Presentation on theme: "Instrument Procedures"— Presentation transcript:
1Instrument Procedures Knocking the Rust OffDave SimpsonMaster CFIGold Seal CFI
2Objectives Review IFR procedures - some new stuff in the FAR, AIM, ACs Discuss WAAS implications for preflight, approaches and alternatesReview of charts, hold entries, lost comCommon IFR misconceptionsLocal “issues” from MYF & SEE Towers
3Preflight IFR Requirements Preflight Action for Flight Under IFRWhat you Need to Know Before You GoRunway Lengths (VFR Too)ATC Delays – required part of standard briefingWeather (Icing?)Fuel Requirements (What Are They?)Fuel requirements for flight in IFR conditions. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft in IFR conditions unless it carries enough fuel (considering weather reports and forecasts and weather conditions) to-- (1) Complete the flight to the first airport of intended landing; (2) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, fly from that airport to the alternate airport; and(3) Fly after that for 45 minutes at normal cruising speedAlternatesTakeoff & Landing Distances (VFR Too)Are we done yet?
4Preflight IFR Requirements You are about to depart under IFR and find that your VSI is inoperative ….Can you legally depart IFR?2. Does anything still need be done?Are we done yet?
5Preflight GPS Operations For GPS Operations – TSO 129 EquipmentMust do a RAIM Prediction Check“If TSO-C129 equipment is used to solely satisfy the RNAV requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and time) using current GPS satellite information.” ACBoth departure (if flying an RNAV DP) anddestination airports must be checked.RAIM must be predicted to exist continuouslyduring the planned flight“In the event of a predicted, continuous loss of RAIM of more than five (5) minutes for any part of the intended flight, the flight should be delayed, canceled, or re-routed where RAIM requirements can be met.” AC
6How Can A RAIM Check Be Done? GPS OperationsHow Can A RAIM Check Be Done?Call Flight Service (within 24 hours of ETA)Go to (FAA Site)Complete a RAIM check on your GPSGPS provides 10 meter accuracyOK … But What About WAAS?
10WAAS Operations Faster refresh rates 5x/sec vs 1x/sec for GPS 3 meter accuracy vs 10 meters for GPSVertical Guidance (2,397 LPV approaches) more LPVthan ILS Approaches nowWAAS will fly procedure turns with a roll steering APCan use WAAS as single source navigation (FDE)Not required to check for RAIM before flight, unlessflying outside US airspace, or where WAAS coveragedoesn’t existAre required to check NOTAMS for WASS outageswith Flight Service“Outside the U.S. or in areas where WAAS coverage is not available, operators using TSO-C145/C146 receivers are required to check GPS RAIM availability.” AC
11WAAS Operations LPV minimums down top 200’ if there is also a parallel taxiway, a minimum of a MALSR approach lighting systemand precision runway markingsLacks the precision required for Cat II and III approaches
12GPS and WAAS Operations What Happens If RAIM is Lost During Flight?Must notify ATC immediately AIM 5-3-3Must revert to alternate means of navigation AC
13GPS and WAAS Operations What Happens if RAIM is Lost on Approach?e.g. RAIM Warning Appears on GPSIf inside the FAF you can continue (no warnings for 5 min)If outside the FAF you must discontinue the approachAIMRAIM Availability Computed at 2 NM Before FAF
14Alternates You always file an alternate unless you can meet 91.169 123 RuleWhat if destination has no approach?What if alternate has no approach?Does my equipment affect alternate filing?1 hr before to 1 hr after ETA2,000’ ceiling AND3 miles visibility
15Alternates If destination has no approach, you must file an alternate regardless of weather FARIf alternate has no approach, you must be able todescend from the MEA, approach, and landunder VFR FARIf only GPS equipped, alternatecannot have only GPS approaches(alternate needs VOR/LOC) AIMIf WAAS equipped, this restriction isremoved so a single WAAS receiveris legal AIM
16Scenario: Tower Enroute Practice Approach from MYF to CRQ Scenario: Tower Enroute Practice Approach from MYF to CRQ. Aircraft WASS equipped. Weather at CRQ is 1,500 scattered and 2 miles visibility. Can you legally takeoff?YesNoAlternates
17Alternates No Depends on the approach Scenario Continues: You determine that under the 123 rule, you need an alternate and have decided that you will use the LOC D approach at SEE as your alternate. The weather at SEE for your ETA is 1,500 SCT 1,200 OVC 2 SM VIS.Can you legally file SEE as your alternate?YesNoDepends on the approach
20Non Standard Alternate Minimums SAN DIEGO(EL CAJON), CAGILLESPIE FIELD LOC-D¹²RNAV (GPS) Rwy 1734¹NA when control tower closed.²Categories A, B, ; Categories C, D,³Categories A, B, ; Category C, ;Category D,4NA when local weather not available.
