of the lahar yet. Seismicity continues to be low.

87 Day 5 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The geologists at Tambopaxi have gone out to collect ash from the night s explosions to determine whether there is juvenile material in it or if it is just lithics from a phreatic explosion. Distinct seismic events down to 8 in the past hour, no tremor, only LP. - Only 7 distinct seismic events in the past hour, all LP and at approximately 1.3 km depth. Now that the sun is up, reports are trickling in of a significant lahar down the SW flank and of ~0.5 cm of ash throughout the SW region of Coto s flanks. There is a residual, ~1.5 km high plume over the volcano but no further reports of activity. - Before they left to collect ash, the Tambopaxi group measured SO2 levels of 6540 tons/day before clouds moved in to obscure the summit. Unclear whether the clouds are simply weather-related or intense fumarole activity. The Tambopaxi team confirms a minor layer of ash across the southwestern flanks of the volcano, but have not reached the potential location of the lahar yet. Seismicity continues to be low. - Confirmation that this morning s acoustic flow monitor alarm was a 14 km- long lahar that came down Quebrada San Diego and San Lorenzo, but did not reach the town of Mulalo or cause any damage to property other than some pasturelands.

88 Day 5 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 15 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Only 7 distinct seismic events in the past hour, all LP and at approximately 1.3 km depth. Now that the sun is up, reports are trickling in of a significant lahar down the SW flank and of ~0.5 cm of ash throughout the SW region of Coto s flanks. There is a residual, ~1.5 km high plume over the volcano but no further reports of activity. - Before they left to collect ash, the Tambopaxi group measured SO2 levels of 6540 tons/day before clouds moved in to obscure the summit. Unclear whether the clouds are simply weather-related or intense fumarole activity. The Tambopaxi team confirms a minor layer of ash across the southwestern flanks of the volcano, but have not reached the potential location of the lahar yet. Seismicity continues to be low. - Confirmation that this morning s acoustic flow monitor alarm was a 14 km- long lahar that came down Quebrada San Diego and San Lorenzo, but did not reach the town of Mulalo or cause any damage to property other than some pasturelands. - Preliminary hand sample analysis of ash from the field team is that there is no juvenile material, only lithic fragments, some of which area hydrothermally altered. They ve concluded that the explosions overnight were phreatic, related exclusively to water in the summit area.

89 Day 5 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Before they left to collect ash, the Tambopaxi group measured SO2 levels of 6540 tons/day before clouds moved in to obscure the summit. Unclear whether the clouds are simply weather-related or intense fumarole activity. The Tambopaxi team confirms a minor layer of ash across the southwestern flanks of the volcano, but have not reached the potential location of the lahar yet. Seismicity continues to be low. - Confirmation that this morning s acoustic flow monitor alarm was a 14 km- long lahar that came down Quebrada San Diego and San Lorenzo, but did not reach the town of Mulalo or cause any damage to property other than some pasturelands. - Preliminary hand sample analysis of ash from the field team is that there is no juvenile material, only lithic fragments, some of which area hydrothermally altered. They ve concluded that the explosions overnight were phreatic, related exclusively to water in the summit area. - Continued low seismicity, mostly shallow LP events but the average depth appears to be increasing by ~0.2 km.

90 Day 5 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 14 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Confirmation that this morning s acoustic flow monitor alarm was a 14 km- long lahar that came down Quebrada San Diego and San Lorenzo, but did not reach the town of Mulalo or cause any damage to property other than some pasturelands. - Preliminary hand sample analysis of ash from the field team is that there is no juvenile material, only lithic fragments, some of which area hydrothermally altered. They ve concluded that the explosions overnight were phreatic, related exclusively to water in the summit area. - Continued low seismicity, mostly shallow LP events but the average depth appears to be increasing by ~0.2 km. - The field team from the IG just ran into a geochemist from a private university in Quito who is also out collecting ash, despite not being sanctioned by the IG to do so. He concurs with their assessment of no juvenile material in the recently erupted material. Only 14 distinct seismic events in the past hour.

91 Day 5 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 7 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Preliminary hand sample analysis of ash from the field team is that there is no juvenile material, only lithic fragments, some of which area hydrothermally altered. They ve concluded that the explosions overnight were phreatic, related exclusively to water in the summit area. - Continued low seismicity, mostly shallow LP events but the average depth appears to be increasing by ~0.2 km. - The field team from the IG just ran into a geochemist from a private university in Quito who is also out collecting ash, despite not being sanctioned by the IG to do so. He concurs with their assessment of no juvenile material in the recently erupted material. Only 14 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - The summit continues to be obscured by clouds, and overall seismicity levels remain low, mostly LP with progressively decreasing amplitude over the past few hours. The mayor would like an update by 5 PM tonight.

92 Day 5 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 5 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The data coming in indicate that another event just began. There is not much of a view of the summit, but reports should come in from spotters soon. - Continued low seismicity, mostly shallow LP events but the average depth appears to be increasing by ~0.2 km. - The field team from the IG just ran into a geochemist from a private university in Quito who is also out collecting ash, despite not being sanctioned by the IG to do so. He concurs with their assessment of no juvenile material in the recently erupted material. Only 14 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - The summit continues to be obscured by clouds, and overall seismicity levels remain low, mostly LP with progressively decreasing amplitude over the past few hours. The mayor would like an update by 5 PM tonight. - The instruments are relatively quiet. The weather is starting to look sinister as the storm offshore starts to move inland. Only 5 distinct seismic events all 1.8 km or deeper, all LP in the past hour.

93 Day 5 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 8 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - Continued low seismicity, mostly shallow LP events but the average depth appears to be increasing by ~0.2 km. - The field team from the IG just ran into a geochemist from a private university in Quito who is also out collecting ash, despite not being sanctioned by the IG to do so. He concurs with their assessment of no juvenile material in the recently erupted material. Only 14 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - The summit continues to be obscured by clouds, and overall seismicity levels remain low, mostly LP with progressively decreasing amplitude over the past few hours. The mayor would like an update by 5 PM tonight. - The instruments are relatively quiet. The weather is starting to look sinister as the storm offshore starts to move inland. Only 5 distinct seismic events all 1.8 km or deeper, all LP in the past hour. - 8 distinct seismic events in the past hour, same characteristics as last hour. There are rumors that the rogue geologist your team met in the field is calling a press conference (something he tends to do without consultation with the IG), but nobody knows why yet.

