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1 Civil Aviation Simulation Visual Regulation Review Richard Flitton 06 Mar 2001.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Civil Aviation Simulation Visual Regulation Review Richard Flitton 06 Mar 2001."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Civil Aviation Simulation Visual Regulation Review Richard Flitton 06 Mar 2001

2 2 Industry Call to Action RAeS Conference May 2000 highlighted the need for change FAA (Paul Ray) –An increase in the numbers of ab initio pilots and more congested air space calls for better training fidelity –Current simulators lack the fidelity to train for all required tasks –Grand father rights may not be appropriate for sound, motion and visual systems in the future IATA FSWG (Capt Donald Van Dyke) –World jet fleet is expected to double by 2018 –Required pilot entry level experience may be reduced –CFIT, loss of control & weather related events are not currently trained for –Training & checking requirements have not kept pace with these changes

3 3 Need for increased visual standards? IATA –Improved pixel resolution + texture sharpness –Enhanced scene correlation & fidelity Terrain fidelity More complex visually apparent weather, correlated with cockpit instruments Runway visual surface conditions correlated with motion More Air and ground traffic –Larger fields of view – fill the cockpit windows FAA –Fully accurate airport models –Increased environmental simulation –Increased fields of view Request for international review of visual (and motion) standards

4 4 Existing Visual Regulations Visual regulations currently fall into three broad categories Measurable tests –Displays: FOV, contrast ratio, brightness, resolution etc –IG: Transport delay, occultation etc Demonstration tests –Runway definition at set distances –Attitude correlation –Visibility calibration Subjective assessment –Visual scene content –Weather effects This last group is the most difficult to define common standards for

5 5 Legacy Visual Scene Content Wide variety in visual scenes in training use today Many legacy systems with inferior rendering technology –Limited processing capacity –Inferior texture schemes –Low screen resolution –Poor anti-aliasing schemes –Limited weather effects –Limited terrain fidelity & extent –Minimal airport content Obsolescence is becoming an issue for many legacy systems

6 6 Present Day Visual Content Improvements in all areas – but still difficult to quantify

7 7 Visual scene accuracy is increasingly important New procedures such as GNSS approaches, requires airport databases to be geo-referenced to precise absolute positions. WGS84 geo-referencing is required to be GNSS compliant. The simulator integration of Terrain Awareness Warning Systems (TAWS) requires terrain and obstacle information in the vicinity of the aerodrome. For realistic training, all geo-spatial information stored within each individual aircraft system (e.g.,TAWS, FMS, ND, etc.) will have to match the database stored in the simulators visual database. RTCA SC-193 and EUROCAE WG-44 are producing international Aerodrome & Terrain Mapping standards to this end –Fidelity demanded by this effort currently far outstrips available source data and IG processing capacity. –Real-time portrayal of this data could be many years away What will be available in the next few years ?

8 8 Tomorrows Content Visual systems around the corner will include dramatic improvements –Terrain fidelity – greater than EPGWS currently implements –Large amounts of photo- derived imagery –Extended weather effects –Very large areas Scene creation tools coupled with IG processing power will enable very detailed airports to be built –All airport buildings & 3D signage –All runway & taxiways including 3D profiles –Large numbers of dynamic 3D objects –Active scenes with embedded environment dynamics Very high image quality –Very sophisticated anti-aliasing techniques –High pixel resolutions

9 9 Tomorrows Civil Content - Drawn from Military Technology

10 10 Tomorrows Civil Terrain Fidelity Salt Lake City – 100m terrain grid

11 11 Tomorrows Displays Military systems in use today are a guide to our future Potential for very bright and high screen resolution (10M pixel + ) laser projectors (overcome dynamic range problems of LCDs) –Will require radically different IG design - and may be cost prohibitive Larger collimated fields of view for multi- pilot systems may be difficult to achieve due to physical and cost constraints Increasing display regulations may add cost to the user –Variable resolution & pixel cannon dome displays create eye-limiting images with large fields of view – but at a price

12 12 Tomorrows Visual Regulation Needs Current visual regulation criteria that are measurable and demonstrable will likely be adequate for tomorrow –If it isn't broke, dont fix it ! Visual scene content assessment needs to be based upon less subjective criteria We need better definition criteria for: –Terrain fidelity –3D obstructions & dynamic objects –Airport content –Weather portrayal Training credits may need to be linked to improved scene fidelity to provide operator incentive

13 13 Suggested Terrain Fidelity Criteria Terrain fidelity should be assessed based upon areas of interest Operator should to provide data references used to construct DBs. IG based tools could be used to spot check terrain fidelity Databases that met these requirement could be used for advanced training EPGWS / CFIT avoidance Zero flight airport recognition, familiarity and navigation check-off Advanced ATC procedures

14 14 Airport Content Criteria Definition Airport content should be described in terms of the features required to achieve a given training task, not the processing capacity of the IG in question Describing the required content within the simulator regulations would likely make these documents unnecessarily cumbersome Proposal: Advanced aviation databases should adhere to a separate internationally agreed standard: Create an agreed Civil Aviation Visual Scene Content Specification –This document could be used to define database content standards –Each advanced database would be required to be approved separately –Standards would define : Data, accuracy and revision tracking requirements Scene content requirement Verification requirements Industry Groups (RAeS and IATA) could co-chair standard definition Liaise with RTCA / EUROCAE to ensure commonality of objectives

15 15 Conclusion Current training needs are beyond current visual system simulator regulations Advances in aircraft systems and future traffic growth demand improved visual databases and common content standards. Planned aviation industry airport mapping standards are not likely to result solutions for civil simulation in the near /mid term Regulations should be updated to reflect improved terrain fidelity that can be specified and measured Airport content is impractical to quantify within the regulation documents The simulation industry should work towards separate international standards for advanced visual scene content that can be referenced by the existing regulations


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