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Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 2: Aircraft Familiarization (May 2006)

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Presentation on theme: "Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 2: Aircraft Familiarization (May 2006)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Mission Aircrew Course Chapter 2: Aircraft Familiarization (May 2006)

2 m O-2015 DEMONSTRATE GROUND OPERATIONS AND SAFETY (S) m P-2016 IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS MAJOR AIRCRAFT CONTROLS (S) m P-2017 IDENTIFY AND DISCUSS MAJOR AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS (S) m P-2018 DISCUSS AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE (S) m P-2019 IDENTIFY ITEMS CHECKED DURING AN AIRCRAFT PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION (S) m P-2020 DISCUSS THE DANGER OF WAKE TURBULENCE (S) m P-2119 DEMONSTRATE HOW TO COMPLETE A CAP AIRCRAFT INSPECTION (P) Aircrew Tasks

3 m State the basic function of the aircraft ailerons, elevator, rudder, trim tabs and fuel selector. {S; 2.1} m Discuss the relationship between the magnetic compass and heading indicator. {S; & 2.2.2} m State the basic function of the airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, GPS, nav/comm radios, audio panel, and transponder. {S; } m Discuss the consequences of exceeding the gross weight limit. {S; 2.3.1} Objectives

4 m Discuss the importance of maintaining proper balance (c.g.), and factors in computing weight & balance {S; 2.3.2} m State the purpose of the pre-flight inspection, and discuss the items checked during the pre-flight inspection. {S; 2.4} m Discuss ground operations and safety, including: {S; 2.5} Ramp safety Moving and loading an aircraft Entry and egress Fuel management Taxiing, including airport signs and markings m Discuss wake turbulence, including where it is most likely to be encountered. {S; 2.6} Objectives (cont)

5 Aircraft Familiarization m Why do I need to know this stuff anyway? m Structure m Instrumentation m Weight & Balance m Pre-flight inspection m Safety m Ground operations m Wake turbulence m Flightline signals

6 The Airplane m CAP typically uses C172 and C182.

7 Basic components

8 Ailerons provide roll control

9 Elevators provide pitch control

10 The rudder controls yaw Directional Control of the Aircraft on the ground is by the rudder peddles and linkages to the nose gear.

11 Trim tabs neutralize control pressures

12 Fuel selector

13 Typical Instrument Panel DO NOT reposition any aircraft instrument's settings or controls without first asking the pilot.

14 Engine Quadrant Need to add: P 2016, Demonstrate and discuss how the pilot increases or decreases engine power.

15 Magnetic Compass m Primary Doesnt require any power Used to set HI (DG) Installation problems Bank angles and speed changes can cause a compass to show the wrong heading

16 Heading Indicator m Vacuum gyro (Directional gyro) Stable indications Quick response to turns Electrical or vacuum- driven Will drift, requires periodic re-alignment

17 Altimeter m Static pressure Usually set to show pressure altitude above Mean Sea Level (MSL) Accurate altitude is dependent on the altimeter setting.

18 Turn Coordinator m Electric Really two instruments Miniature aircraft shows turn rate only - does not show bank angle Inclinometer shows quality of turn - Coordinated, slip, skid

19 Attitude Indicator m Vacuum gyro Highly reliable & useful Provides a horizon reference Hash marks indicate bank angle Climb/descent marks

20 m Static & Ram pressure Knots (and/or MPH) Colored markings show ranges Shows aircraft speed through the air Airspeed Indicator

21 Vertical Speed Indicator m Static pressure rate of change Climb or descent rate Has a lag due to design Use with altimeter

22 Tachometer m RPM Markings green arc Indicates power

23 Other Instruments m Gauges Fuel (accurate at empty) Manifold pressure Fuel flow Oil Temperature and Pressure Vacuum and Generator Exhaust Gas Temperature Instruments vary from aircraft to aircraft

24 Nav/Comm Primary and Standby Frequencies (flip-flop) Communications Navigation

25 Comm Antennas Normally mounted on top One for each radio Know for your aircraft, if they are on top or on the bottom

26 Nav Antennas Cat whisker style One for each nav May be dual blade (Bonanza)

27 Static wicks Mitigate buildup of static electricity (interferes with comm) Wings, elevators, vertical stabilizer Take care when walking around

28 Other Antennas Loop (directional) ADF Marker Beacon

29 GPS m Apollo GX55 m ARNAV Star 5000

30 GPS Antenna m Line of sight, so mounted at the very top m Comm antennas can interfere with the weak signals, so they are tested for interference GPS

31 Audio Panel

32 Transponder

33 UHF Antenna Blade type (may be spike) Transponder & DME [If mounted up front, may interfere with DF]

34 Navigation Instruments VORADF m VHF Omnidirectional Range (VOR-DME, VORTAC) Indicates direction to/from ground transmitter relative to magnetic North m Automatic Direction Finder (NDB) Direction toward ground transmitter relative to airplane nose