94 Day 5 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 7 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The field team from the IG just ran into a geochemist from a private university in Quito who is also out collecting ash, despite not being sanctioned by the IG to do so. He concurs with their assessment of no juvenile material in the recently erupted material. Only 14 distinct seismic events in the past hour. - The summit continues to be obscured by clouds, and overall seismicity levels remain low, mostly LP with progressively decreasing amplitude over the past few hours. The mayor would like an update by 5 PM tonight. - The instruments are relatively quiet. The weather is starting to look sinister as the storm offshore starts to move inland. Only 5 distinct seismic events all 1.8 km or deeper, all LP in the past hour. - 8 distinct seismic events in the past hour, same characteristics as last hour. There are rumors that the rogue geologist your team met in the field is calling a press conference (something he tends to do without consultation with the IG), but nobody knows why yet. - Only 7 seismic events in the past hour. No further information available. The mayor s update is due NOW.

95 Day 5 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 8 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The summit continues to be obscured by clouds, and overall seismicity levels remain low, mostly LP with progressively decreasing amplitude over the past few hours. The mayor would like an update by 5 PM tonight. - The instruments are relatively quiet. The weather is starting to look sinister as the storm offshore starts to move inland. Only 5 distinct seismic events all 1.8 km or deeper, all LP in the past hour. - 8 distinct seismic events in the past hour, same characteristics as last hour. There are rumors that the rogue geologist your team met in the field is calling a press conference (something he tends to do without consultation with the IG), but nobody knows why yet. -Only 7 seismic events in the past hour. No further information available. The mayor s update is due NOW. - The geologist did indeed hold a press conference, in which he declared with great certainty that owing to the lack of juvenile material in the ash and the decrease in seismicity over the past day that there was no danger of a major eruption from Cotopaxi, and that people who had left their homes on the SW flank last night could return without concern. Calls are flooding into the IG for confirmation of this press conference.

96 Day 5 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 2 - The instruments are relatively quiet. The weather is starting to look sinister as the storm offshore starts to move inland. Only 5 distinct seismic events all 1.8 km or deeper, all LP in the past hour. - 8 distinct seismic events in the past hour, same characteristics as last hour. There are rumors that the rogue geologist your team met in the field is calling a press conference (something he tends to do without consultation with the IG), but nobody knows why yet. -Only 7 seismic events in the past hour. No further information available. The mayor s update is due NOW. - The geologist did indeed hold a press conference, in which he declared with reat certainty that owing to the lack of juvenile material in the ash and the decrease in seismicity over the past day that there was no danger of a major eruption from Cotopaxi, and that people who had left their homes on the SW flank last night could return without concern. He also called for the imperialist American geologists to go home and leave Ecuador to the Ecuadorians. This has only increased the intensity of protests outside the IG. - A member of the field team has arrived with ash samples, but microscopic and geochemical analysis will require at least a day to confirm their assessment of its composition. Only 12 distinct seismic events this hour, all 2 km or greater, LP but no VT or tremor.

97 Day 5 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 4 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events in the past hour, same characteristics as last hour. There are rumors that the rogue geologist your team met in the field is calling a press conference (something he tends to do without consultation with the IG), but nobody knows why yet. -Only 7 seismic events in the past hour. No further information available. The mayor s update is due NOW. - The geologist did indeed hold a press conference, in which he declared with reat certainty that owing to the lack of juvenile material in the ash and the decrease in seismicity over the past day that there was no danger of a major eruption from Cotopaxi, and that people who had left their homes on the SW flank last night could return without concern. He also called for the imperialist American geologists to go home and leave Ecuador to the Ecuadorians. This has only increased the intensity of protests outside the IG. - A member of the field team has arrived with ash samples, but microscopic and geochemical analysis will require at least a day to confirm their assessment of its composition. Only 12 distinct seismic events this hour, all 2 km or greater, LP but no VT or tremor. - COSPEC analysis just before dark yielded 510 tons of SO2/day as the value. Four distinct seismic events in the past hour, similar to the ones from the previous hour.

98 Day 5 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 6 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - The geologist did indeed hold a press conference, in which he declared with reat certainty that owing to the lack of juvenile material in the ash and the decrease in seismicity over the past day that there was no danger of a major eruption from Cotopaxi, and that people who had left their homes on the SW flank last night could return without concern. He also called for the imperialist American geologists to go home and leave Ecuador to the Ecuadorians. This has only increased the intensity of protests outside the IG. - A member of the field team has arrived with ash samples, but microscopic and geochemical analysis will require at least a day to confirm their assessment of its composition. Only 12 distinct seismic events this hour, all 2 km or greater, LP but no VT or tremor. - COSPEC analysis just before dark yielded 510 tons of SO2/day as the value. Four distinct seismic events in the past hour, similar to the ones from the previous hour. - The weather system is now starting to produce rain on the Quito area. Seismic activity remains quiet and small amplitude. The IG just received a call from the federal government of Ecuador that they are contemplating requesting that VDAP pull out, based primarily on the press conference of our friend the rogue geologist, because they think this will stop the protests in Quito. AFM L-RMARI s alarm went off about 30 minutes ago.

99 Day 5 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 9 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - A member of the field team has arrived with ash samples, but microscopic and geochemical analysis will require at least a day to confirm their assessment of its composition. Only 12 distinct seismic events this hour, all 2 km or greater, LP but no VT or tremor. - COSPEC analysis just before dark yielded 510 tons of SO2/day as the value. Four distinct seismic events in the past hour, similar to the ones from the previous hour. - The weather system is now starting to produce rain on the Quito area. Seismic activity remains quiet and small amplitude. The IG just received a call from the federal government of Ecuador that they are contemplating requesting that VDAP pull out, based primarily on the press conference of our friend the rogue geologist, because they think this will stop the protests in Quito. AFM L-RMARI s alarm went off about 30 minutes ago. - Continued low amplitude LP seismicity, mostly deeper than 2 km. Minor lahar confirmed ~6 km down Quebrada San Diego, simply following the same path as the first two.

