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D ATA AND K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT Chapter 3. 2 M ANAGING DATA AND INFORMATION Usually too much data rather than too little in organizations How does an.

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Presentation on theme: "D ATA AND K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT Chapter 3. 2 M ANAGING DATA AND INFORMATION Usually too much data rather than too little in organizations How does an."— Presentation transcript:

1 D ATA AND K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT Chapter 3

2 2 M ANAGING DATA AND INFORMATION Usually too much data rather than too little in organizations How does an organization ____________ all this data and information? ____________ – a collection of integrated and related files ____________ Proquest MBNA

3 3-3 D ATABASE T ECHNOLOGY A ____________ of related data organized in a way that makes it valuable and useful Allows organizations to retrieve, store, and analyze information easily Is vital to an organizations success in running ____________ and making decisions

4 3-4 R ELATIONSHIP OF DBMS C ONCEPTS TO O THERS ? Fig 3.1

5 5 T HE H IERARCHY OF D ATA

6 3-6 V IEW OF A D ATABASE T ABLE OR F ILE EntityAttribute Fig 3.2

7 7 T HE T RADITIONAL A PPROACH Figure 3.3: The Traditional Approach to Data Management U of L example

8 8 T HE D ATABASE A PPROACH Figure 3.4: The Database Approach to Data Management Washington hospital

9 3-9 F ILE P ROCESSING VS. D ATABASE A PPROACH File ____________ Approach (Old School) Storage Media: sequential tapes or files Data: stored in long sequential files Organization: redundant data in multiple files Efficiency: data embedded to support processing Updates: requires multiple updates in many files Processing: slower query/faster processing ____________ Approach (New School-TODAY) Storage Media: Direct Access Storage Device (DASD) Data: stored in related tables Organization: redundant data minimized/eliminated Efficiency: data stored only in tables Updates: requires few or one update for a data field Processing: faster query/slower processing

10 3-10 A DVANTAGES OF THE D ATABASE A PPROACH

11 3-11 C OSTS OR R ISKS OF THE D ATABASE A PPROACH

12 3-12 R OLES IN D ATABASE D EVELOPMENT AND U SE __________________________ Designs, develops and monitors performance of databases Enforces policy and standards for data use and security __________________________ Designs, develops and monitors performance of databases Enforces policy and standards for data use and security __________________________ Creates business applications that connect to databases Tests the new systems and databases before use __________________________ Creates business applications that connect to databases Tests the new systems and databases before use ______________________ Defines data requirements working with a DBA Incorporates the database design into new program designs ______________________ Defines data requirements working with a DBA Incorporates the database design into new program designs

13 3-13 D ATABASE S YSTEMS A CTIVITIES – D ATA E NTRY Enter Forms Employment Applications (Form Entry Screen)(Form Entry Program)(Employment DB) Example _______ is entered from paper employment applications into a form entry screen The entry _______ are designed to match the paper forms for ease of entry The form _______ is processed by the entry program and then stored in the employment _______

14 3-14 D ATABASE S YSTEMS A CTIVITIES – Q UERY (Query Request)(Query Program)(Employment Query) _______ (Structured Query Language)_______(Query by Example ) Query – A database function that extracts and displays information from a database given selection parameters. Example – Display applicants entered in the last 30 daysQuery parameters are selected in the query request screen The database program uses SQL to query and present the result

15 3-15 D ATABASE S YSTEMS A CTIVITIES – R EPORT (Query Request)(Query Program)(Employment Report) _______ Generator Report – A database function that extracts and formats information from a database for printing and presentation Example – Report on applicants entered in the last 30 days _______ parameters are selected in the report request screen The database program uses _______ to query and present the result Example – Report on applicants entered in the last 30 days _______ parameters are selected in the report request screen The database program uses _______ to query and present the result

16 3-16 D ESIGNING D ATABASES – D ATA M ODEL Example: ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram) Data Model A map or _______ that represents entities and their relationships Used by Database Administrators to design tables with their corresponding associations

