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ATB5-1 Runway Incursions and Situational Awareness.

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Presentation on theme: "ATB5-1 Runway Incursions and Situational Awareness."— Presentation transcript:

1 ATB5-1 Runway Incursions and Situational Awareness

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3 A runway incursion is "Any occurrence at an airport involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take off of aircraft." Runway Incursion

4 Complex & Confusing Intersections Runway/Runway Intersections Runway/Taxiway Intersections Runway Thresholds Common Locations of Runway Incursions Regardless of Airport Size or Level of Operational Activity

5 Runway Incursions The FAA categorizes Runway Incursions in Four categories depending on the potential For collision. A - Separation decreases and participants take extreme action to narrowly avoid a collision extreme action to narrowly avoid a collision B - Separation decreases and there is a significant potential for collision potential for collision C - Separation decreases but there is ample time and distance to avoid a potential collision and distance to avoid a potential collision D - Little or no chance of collision but meets the definition of a runway incursion definition of a runway incursion

6 Severity Categories A B C D Animated Illustration 9 Little or no risk of collision Ample time and distance to avoid collision Significant potential for collision Barely avoid collision Above scenarios are all classified as runway incursions, but with different severity codes. In each case the taxiing aircraft penetrated the runway safety area (hold position) AND A collision hazard or loss of separation occurred with the landing aircraft.

7 Tower Operations (millions) Runway Incursion Rate Runway Incursions per 1,000,000 Tower Operations YTD 05/18/ as of 05/18/07 Rate est * as of 05/18// * Rates are based on Estimated Tower Operations All Categories of Runway Incursions

8 Severity Distribution of Runway Incursions FY 2008 YTD (05/18/08) FY

9 Runway Incursions 480 Air Traffic Control Towers 480 Air Traffic Control Towers 268 million operations (67 million/year) 268 million operations (67 million/year) 1460 incursions total (5 incursions/million) 1460 incursions total (5 incursions/million) Over 80% are Category C and D events Over 80% are Category C and D events 71% of aircraft incursions involve two GA aircraft 71% of aircraft incursions involve two GA aircraft

10 Pilot Deviation Pilot Deviation (PD) The actions of a pilot that result in the violation of a Federal Aviation Regulation. When it appears that the actions of a pilot constitute a possible pilot deviation, the controller will notify the pilot, workload permitting, using the following phraseology (aircraft identification) possible pilot deviation, advise you contact (facility) at (telephone number).

11 Common Factors in Pilot Deviations 31% Improper readback / hearback 56% Not following ATC instructions Common Factors in Pilot Deviations

12 Vehicle / Pedestrian Deviation (V/PD) Crossing the holding position marking Without ATC authorization

13 Operational Error Operational Error (OE) FAA Orders An occurrence attributable to an element of the air traffic system in which: Less than the applicable separation minima results between two or more aircraft, or between an aircraft and terrain or obstacles; or Less than the applicable separation minima results between two or more aircraft, or between an aircraft and terrain or obstacles; or An aircraft lands or departs on a runway closed to aircraft operations after receiving air traffic authorization An aircraft lands or departs on a runway closed to aircraft operations after receiving air traffic authorization

14 Distribution by Type of Runway Incursions FY 2008 YTD (05/18/08) FY

15 ATC ERRORS - INCURSIONS DUE TO…. 32% inadequate scan 32% poor communications 25% deviation from SOP 10% Lapse of memory

16 FAAs DEFINITION OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS According to the FAA ….. Situational awareness is defined as a continuous extraction of environmental information, integration of this information with previous knowledge to form a coherent mental picture, and the use of that picture in directing further perception and anticipating future events. According to the FAA ….. Situational awareness is defined as a continuous extraction of environmental information, integration of this information with previous knowledge to form a coherent mental picture, and the use of that picture in directing further perception and anticipating future events.

17 Challenges facing Air Crews and Air Traffic Controllers Taxi operations are difficult and potentially hazardous Taxi operations are difficult and potentially hazardous Air traffic volume is expected to increase Air traffic volume is expected to increase Air Traffic System is more complex Air Traffic System is more complex Airport layout design is more complicated Airport layout design is more complicated Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand Taxi operations are difficult and potentially hazardous Taxi operations are difficult and potentially hazardous Air traffic volume is expected to increase Air traffic volume is expected to increase Air Traffic System is more complex Air Traffic System is more complex Airport layout design is more complicated Airport layout design is more complicated Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand Technology improvements at airports have not kept pace with demand

18 Causes of Major Runway Incursions and OEs Loss of Situational AwarenessLoss of Situational Awareness Misunderstanding ATC / Pilot communicationsMisunderstanding ATC / Pilot communications Lapse in short-term memoryLapse in short-term memory Deviation from SOPsDeviation from SOPs HUMAN ERROR

19 LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS STRATEGY- Plan your head down time wisely Stripmarking / Chart readingStripmarking / Chart reading Reading weatherReading weather Adjusting controlsAdjusting controls Non essential dutiesNon essential duties

20 LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS STRATEGY- Use memory joggers -Writing pads -Strips -Lights / Bells / Controls

21 LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS or… Looking at our surroundings through a straw STRATEGY - Keep the BIG picture SCAN – look out the windows

22 LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS STRATEGY – Continue to Scan even when reading a clearance / reading back a clearance or performing other duties Continue to Scan even when reading a clearance / reading back a clearance or performing other duties

23 LOSS OF SITUATIONAL AWARENESS LUAW (Line up and Wait) = time for extra vigilance STRATEGY- Controller – Some type of memory jogger Pilot – Should wait no more than a minute in position without confirming TIPH with tower

24 PILOTS AND CONTROLLERS

25 CONTROLLER / PILOT MISUNDERSTANDING STRATEGY - Use your headset rather than the speaker and microphoneUse your headset rather than the speaker and microphone Use standard phraseologyUse standard phraseology LISTEN TO READBACKS

26 STRATEGY – Keep tower cab / cockpit free of distractions, whether your busy or not.Keep tower cab / cockpit free of distractions, whether your busy or not. Keep non-operational conversations to a minimumKeep non-operational conversations to a minimum LAPSE IN SHORT- TERM/WORKING MEMORY

27 6-8 items, 20-second retention6-8 items, 20-second retention Task saturation is a ATC and Pilot realityTask saturation is a ATC and Pilot reality STRATEGY – Dont take on more than you can handle

28 REVIEW Runway incursions (RIs) are infrequent events (5 per million operations).Runway incursions (RIs) are infrequent events (5 per million operations). 80% of RIs are minor in severity.80% of RIs are minor in severity. Catastrophic RIs are rare (4 since1989).Catastrophic RIs are rare (4 since1989). Aircraft operations contribute to RIs in proportion to their representation in the NAS.Aircraft operations contribute to RIs in proportion to their representation in the NAS. Most common RIs involve 2 GA planes but are in the minor category.Most common RIs involve 2 GA planes but are in the minor category. Pilot Deviations account for a majority of runway incursions.Pilot Deviations account for a majority of runway incursions. Rate of major incursions at busiest airports are twice those of the rest of the airports.Rate of major incursions at busiest airports are twice those of the rest of the airports.

29 Runway Incursion Prevention Methods

30 A superior pilot uses his superior judgment to avoid situations that require the use of his superior skill. A superior pilot uses his superior judgment to avoid situations that require the use of his superior skill. Aviation proverb Aviation proverb


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