100 Day 5 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 12 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - COSPEC analysis just before dark yielded 510 tons of SO2/day as the value. Four distinct seismic events in the past hour, similar to the ones from the previous hour. - The weather system is now starting to produce rain on the Quito area. Seismic activity remains quiet and small amplitude. The IG just received a call from the federal government of Ecuador that they are contemplating requesting that VDAP pull out, based primarily on the press conference of our friend the rogue geologist, because they think this will stop the protests in Quito. AFM L-RMARI s alarm went off about 30 minutes ago. - Continued low amplitude LP seismicity, mostly deeper than 2 km. Minor lahar confirmed ~6 km down Quebrada San Diego, simply following the same path as the first two. - Ongoing low level seismicity. New GPS data just reported by Gorki that there has been 0.5 m inflation at the center of the crater since the last GPS data were processed about a day and a half ago.

101 Day 5 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 14 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - The weather system is now starting to produce rain on the Quito area. Seismic activity remains quiet and small amplitude. The IG just received a call from the federal government of Ecuador that they are contemplating requesting that VDAP pull out, based primarily on the press conference of our friend the rogue geologist, because they think this will stop the protests in Quito. AFM L-RMARI s alarm went off about 30 minutes ago. - Continued low amplitude LP seismicity, mostly deeper than 2 km. Minor lahar confirmed ~6 km down Quebrada San Diego, simply following the same path as the first two. - Ongoing low level seismicity. New GPS data just reported by Gorki that there has been 0.5 m inflation at the center of the crater since the last GPS data were processed about a day and a half ago. - Continued seismicity centered ~2 km below the summit, 14 distinct events in the past hour. Debate intensifies about VDAP being asked to leave the country because they are no longer needed, led by what is becoming a coalition between the rogue geologist and Gonzalez radical anti-American group. They claim that the most recent lahar is simply older, unconsolidated material mobilized by the strong rains and not related to eruptive activity.

102 Day 6 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 15 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Continued low amplitude LP seismicity, mostly deeper than 2 km. Minor lahar confirmed ~6 km down Quebrada San Diego, simply following the same path as the first two. - Ongoing low level seismicity. New GPS data just reported by Gorki that there has been 0.5 m inflation at the center of the crater since the last GPS data were processed about a day and a half ago. - Continued seismicity centered ~2 km below the summit, 14 distinct events in the past hour. Debate intensifies about VDAP being asked to leave the country because they are no longer needed, led by what is becoming a coalition between the rogue geologist and Gonzalez radical anti-American group. They claim that the most recent lahar is simply older, unconsolidated material mobilized by the strong rains and not related to eruptive activity. - The storm is now upon the Quito region, bringing with it major, torrential rain. Reports have already started to come in of small lahars down the western slopes of the Quito valley in addition to more lahars on the SW flanks of Coto. Only L-RMARI is showing any detectable signal though, and it is lower amplitude than previously observed. 15 distinct seismic events in the last hour, similar to the past few hours activity, all small amplitude.

103 Day 6 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 18 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Ongoing low level seismicity. New GPS data just reported by Gorki that there has been 0.5 m inflation at the center of the crater since the last GPS data were processed about a day and a half ago. - Continued seismicity centered ~2 km below the summit, 14 distinct events in the past hour. Debate intensifies about VDAP being asked to leave the country because they are no longer needed, led by what is becoming a coalition between the rogue geologist and Gonzalez radical anti-American group. They claim that the most recent lahar is simply older, unconsolidated material mobilized by the strong rains and not related to eruptive activity. - The storm is now upon the Quito region, bringing with it major, torrential rain. Reports have already started to come in of small lahars down the western slopes of the Quito valley in addition to more lahars on the SW flanks of Coto. Only L-RMARI is showing any detectable signal though, and it is lower amplitude than previously observed. 15 distinct seismic events in the last hour, similar to the past few hours activity, all small amplitude distinct seismic events all LP in the past hour. Ongoing reports of small lahars on the western valley walls over Quito and the SW flanks of Coto, none causing significant damage at this time. AFMs L-RMARI, L-SLOR, and L- NSAN showed small signals in the past 10 minutes.

104 Day 6 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 23 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Continued seismicity centered ~2 km below the summit, 14 distinct events in the past hour. Debate intensifies about VDAP being asked to leave the country because they are no longer needed, led by what is becoming a coalition between the rogue geologist and Gonzalez radical anti-American group. They claim that the most recent lahar is simply older, unconsolidated material mobilized by the strong rains and not related to eruptive activity. - The storm is now upon the Quito region, bringing with it major, torrential rain. Reports have already started to come in of small lahars down the western slopes of the Quito valley in addition to more lahars on the SW flanks of Coto. Only L-RMARI is showing any detectable signal though, and it is lower amplitude than previously observed. 15 distinct seismic events in the last hour, similar to the past few hours activity, all small amplitude. -18 distinct seismic events all LP in the past hour. Ongoing reports of small lahars on the western valley walls over Quito and the SW flanks of Coto, none causing significant damage at this time. AFMs L-RMARI, L-SLOR, and L- NSAN showed small signals in the past 10 minutes Continued seismicity (all LP) with possible minor increase in amplitude and several minutes of tremor. Rain persists at torrential levels, reports of minor lahars on the upper slopes of the valley above Quito as well as down the SW flanks of Coto, but none are setting off AFMs farther downstream.

105 Day 6 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 33 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - The storm is now upon the Quito region, bringing with it major, torrential rain. Reports have already started to come in of small lahars down the western slopes of the Quito valley in addition to more lahars on the SW flanks of Coto. Only L-RMARI is showing any detectable signal though, and it is lower amplitude than previously observed. 15 distinct seismic events in the last hour, similar to the past few hours activity, all small amplitude distinct seismic events all LP in the past hour. Ongoing reports of small lahars on the western valley walls over Quito and the SW flanks of Coto, none causing significant damage at this time. AFMs L-RMARI, L-SLOR, and L- NSAN showed small signals in the past 10 minutes. - Continued seismicity (all LP) with possible minor increase in amplitude and several minutes of tremor. Rain persists at torrential levels, reports of minor lahars on the upper slopes of the valley above Quito as well as down the SW flanks of Coto, but none are setting off AFMs farther downstream. - Increase in seismicity in terms of amplitude as well as occurrence of tremor, including 33 distinct seismic events in the past hour ( km depth).