21GPS In Lieu of DME Can GPS be used as a substitute for DME? Yes, as long as it is WAASNo, if it says DME it must be DMEYes, as long as it is a panel mount, IFRcertified receiver (either GPS or WAAS)
23Using GPS to Assist Approaches Can GPS be used to fly a non GPS approach where RNAV(GPS) is not included in title e.g. VOR A OKB, LOC D SEE, ILS 28 MYF?Yes, if the approach is in the databaseNo, under any conditionsYes but only some partsAIM 1-2-3Pilots may not substitute for the NAVAID (for example, a VOR orNDB) providing lateral guidance for the final approach segment.
27Chart Mysteries No Who cares – this is starting to get boring! Scenario: You’re flying today under IFR to CRQ and notice that your GPS database is not current. You look at the following current approach chart.Can you still conduct the RNAV (GPS) 24 approach under IFR?YesNoWho cares – this is starting to get boring!
31Chart Mysteries Scenario: You’re 5 miles from OCN (See Following Chart) at 4,000’ on the VOR A and ATC says, cleared VOR A approach.You are cleared to descend to 2,500You must fly to OCN at 4,000 then descend to 2,500You can do either if you’re WAAS equipped
33Chart Mysteries No, I am flying Part 91 and can go zero-zero Scenario: You want to practice approaches and get a TEC clearance to OKB from SEE. Weather at SEE is 300 OVC and 1 mi VIS. You accept the clearance which includes the published departure procedure and are ready for takeoff. Is there anything else you need to check?No, I am cleared to go by ATCNo, I am flying Part 91 and can go zero-zeroYes, but I only need to meet the climb gradient
37(f)Civil airport takeoff minimums. This paragraph applies to persons operating an aircraft under part 121, 125, 129, or 135 of this chapter.(1) Unless otherwise authorized by the FAA, no pilot may takeoff from a civil airport under IFR unless the weather conditions at the time of takeoff are at or above the weather minimums for IFR takeoff prescribed for the airport under part 97 of this chapterAIM 5-2-8Climb gradients greater than 200 FPNM are specified when required to support procedure design constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or airspace restrictions. Compliance with a climb gradient for these purposes is mandatory when the procedure is part of the ATC clearance, unless increased takeoff minimums are provided and weather conditions allow compliance with these minimums.
38Chart MysteriesScenario: You’re on the ILS at MYF and reach the DA of 623’. You look up a see one approach light. What are your options? TDZEis 423’ FARImmediately conduct a missed approachDescend to 523’ and look againAsk ATC what to do
40Chart MysteriesScenario Continued: You have descended to the TDZE of 563’ and now see the runway numbers, threshold lights, and about 1/3 of the runway length of 4,577’. Now what?Immediately conduct a missed approachLand. I see two of the required thingsOpen the FAR/AIM and start readingFAR (C) 2 The flight visibility is not less than the visibility prescribed in the standard instrument approach being used.
42LAAS (SBAS) Operations Approach Chart Title: GLS (Global Navigation Landing System)Allows for Cat I, II and III approaches, 1 meter accuracyAllows for curved path approachesServes all of the airports runways (cheaper than an ILS)Makes unmanned landing possible
45Required ReportsUnder IFR any com, nav, or approach malfunctionAny unforecast weatherAIM (IFR or VFR)Leaving a previously assigned altitude (without ATC)When unable to climb or descend at least 500 fpmWhen an approach has been missedChange in filed TAS of 5% or 10 kts whichever is greaterReaching or leaving a holding fixAnything that affects safety of flight
46Safety Pilot What qualification does your safety pilot need? Current medical?Pilot certificate with category & class ratings?Current flight review?Current for day or night landings?Qualified to act as PIC in the aircraft?