17 3-17 D ESIGNING D ATABASES – K EYS Primary Key - Student ID ENTITIES Compound Primary Key - Student ID - Course ID - Sec No. - Term Secondary Key - Major Entities are translated into Tables (Students and Grades) Entities are joined by common attributes

18 3-18 D ESIGNING D ATABASES - A SSOCIATIONS Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) Diagramming _______ used to express entity relationships Very useful in developing _______ databases

19 3-19 D ESIGNING D ATABASES – A SSOCIATIONS (E XAMPLE )

20 3-20 T HE R ELATIONAL M ODEL Most _______ type of database model used today in organizations Is a three-dimensional model compared to the traditional two-dimensional database models - Rows (first-dimension) - _______ (second-dimension) - Relationships (third-dimension)

21 3-21 T HE R ELATIONAL M ODEL - E XAMPLE

22 3-22 T HE R ELATIONAL M ODEL - _______________ ____________ A technique to make complex databases more efficient by eliminating as much redundant data as possible Example: Database with redundant data (below)

23 3-23 T HE R ELATIONAL M ODEL - N ORMALIZATION Normalized Database

24 3-24 T HE R ELATIONAL M ODEL – D ATA D ICTIONARY Data Dictionary Is a _______ that database designers prepare to help individuals enter data Provides several pieces of information about each attribute in the database including: - _______ - Key (is it a key or part of a key?) - Data _______ (date, alphanumeric, numeric, etc.) - Valid _______(the format or numbers allowed) Can be used to enforce Business Rules which are captured by the database designer to prevent illegal or illogical values from entering the database. (e.g. who has authority to enter certain kinds of data)

25 3-25 O NLINE T RANSACTIONAL P ROCESSING ( _______ ) Online _______ Processing The mechanism by which customers, suppliers, and employees process business transactions for an organization These users conduct transactions online through internal systems and external websites for processing and storage Example

26 3-26 O PERATIONAL VS. I NFORMATIONAL S YSTEMS

27 3-27 O RGANIZATIONAL U SE OF D ATABASES Department Databases Data Warehouse Data Mart _______ Extract Data Extract Data Extract Data Extract Data Day-to-day department transactions Used primarily by departments Extracted department transactions Used for business analysis Extracted subset of a data warehouse Used for highly specific business analysis Hong Kong Airport

28 H ONG K ONG A IRPORT 1. Identify three operational database applications that Hong Kong airport would utilize. 2. Identify three informational uses of database applications that Hong Kong airport would utilize. Hong Kong Airport

29 29 D ATA W AREHOUSES, D ATA M ARTS, AND D ATA M INING Data _______ : collects business information from many sources in the enterprise Data _______ : a subset of a data warehouse Data _______ : an information-analysis tool for automated discovery of patterns and relationships in a data warehouse or a data mart Online ______________ Processing -Graphical software tools that provide complex analysis of data stored in a database

30 30 Data _______ are not transaction-oriented. Data _______ support online analytical processing (OLAP).

31 31 D ATA W AREHOUSES, D ATA M ARTS, AND D ATA M INING ( CONTINUED ) Figure 3.17: Elements of a Data Warehouse

32 3-32 K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT D EFINITIONS Knowledge _______ All underlying skills routines, practices, principles, formulae, methods, heuristics, and intuitions whether explicit or tacit _______ Knowledge _______ The process an organization uses to gain the greatest value from its knowledge assets

33 3-33 K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT S YSTEM (KMS) Primary Objective How to recognize, generate, store, share, manage this tacit knowledge (Best Practices) for deployment and use _______ Generally not a single technology but rather a collection of tools that include __________ technologies (e.g. , groupware, instant messaging), and information storage and retrieval systems (e.g. database management system) to meet the Primary Objective _______ Procedures and processes that are widely accepted as being among the most effective and/or efficient

34 3-34 B ENEFITS AND C HALLENGES OF K NOWLEDGE M ANAGEMENT

35 A NOT SO PERFECT MATCH With the increasing power of Data mining techniques, comes ever increasing and reaching uses of this powerful technology. Is this DNA application an application that has gone too far? Do you agree with this statement "There should be a familial searching policy that is constitutional and legal in the Canada A not so perfect match


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