106 Day 6 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 23 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: distinct seismic events all LP in the past hour. Ongoing reports of small lahars on the western valley walls over Quito and the SW flanks of Coto, none causing significant damage at this time. AFMs L-RMARI, L-SLOR, and L- NSAN showed small signals in the past 10 minutes. - Continued seismicity (all LP) with possible minor increase in amplitude and several minutes of tremor. Rain persists at torrential levels, reports of minor lahars on the upper slopes of the valley above Quito as well as down the SW flanks of Coto, but none are setting off AFMs farther downstream. - Increase in seismicity in terms of amplitude as well as occurrence of tremor, including 33 distinct seismic events in the past hour ( km depth). - Similar seismicity to last hour, except with fewer distinct events. Rain and reports of minor lahars persist, with continuous signal from L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI but none farther downstream and no reports of significant volumes.

107 Day 6 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 35 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Continued seismicity (all LP) with possible minor increase in amplitude and several minutes of tremor. Rain persists at torrential levels, reports of minor lahars on the upper slopes of the valley above Quito as well as down the SW flanks of Coto, but none are setting off AFMs farther downstream. - Increase in seismicity in terms of amplitude as well as occurrence of tremor, including 33 distinct seismic events in the past hour ( km depth). - Similar seismicity to last hour, except with fewer distinct events. Rain and reports of minor lahars persist, with continuous signal from L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI but none farther downstream and no reports of significant volumes. - Increased occurrence of tremor, plus 35 distinct seismic events mostly LP in similar depth range to past few hours. Rain beginning to reduce in its intensity.

108 Day 6 6:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 43 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Increase in seismicity in terms of amplitude as well as occurrence of tremor, including 33 distinct seismic events in the past hour ( km depth). - Similar seismicity to last hour, except with fewer distinct events. Rain and reports of minor lahars persist, with continuous signal from L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI but none farther downstream and no reports of significant volumes. - Increased occurrence of tremor, plus 35 distinct seismic events mostly LP in similar depth range to past few hours. Rain beginning to reduce in its intensity. - As daylight breaks, reports from lahars are that minimal damage has been done in either western Quito or on the SW flanks of Coto, fortunately. The storm has mostly passed at this point, and the weather service has called off their warning. Flash floods persist in lower regions, but hey, that s not VDAP s problem, right? The mayor wants an update ASAP. He s coming by as soon as he can.

109 Day 6 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 54 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Similar seismicity to last hour, except with fewer distinct events. Rain and reports of minor lahars persist, with continuous signal from L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI but none farther downstream and no reports of significant volumes. - Increased occurrence of tremor, plus 35 distinct seismic events mostly LP in similar depth range to past few hours. Rain beginning to reduce in its intensity. - As daylight breaks, reports from lahars are that minimal damage has been done in either western Quito or on the SW flanks of Coto, fortunately. The storm has mostly passed at this point, and the weather service has called off their warning. Flash floods persist in lower regions, but hey, that s not VDAP s problem, right? The mayor wants an update ASAP. He s coming by as soon as he can seismic events in the past hour, all LP, and spasmodic tremor for 4-5 minutes.

110 Day 6 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 75 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Increased occurrence of tremor, plus 35 distinct seismic events mostly LP in similar depth range to past few hours. Rain beginning to reduce in its intensity. - As daylight breaks, reports from lahars are that minimal damage has been done in either western Quito or on the SW flanks of Coto, fortunately. The storm has mostly passed at this point, and the weather service has called off their warning. Flash floods persist in lower regions, but hey, that s not VDAP s problem, right? The mayor wants an update ASAP. He s coming by as soon as he can seismic events in the past hour, all LP, and spasmodic tremor for 4-5 minutes. - New COSPEC reading available: 480 tons SO2/day. Tiltmeters indicate no break in inflation, in fact rate seems to be increasing over the past day. 75 seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP, all <1.7 km depth, with several minutes of tremor periodically during the hour. The mayor is expecting an update now.

111 Day 6 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 125 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - As daylight breaks, reports from lahars are that minimal damage has been done in either western Quito or on the SW flanks of Coto, fortunately. The storm has mostly passed at this point, and the weather service has called off their warning. Flash floods persist in lower regions, but hey, that s not VDAP s problem, right? The mayor wants an update ASAP. He s coming by as soon as he can seismic events in the past hour, all LP, and spasmodic tremor for 4-5 minutes. - New COSPEC reading available: 480 tons SO2/day. Tiltmeters indicate no break in inflation, in fact rate seems to be increasing over the past day. 75 seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP, all <1.7 km depth, with several minutes of tremor periodically during the hour. The mayor is expecting an update now. - Significant increase in seismicity, now about half tremor. Analysis of the ash collected by the field team from the 3 earlier explosions reveals a small amount of juvenile ash that was missed in hand sample analysis.

112 Day 6 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 8 Seismic events over past hour: 165 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: seismic events in the past hour, all LP, and spasmodic tremor for 4-5 minutes. - New COSPEC reading available: 480 tons SO2/day. Tiltmeters indicate no break in inflation, in fact rate seems to be increasing over the past day. 75 seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP, all <1.7 km depth, with several minutes of tremor periodically during the hour. The mayor is expecting an update now. - Significant increase in seismicity, now about half tremor. Analysis of the ash collected by the field team from the 3 earlier explosions reveals a small amount of juvenile ash that was missed in hand sample analysis. - About 20 minutes ago, AFMs L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI all indicated major lahar activity. Signals as L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ are increasing right now. Over 160 seismic events, but this number is estimated because it is predominantly tremor. No depths available on the seismic activity.