47Only 2 Safety Pilot Qualifications Must have a current medicalFAR 61.3 A person may serve as a required pilot flight crewmember of an aircraft only if that person holds the appropriate medical certificate issued under part 67 of this chapter, or other documentation acceptable to the FAA, that is in that person's physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft.At least a private pilot with category and class ratingsFAR No person may operate a civil aircraft in simulated instrument flight unless the other control seat is occupied by a safety pilot who possesses at least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft being flown.
48Who Can Log Flights? Scenario: Bob is a private pilot, instrument rated and current. He decides to go flying in instrument weather with his friend Dave who is a private pilot with no instrument rating. They agree that Dave will do all the flying, including approaches, and landing. Is this a legal flight? If so who can log it?Not legal. The pilot flying needs an instrument ratingLegal, but they’re both crazy
49Logging vs Acting as PIC Definition of Pilot in Command (FAR Part 1)Pilot in command means the person who:(1) Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;(2) Has been designated as pilot in command before or during the flight; and(3) Holds the appropriate category, class, for the conduct of the flight.Who Needs an Instrument Rating (FAR 61.3 e)No person may act as pilot in command of a civil aircraft under IFR or in weather conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR flight unless that person holds the appropriate aircraft category, class, type (if required) and instrument rating on that person’s pilot certificateLogging Pilot in Command Time (FAR e) A sport, recreational, private, or commercial pilot may log pilot-in-command time only for that flight time during which that person is the sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft for which the pilot is rated
50Logging vs Acting as PIC Logging and acting as PIC have nothing at all to do with one another.To log PIC time you only need to be the sole manipulator, and have category and class ratings – don’t need a medical, flight review or anything else
51Lost Com Do nothing for a minute – try previous, next, FSS freq Squawk 7600 and proceed VFR to land if possibleRoute GuidanceAssigned - Route assigned in the last clearanceVectors - if radio failure occurred while being radar vectored, then proceed by a direct route to the fix route, or airway specified in the vector clearanceExpect - by the route that ATC advised may be expectedFlight Plan – proceed via your flight plan if the above doesn’t apply
52Lost Com Highest of the following altitudes Altitude Guidance Altitude assigned in the last clearanceMinimum IFR altitude MEA or OROCAAltitude ATC advised may be expected
53Lost ComCessna 1234, cleared to the Oceanside airport, after departure turn right heading 340, expect radar vectors to OCN. Climb maintain 3,000, expect 4,000 in 10 minOn a heading of 340, at 3,000’ we lose comWhat is the route?What is the altitude?Our ETA at OKB is 1700Z. When would we leave the hold at OCN
54Paper or Plastic Charts? Are charts of any kind required by regulation?Electronic charts are governed by AC 91-786. REMOVAL OF PAPER FROM THE COCKPIT FOR OPERATIONS UNDER PART 91.EFBs/ECDs can be used during all phases of flight operations in lieu of paper reference material when the information displayed meets the following criteria:(1) The components or systems onboard the aircraft which displayprecomposed or interactive information are the functional equivalent of the paper reference material.(2) The interactive or precomposed information being used for navigation or performance planning is current, up-to-date, and valid.Class 1 Device – PortableClass 2 Device – MountableClass 3 Device - Installed
55Right Hold Entries110° Parallel70° Tear Drop180° Direct
56Left Hold Entries70° Tear Drop110° Parallel180° Direct
58And Now a Word From the Tower Gillespie TowerBe familiar with the SEE ODP – too many pilots when given it go … Huh?Don’t show up on the SEE LOC D while other aircraft are commencing the approachPlease don’t fly the LOC backwards, opposite the direction of approaches!!Be familiar with how close MYF is to SEE. Call us before busting our airspaceMontgomery TowerDon’t file a TEC route with the tower without determining if you need an alternate.Remember that even if you file an alternate neither the tower or ATC has itIFR to VFR On Top will always go to either MZB-RYAAH (South) or OCN (North)On Top clearances will not be available if the cloud tops are above 3,500’
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