35 QUESTIONS?

36 Weight and Balance m The wings generate a limited amount of lift m Maximum weight for an aircraft is set by the manufacturer m Pitch stability is affected by the location of the center of gravity m The pilot computes weight and balance and controls it by loading the aircraft correctly

37 Weight and Balance m Excessive weight adversely impacts performance: Longer take off and landing distance Reduced climb performance Reduced ability to withstand turbulence and wind shear forces m Out of Forward C.G. limits can cause: Reduced up-elevator authority (ability to raise the nose) Can eliminate the ability to flare for landing m Out of Rear C.G. limits can cause: Reduced down-elevator authority (ability to lower the nose) Can make stall recovery difficult or impossible

38 Aircraft Pre-flight WALK AROUND WINGS FUSELAGE PROPELLER CONTROLS LIGHTS TIRES OIL FUEL COWLING TIE DOWNS CHOCKS

39 Safety Three Rules m NEVER sacrifice safety to save time m Use established procedures and checklists m You may have to deviate from common procedures if you do, use common sense and prudent judgment (see Rule #1) m The most dangerous part of a mission is driving to and from the airport or mission base!

40 Safety In/Around Aircraft m No smoking m Keep clear m Fire on the ground m Moving and loading the aircraft m Entry/Egress - normal and emergency m Seat belts and shoulder harnesses (<1,000) m Fuel management – you have an interest in making sure you dont run out of fuel. The pilot should brief the crew on how much fuel will be needed and where youll refuel, if necessary.

41 At Emergency Egress

42 Aircraft Refueling Procedures

43 Safety during Taxiing m Taxiing – all crewmembers looking for obstacles Obstacle within six feet – get out and push Obstacle within 6 to 10 feet – get a marshaller or wing walker No unnecessary talk (sterile cockpit) m Obey flightline hand signals But use common sense – many linemen are inexperienced

44 Signalmans Position

45 Flightline hand signals Outward motion with thumbs PULL CHOCKS Inward motion with thumbs INSERT CHOCKS Circle with hand START ENGINE Hands out making a pulling motion COME AHEAD

46 Flightline hand signals Motion forward, pointing left TURN LEFT Thumb up ALL CLEAR - O.K. Downward motion with palms SLOW DOWN Motion forward, pointing right TURN RIGHT

47 Flightline hand signals Hands crossed above head STOP Slash throat with finger CUT ENGINE Crossing hands over head EMERGENCY STOP

48 Flightline

49 Safety during Taxiing m Taxiing – all crewmembers assist the pilot Prevent collisions with other aircraft and vehicles Help the pilot find and stay on the taxiway (bad weather, low visibility, night on an unlighted airport) m Be familiar with airport signs and markings Runway markings are white and taxiway markings are yellow

50 Airport Signs and Markings Follow the yellow lines Stay behind the dashed lines Need ATC permission to cross the solid lines

51 Airport Signs and Markings Mandatory signs have a red background with a white inscription May have a row of red stop bar lights embedded in the pavement. When illuminated, do not cross (even if given permission by ATC) Location boundary signs have a yellow background with a black inscription Visible from the runway Visual clues to determine when youre clear of the runway

52 Airport Signs and Markings Location signs have a black background with a yellow inscription Direction signs have a yellow background with a black inscription

53 Airport-related ATC Clearances m Be familiar with ATC ground clearances that involve the airport signs and markings Back up the pilot when taxiing m Controllers are required to get acknowledgement of all hold short instructions m Pilot/Observer should read back all clearances Cleared to taxi or Taxi (implied clearance) Cleared for takeoff runway 22

54 Airport-related ATC Clearances m Meaning of clearances: Taxi to … Cleared to taxi to any point other than assigned takeoff runway. Cleared to cross all runways that intersect the taxi route. Does not authorize taxiing onto or crossing assigned runway. Taxi to … hold short of … Cleared to taxi, but enroute to taxi clearance limit must hold short of another taxiway or crossing runway.

55 Airport-related ATC Clearances m Meaning of clearances: Cross runway … Cleared to cross the runway crossing your taxi route and continue to taxi clearance limit. Hold short … Do not enter or cross the taxiway or runway specified by the controller. If there is a painted hold line, do not cross it. Report position Identify your location on the airport.

56 Wake turbulence m Caused by aircraft moving through the air generating lift (proportional to weight) m Settle 500 to 800 feet below the flight path m Drift out slowly (5 mph) on the ground m Takeoff before, land after other aircraft

57 At Wake turbulence

58 QUESTIONS?


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