113 Day 6 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: 192 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - New COSPEC reading available: 480 tons SO2/day. Tiltmeters indicate no break in inflation, in fact rate seems to be increasing over the past day. 75 seismic events in the past hour, mostly LP, all <1.7 km depth, with several minutes of tremor periodically during the hour. The mayor is expecting an update now. - Significant increase in seismicity, now about half tremor. Analysis of the ash collected by the field team from the 3 earlier explosions reveals a small amount of juvenile ash that was missed in hand sample analysis. - About 20 minutes ago, AFMs L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI all indicated major lahar activity. Signals as L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ are increasing right now. Over 160 seismic events, but this number is estimated because it is predominantly tremor. No depths available on the seismic activity. - Seismic station BNAS just stopped sending any signals; CAMI flickered out but has come back online. AFMs at L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ have major signals coming in. Seismicity is predominantly tremor. Reports of explosions coming from the summit have been trickling in from people in Mulalo and Chasqui, but the summit is obscured by clouds.

114 Day 6 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: 212 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 3 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Significant increase in seismicity, now about half tremor. Analysis of the ash collected by the field team from the 3 earlier explosions reveals a small amount of juvenile ash that was missed in hand sample analysis. - About 20 minutes ago, AFMs L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI all indicated major lahar activity. Signals as L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ are increasing right now. Over 160 seismic events, but this number is estimated because it is predominantly tremor. No depths available on the seismic activity. - Seismic station BNAS just stopped sending any signals; CAMI flickered out but has come back online. AFMs at L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ have major signals coming in. Seismicity is predominantly tremor. Reports of explosions coming from the summit have been trickling in from people in Mulalo and Chasqui, but the summit is obscured by clouds. - Radar reports plumes of 2-3 km above the volcano. Confirmation of major lahars down the SW slope, reaching km in some cases. Damage not assessed yet. Over 200 seismic events in the past hour, mostly tremor, all increasingly shallow.

115 Day 6 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: 254 Eruptions in last 24 hours: 4 Days until budget runs out: 1 - About 20 minutes ago, AFMs L-NSAN, L-SLOR, and L-RMARI all indicated major lahar activity. Signals as L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ are increasing right now. Over 160 seismic events, but this number is estimated because it is predominantly tremor. No depths available on the seismic activity. - Seismic station BNAS just stopped sending any signals; CAMI flickered out but has come back online. AFMs at L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ have major signals coming in. Seismicity is predominantly tremor. Reports of explosions coming from the summit have been trickling in from people in Mulalo and Chasqui, but the summit is obscured by clouds. - Radar reports plumes of 2-3 km above the volcano. Confirmation of major lahars down the SW slope, reaching km in some cases. Damage not assessed yet. Over 200 seismic events in the past hour, mostly tremor, all increasingly shallow. - Number of seismic events is an estimate, because they are almost exclusively tremor. No visual confirmation of any plume, but it appears as though there was a small eruption in the last hour.

116 Day 6 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 5 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Seismic station BNAS just stopped sending any signals; CAMI flickered out but has come back online. AFMs at L-EPARQ, L-BALT, and L-BBAJ have major signals coming in. Seismicity is predominantly tremor. Reports of explosions coming from the summit have been trickling in from people in Mulalo and Chasqui, but the summit is obscured by clouds. - Radar reports plumes of 2-3 km above the volcano. Confirmation of major lahars down the SW slope, reaching km in some cases. Damage not assessed yet. Over 200 seismic events in the past hour, mostly tremor, all increasingly shallow. - Number of seismic events is an estimate, because they are almost exclusively tremor. No visual confirmation of any plume, but it appears as though there was a small eruption in the last hour. - There was another explosion at about 1:17PM. The eruption plume only reached 4 km, but the skies are darkening around the volcano. Winds have remained from the east, and are spreading ash over the area west and southwest of Coto. It s impossible to count seismic events, none are distinct because of nearly continuous tremor.

117 Day 6 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 5 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Radar reports plumes of 2-3 km above the volcano. Confirmation of major lahars down the SW slope, reaching km in some cases. Damage not assessed yet. Over 200 seismic events in the past hour, mostly tremor, all increasingly shallow. - Number of seismic events is an estimate, because they are almost exclusively tremor. No visual confirmation of any plume, but it appears as though there was a small eruption in the last hour. - There was another explosion at about 1:17PM. The eruption plume only reached 4 km, but the skies are darkening around the volcano. Winds have remained from the east, and are spreading ash over the area west and southwest of Coto. It s impossible to count seismic events, none are distinct because of nearly continuous tremor. - Clouds began clearing from the summit revealing a grey plume 4-5 km high above the summit. New SO2 data was collected at the time: 8400 tons/day. Continuous tremor persists.

118 Day 6 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 6 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Number of seismic events is an estimate, because they are almost exclusively tremor. No visual confirmation of any plume, but it appears as though there was a small eruption in the last hour. - There was another explosion at about 1:17PM. The eruption plume only reached 4 km, but the skies are darkening around the volcano. Winds have remained from the east, and are spreading ash over the area west and southwest of Coto. It s impossible to count seismic events, none are distinct because of nearly continuous tremor. - Clouds began clearing from the summit revealing a grey plume 4-5 km high above the summit. New SO2 data was collected at the time: 8400 tons/day. Continuous tremor persists. - Another clear explosion was observed at 4:02 PM, maintaining the plume at about 5 km. Ash continues to be deposited to the W and SW of the summit. Tremor continues unabated.

119 Day 6 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 8 Days until budget runs out: 1 - There was another explosion at about 1:17PM. The eruption plume only reached 4 km, but the skies are darkening around the volcano. Winds have remained from the east, and are spreading ash over the area west and southwest of Coto. It s impossible to count seismic events, none are distinct because of nearly continuous tremor. - Clouds began clearing from the summit revealing a grey plume 4-5 km high above the summit. New SO2 data was collected at the time: 8400 tons/day. Continuous tremor persists. - Another clear explosion was observed at 4:02 PM, maintaining the plume at about 5 km. Ash continues to be deposited to the W and SW of the summit. Tremor continues unabated. - Two more bursts in the past hour, but no increased height on the plume according to observers. Farmers on the W and SW flanks are trying to move livestock under cover from the ash. No reports of pyroclastic flows thus far, but lahar activity continues down the W and SW slopes.

120 Day 6 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 8 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Clouds began clearing from the summit revealing a grey plume 4-5 km high above the summit. New SO2 data was collected at the time: 8400 tons/day. Continuous tremor persists. - Another clear explosion was observed at 4:02 PM, maintaining the plume at about 5 km. Ash continues to be deposited to the W and SW of the summit. Tremor continues unabated. - Two more bursts in the past hour, but no increased height on the plume according to observers. Farmers on the W and SW flanks are trying to move livestock under cover from the ash. No reports of pyroclastic flows thus far, but lahar activity continues down the W and SW slopes. - Last COSPEC data of the day, as the sun was setting was 13,200 tons/day. Continuous tremor, increasing in amplitude, all <1.4 km depth as far as can be determined, but this has a significant uncertainty on it.

121 Day 6 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 9 Days until budget runs out: 1 - Another clear explosion was observed at 4:02 PM, maintaining the plume at about 5 km. Ash continues to be deposited to the W and SW of the summit. Tremor continues unabated. - Two more bursts in the past hour, but no increased height on the plume according to observers. Farmers on the W and SW flanks are trying to move livestock under cover from the ash. No reports of pyroclastic flows thus far, but lahar activity continues down the W and SW slopes. - Last COSPEC data of the day, as the sun was setting was 13,200 tons/day. Continuous tremor, increasing in amplitude, all <1.4 km depth as far as can be determined, but this has a significant uncertainty on it. - There was yet another eruption last hour. It was typical of the eruptions of the past 24 hours. Plume height was estimated by radar at 6 km. Ash is beginning to cause problems to the SW and W of the volcano and is being detected in Latacunga now.

122 Day 6 8:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 9 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Two more bursts in the past hour, but no increased height on the plume according to observers. Farmers on the W and SW flanks are trying to move livestock under cover from the ash. No reports of pyroclastic flows thus far, but lahar activity continues down the W and SW slopes. - Last COSPEC data of the day, as the sun was setting was 13,200 tons/day. Continuous tremor, increasing in amplitude, all <1.4 km depth as far as can be determined, but this has a significant uncertainty on it. - There was yet another eruption last hour. It was typical of the eruptions of the past 24 hours. Plume height was estimated by radar at 6 km. Ash is beginning to cause problems to the SW and W of the volcano and is being detected in Latacunga now. - Gorki was able to get another GPS image to process, one that covers the last 24 hours or so of deformation. He calculates 1.2 m additional inflation at the summit crater in that window. Tremor persists.

123 Day 6 9:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 9 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Last COSPEC data of the day, as the sun was setting was 13,200 tons/day. Continuous tremor, increasing in amplitude, all <1.4 km depth as far as can be determined, but this has a significant uncertainty on it. - There was yet another eruption last hour. It was typical of the eruptions of the past 24 hours. Plume height was estimated by radar at 6 km. Ash is beginning to cause problems to the SW and W of the volcano and is being detected in Latacunga now. - Gorki was able to get another GPS image to process, one that covers the last 24 hours or so of deformation. He calculates 1.2 m additional inflation at the summit crater in that window. Tremor persists. - Continuous tremor…no further information.

124 Day 6 10:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 9 Days until budget runs out: 0 - There was yet another eruption last hour. It was typical of the eruptions of the past 24 hours. Plume height was estimated by radar at 6 km. Ash is beginning to cause problems to the SW and W of the volcano and is being detected in Latacunga now. - Gorki was able to get another GPS image to process, one that covers the last 24 hours or so of deformation. He calculates 1.2 m additional inflation at the summit crater in that window. Tremor persists. - Continuous tremor…no further information. - Again, the intense tremor continues. Tiltmeter data cannot be telemetered in owing to failure of the relay station. Sporadic reports of small pieces of pumice in the fall material, although those are unconfirmed.

125 Day 6 11:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 10 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Gorki was able to get another GPS image to process, one that covers the last 24 hours or so of deformation. He calculates 1.2 m additional inflation at the summit crater in that window. Tremor persists. - Continuous tremor…no further information. - Again, the intense tremor continues. Tiltmeter data cannot be telemetered in owing to failure of the relay station. Sporadic reports of small pieces of pumice in the fall material, although those are unconfirmed. - Yet another eruption. This one occurred at 11:02PM and its plume rose to around 8km according to radar. Ash is mostly falling within 8 km of the summit, but more is being blown to the W and SW. None has been detected in Quito or southern Quito thus far.

126 Day 7 12:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 10 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Continuous tremor…no further information. - Again, the intense tremor continues. Tiltmeter data cannot be telemetered in owing to failure of the relay station. Sporadic reports of small pieces of pumice in the fall material, although those are unconfirmed. - Yet another eruption. This one occurred at 11:02PM and its plume rose to around 8km according to radar. Ash is mostly falling within 8 km of the summit, but more is being blown to the W and SW. None has been detected in Quito or southern Quito thus far. - Continuous tremor, much of it harmonic at this time.

127 Day 7 1:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 10 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Again, the intense tremor continues. Tiltmeter data cannot be telemetered in owing to failure of the relay station. Sporadic reports of small pieces of pumice in the fall material, although those are unconfirmed. - Yet another eruption. This one occurred at 11:02PM and its plume rose to around 8km according to radar. Ash is mostly falling within 8 km of the summit, but more is being blown to the W and SW. None has been detected in Quito or southern Quito thus far. - Continuous tremor, much of it harmonic at this time. - Continuous tremor, no additional information to report other than continuous calls from civil defense authorities in the Latacunga and southern Quito areas inquiring about the need to evacuate.

128 Day 7 2:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 10 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Yet another eruption. This one occurred at 11:02PM and its plume rose to around 8km according to radar. Ash is mostly falling within 8 km of the summit, but more is being blown to the W and SW. None has been detected in Quito or southern Quito thus far. - Continuous tremor, much of it harmonic at this time. - Continuous tremor, no additional information to report other than continuous calls from civil defense authorities in the Latacunga and southern Quito areas inquiring about the need to evacuate. - Seismic stations are now a blur. Most of the tremor is either spasmodic or harmonic, depending on the station, and is beyond the detection limits of the monitors in terms of amplitude. Reports of people feeling the tremor are coming in from southern Quito.

129 Day 7 3:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 7 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 10 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Continuous tremor, much of it harmonic at this time. - Continuous tremor, no additional information to report other than continuous calls from civil defense authorities in the Latacunga and southern Quito areas inquiring about the need to evacuate. - Seismic stations are now a blur. Most of the tremor is either spasmodic or harmonic, depending on the station, and is beyond the detection limits of the monitors in terms of amplitude. Reports of people feeling the tremor are coming in from southern Quito. - Quito, Quito, this is it! This is the big one. At 2:58AM, radar picked up a rising plume bigger than any prior to this time; the explosions could be heard in downtown Quito from the IG. The plume is at 28 km and rising.

130 Day 7 4:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: ~1 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 11 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Continuous tremor, no additional information to report other than continuous calls from civil defense authorities in the Latacunga and southern Quito areas inquiring about the need to evacuate. - Seismic stations are now a blur. Most of the tremor is either spasmodic or harmonic, depending on the station, and is beyond the detection limits of the monitors in terms of amplitude. Reports of people feeling the tremor are coming in from southern Quito. - - Quito, Quito, this is it! This is the big one. At 2:58AM, radar picked up a rising plume bigger than any prior to this time; the explosions could be heard in downtown Quito from the IG. The plume is at 28 km and rising. -T- The plume cleared 35 km and is beginning to spread out. There is a complete blackout. Tephra is being pumped out of the volcano and is falling in Quito. There is still no way to get information on what has happened. Radar is showing that the bulk of the plume has been blown to the west of the volcano. Only seismic station TAMB is still responding, but erratically; the rest stopped sending signals between 3:20 and 3:30 AM.

131 Day 7 5:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Seismic stations are now a blur. Most of the tremor is either spasmodic or harmonic, depending on the station, and is beyond the detection limits of the monitors in terms of amplitude. Reports of people feeling the tremor are coming in from southern Quito. - - Quito, Quito, this is it! This is the big one. At 2:58AM, radar picked up a rising plume bigger than any prior to this time; the explosions could be heard in downtown Quito from the IG. The plume is at 28 km and rising. -T- The plume cleared 35 km and is beginning to spread out. There is a complete blackout. Tephra is being pumped out of the volcano and is falling in Quito. There is still no way to get information on what has happened. Radar is showing that the bulk of the plume has been blown to the west of the volcano. Only seismic station TAMB is still responding, but erratically; the rest stopped sending signals between 3:20 and 3:30 AM. - Whoa! Massive explosion from the volcano…Ash falling on Quito as well as pumice. TAMB is out. No seismic stations are functional anymore.

132

133 Day 7 7:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: Quito, Quito, this is it! This is the big one. At 2:58AM, radar picked up a rising plume bigger than any prior to this time; the explosions could be heard in downtown Quito from the IG. The plume is at 28 km and rising. -T- The plume cleared 35 km and is beginning to spread out. There is a complete blackout. Tephra is being pumped out of the volcano and is falling in Quito. There is still no way to get information on what has happened. Radar is showing that the bulk of the plume has been blown to the west of the volcano. Only seismic station TAMB is still responding, but erratically; the rest stopped sending signals between 3:20 and 3:30 AM. - Whoa! Massive explosion from the volcano…Ash falling on Quito as well as pumice. TAMB is out. No seismic stations are functional anymore. - Power was just lost. No response from any observers up to 10 km from the volcano to the north and 25 km to the SW. Complete blackout despite it being well past sunrise. All communications from anywhere near the volcano are out. The mayor is not responding.

134 Day 7 8:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 -T- The plume cleared 35 km and is beginning to spread out. There is a complete blackout. Tephra is being pumped out of the volcano and is falling in Quito. There is still no way to get information on what has happened. Radar is showing that the bulk of the plume has been blown to the west of the volcano. Only seismic station TAMB is still responding, but erratically; the rest stopped sending signals between 3:20 and 3:30 AM. - Whoa! Massive explosion from the volcano…Ash falling on Quito as well as pumice. TAMB is out. No seismic stations are functional anymore. - Power was just lost. No response from any observers up to 10 km from the volcano to the north and 25 km to the SW. Complete blackout despite it being well past sunrise. All communications from anywhere near the volcano are out. The mayor is not responding. - Still a complete blackout…it is awfully quiet out there.

135 Day 7 9:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Whoa! Massive explosion from the volcano…Ash falling on Quito as well as pumice. TAMB is out. No seismic stations are functional anymore. - Power was just lost. No response from any observers up to 10 km from the volcano to the north and 25 km to the SW. Complete blackout despite it being well past sunrise. All communications from anywhere near the volcano are out. The mayor is not responding. - Still a complete blackout…it is awfully quiet out there. - Sparse reports from civil defense workers 10s of km west of the volcano report an immense explosion from the top of the cone, followed by hot, high speed, ash-laden blasts ripping for miles across the landscape in all directions around the volcano. A report from a lone helicopter flying 40 km away from the volcano claims that It looked like a damn A-bomb went off down there! Southern Quito is covered. Oh the humanity! Pumice and ash continue to rain down on all sides of the volcano as the plume looms over the summit. Reports are that huge areas of suburbs in southern Quito are in ruins.

136 Day 7 10:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Still a complete blackout…it is awfully quiet out there. - Sparse reports from civil defense workers 10s of km west of the volcano report an immense explosion from the top of the cone, followed by hot, high speed, ash-laden blasts ripping for miles across the landscape in all directions around the volcano. A report from a lone helicopter flying 40 km away from the volcano claims that It looked like a damn A-bomb went off down there! Southern Quito is covered. Oh the humanity! Pumice and ash continue to rain down on all sides of the volcano as the plume looms over the summit. Reports are that huge areas of suburbs in southern Quito are in ruins. - Near darkness persists, but Columbian weather radar service reports that the plume is over 30 km high, it appears. PFs have overcome all regions within km of the summit.

137 Day 7 11:15 AM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Sparse reports from civil defense workers 10s of km west of the volcano report an immense explosion from the top of the cone, followed by hot, high speed, ash-laden blasts ripping for miles across the landscape in all directions around the volcano. A report from a lone helicopter flying 40 km away from the volcano claims that It looked like a damn A-bomb went off down there! Southern Quito is covered. Oh the humanity! Pumice and ash continue to rain down on all sides of the volcano as the plume looms over the summit. Reports are that huge areas of suburbs in southern Quito are in ruins. - Near darkness persists, but Columbian weather radar service reports that the plume is over 30 km high, it appears. PFs have overcome all regions within km of the summit. - Lahars are beginning to flow at devastating speeds and with enormous volumes down the W and SW flanks of the volcano; L-SRAM is still operational and indicates significant activity there now.

138 Day 7 12:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Near darkness persists, but Columbian weather radar service reports that the plume is over 30 km high, it appears. PFs have overcome all regions within km of the summit. - Lahars are beginning to flow at devastating speeds and with enormous volumes down the W and SW flanks of the volcano; L-SRAM is still operational and indicates significant activity there now. -Ash and pumice are still falling throughout the area; traffic has come to a complete halt in Quito, the airport is closed, and nobody is on the streets. As Coto continues to belch out a modest amount of material, activity appears to be waning somewhat as visibility increases in the city, at least. Nevertheless, at this point any real observations are impossible. What is left of southern Quito has a 8-10 cm layer of ash and pumice on top of it, but the ash is still falling. No reports yet from towns to the SW of the volcano.

139 Day 7 1:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 -Lahars are beginning to flow at devastating speeds and with enormous volumes down the W and SW flanks of the volcano; L-SRAM is still operational and indicates significant activity there now. -Ash and pumice are still falling throughout the area; traffic has come to a complete halt in Quito, the airport is closed, and nobody is on the streets. As Coto continues to belch out a modest amount of material, activity appears to be waning somewhat as visibility increases in the city, at least. Nevertheless, at this point any real observations are impossible. What is left of southern Quito has a 8-10 cm layer of ash and pumice on top of it, but the ash is still falling. No reports yet from towns to the SW of the volcano. - There are no working seismometerss left, but the rumbling has subsided and Coto is no longer ejecting material. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them.

140 Day 7 2:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 - Ash and pumice are still falling throughout the area; traffic has come to a complete halt in Quito, the airport is closed, and nobody is on the streets. As Coto continues to belch out a modest amount of material, activity appears to be waning somewhat as visibility increases in the city, at least. Nevertheless, at this point any real observations are impossible. What is left of southern Quito has a 8-10 cm layer of ash and pumice on top of it, but the ash is still falling. No reports yet from towns to the SW of the volcano. -There are no working seismometers left, but the rumbling has subsided and Coto is no longer ejecting material. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them. - It is the middle of the afternoon, but it looks like midnight. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them. Quito is ravaged, but some semblance of a rescue effort is beginning to come together from the survivors.

141 Day 7 3:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 -There are no working seismometerss left, but the rumbling has subsided and Coto is no longer ejecting material. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them. -It is the middle of the afternoon, but it looks like midnight. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them. Quito is ravaged, but some semblance of a rescue effort is beginning to come together from the survivors. -As a more complete picture of what happens comes in, it seems as though after Coto started its climactic eruption, the lava began interacting with melted glacial ice that had accumulated in the crater. This instantly increased the magnitude of the eruption immensely. As the clouds begin to settle, it is obvious Coto blew out the entire upper half of its peak, which soon came back down and created a base surge. The surge overwhelmed all of the topographic features and overtook almost all of southern Quito as well as many inhabited areas to the W and SW of the volcano. Major lahars remobilizing the abundant ash and pumice continue to decimate areas to the SW and W of the volcano for up to 25 km.

142 Day 7 4:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 -It is the middle of the afternoon, but it looks like midnight. The mountain, the entire countryside, and most of the city are steaming and mantled in ash, pumice, and debris. There s no color to the landscape except where fires are burning in destroyed buildings where gas tanks have ignited them. Quito is ravaged, but some semblance of a rescue effort is beginning to come together from the survivors. -As a more complete picture of what happens comes in, it seems as though after Coto started its climactic eruption, the lava began interacting with melted glacial ice that had accumulated in the crater. This instantly increased the magnitude of the eruption immensely. As the clouds begin to settle, it is obvious Coto blew out the entire upper half of its peak, which soon came back down and created a base surge. The surge overwhelmed all of the topographic features and overtook almost all of southern Quito as well as many inhabited areas to the W and SW of the volcano. Major lahars remobilizing the abundant ash and pumice continue to decimate areas to the SW and W of the volcano for up to 25 km. - The rumbling has all but stopped. The mountain is still. - Contact with the mayor s office has been established. They are understandably busy, but would like an update ASAP.

143 Day 7 5:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 Tragically, Pablo Bernardo Gonzalez s chihuahua was roaming the countryside near Machachi when the base surge was headed toward the area. He has not been seen since… El Niño

144 Day 7 6:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 But wait! Proving that you can never keep a good dog down, El Nino was found! Fortunately, the part of Machachi where she liked to hang out was protected from the surge by Ruminahui volcano. The children rejoiced and a sense of hope was returned to what is left of Quito. However, she was given a stern talking to and was told never to wander that far from home ever again…

145 Day 7 7:15 PM VDAP RESPONSE TEAM Cotopaxi ACTIVITY Working seismic Stations: 0 Seismic events over past hour: N/A Eruptions in last 24 hours: 12 Days until budget runs out: 0 -As a more complete picture of what happens comes in, it seems as though after Coto started its climactic eruption, the lava began interacting with melted glacial ice that had accumulated in the crater. This instantly increased the magnitude of the eruption immensely. As the clouds begin to settle, it is obvious Coto blew out the entire upper half of its peak, which soon came back down and created a base surge. The surge overwhelmed all of the topographic features and overtook almost all of southern Quito as well as many inhabited areas to the W and SW of the volcano. Major lahars remobilizing the abundant ash and pumice continue to decimate areas to the SW and W of the volcano for up to 25 km. - The rumbling has all but stopped. The mountain is still. - Contact with the mayor s office has been established. They are understandably busy, but would like an update ASAP. PREPARE A PREDICTION OF FUTURE ACTIVITY AND POTENTIAL HAZARDS FOR EVERYONE YOU ARE LEAVING BEHIND. - TIME TO LEAVE QUITO. BEFORE YOU LEAVE MAKE SURE YOU SAY GOODBYE TO ALL YOUR NEWFOUND FRIENDS AND GIVE YOUR REPORT TO THE MAYOR. Report to headquarters as soon as your report is finished. And remember…in the battle between man and the volcano…

146 NATURE ALWAYS WINS.


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