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DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Emissions from Aircraft and Handling Equipment in Copenhagen Airport 19th International Transport.

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Presentation on theme: "DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Emissions from Aircraft and Handling Equipment in Copenhagen Airport 19th International Transport."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AARHUS UNIVERSITY Emissions from Aircraft and Handling Equipment in Copenhagen Airport 19th International Transport and Air Pollution conference November 26-27, 2012 Thessaloniki, Greece M. Winther, U. Kousgaard, T. Ellermann, M. Ketzel, P. Løfstrøm, A. Massling, J.K. Nøjgaard Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University

2 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Introduction Arising from the concern of airport workers health, a detailed investigation of the air pollution in Copenhagen Airport has been conducted in Main focus was the airport apron area where handling occurs. The airport study as such comprises a detailed baseline emission inventory as well as subsequent dispersion modeling of the air quality (Ellermann et al., 2011).

3 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Introduction This presentation explains the detailed baseline emission inventory for aircraft main engines, auxiliary power units (APU) and handling equipment. Total emission results of CO, HC, NO x and PM will shown for the apron area in focus and the airport as a whole. PM results for the apron (5m x 5m) will also be shown suited for the further dispersion modelling work.

4 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Disposition Activity data - and digitization Aircraft movements APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) Main engine start-up Handling equipment Road transport vehicles Emission factors Calculation method Results Conclusions

5 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Digitization – aircraft movements Aircraft movements digitized from airport data: Flight operation (Start/landing) and time, lane (04L+04R, 22L+22R, 12, 30), taxi way, gate no., on/off-block time

6 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Digitization – APU, push-back and main engine start-up APU (arrival, start-up, boarding): Gate no., On/Off-block time. APU and push-back along the green/red lines (5 km/h). APU and main engine start-up by the start-up mark (red dot; e.g. P).

7 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Aircraft are grouped into four size categories (B-E). Arrival: Handling starts immediately after on-block at the gate. Departure: Handling ends immediately before off-block at the gate. Handling equipment list from the handling companies: Fuel type, engine size, emission stage/year.

8 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Digitization - handling Handling occur on the right side of the aircraft. Area: Aircraft x wing length The working time is increased to cover the full handling period (handling table); emission rates are decreased correspondingly An exception for push-back; 10 mins before off-block, and movement towards the engine start up mark

9 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Emission factors – aircraft main engines Main engines: flyID (airport) engineID (global database) NO x, CO, HC (g/kg fuel), smoke no., fuel (kg/s): Idle, take off Jet engines: ICAO engine exhaust emission database Turbo props (TP): FOI Sweden emission database Particulate matter (PM): ICAOs FOA3.0 method (jets), and from a Swiss survey (TP) PM mass depends on smoke number, fuel sulphur and HC

10 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Emission factors – aircraft APU APU NO x, CO, HC and PM (kg/h): ICAO (air quality manual, doc. 9889) Fuel (kg/h): Lasport (German air quality model for airports) New/older aircraft types and seating capacity

11 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Emission factors – handling equipment Non road diesel: Split into emission levels and kW sizes according to EU emission directives. Non road emission data: EMEP/EEA guidebook. Road diesel: EU emission limits for Euro 0-V are used directly (Test cycle, ESC). Gasoline (baggage truck): Old ones ~ gasoline cars from 1970s. New ones ~ Euro 1 cars.

12 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Calculation method E = Emission/fuel consumption (g) for cell = i and time = t ER = Emission/fuel consumption rate (g/s) for ME, APU, ME start up and handling gear t = Time duration for the activity in cell = i t = Time of the day (sec.) The emissions are calculated as the product of the emission rate (g/s) and time duration spend in cell i, for the activity:

13 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser PM – handling activities The emission contributions from handling are clearly visible on the right side of the aircraft. The emission trails from push-back tractors are visible by the most inner part of the gates, and during the movement towards the main engine start-up marks.

14 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser PM – APU activities APU emissions are visible at the gates, during push-back to ME start-up marks, and during ME start-up.

15 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser PM – Main engines The map clearly depicts the ME emissions from the start-up marks, on the taxi ways towards the runways, and close to the gates moving into aircraft parking position.

16 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser PM – all sources

17 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Inner apron: NO x and PM emission shares are significantly high for handling and APU. Handling: High fuel related emission factors for the diesel fueled handling equipment. APU: Somewhat lower emission factors, but large fuel consumption. ME: NO x and PM emissions are small due to the very small emission factors during taxiing. ME: Large amounts of HC and CO while taxiing and during engine start-up due to poor combustion. Total airport: ME HC and CO emissions are high. During take off the emissions of NO x are high due to the high engine combustion temperature.

18 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser JP sulphur content = 942 ppm, according to information from airport refueling services. The calculated PM emissions from main engines decrease by more than 50 %, in the case of zero sulphur in the jet fuel. APU: Most likely the PM emissions will be significantly reduced in this case also. Emissions from road transport vehicles (traffic counts, five zones) are rather insignificant.

19 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser NO x emissions/day Predominantly use of lane 22

20 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Conclusions A detailed 5x5 m airport emission inventory has been made, and emission results are explained by the size of emf. and fuel consumption (activity data). On the airport apron, handling is the largest emission source of NO x (63 %) and PM (51 %). APU emissions (NO x : 25 %, PM: 45 %) are also considerable. ME emissions of NO x (11 %) and especially PM (4 %) are small. Conversely, on the apron, ME is the largest source of HC (63 %) and CO (44 %). For the whole airport, ME becomes the largest emission source for all pollutants.

21 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Conclusions The calculated PM emissions from main engines decrease by more than 50 %, in the case of zero sulphur in the jet fuel. APU: Most likely the PM emissions will be significantly reduced in this case also.

22 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser References Ellermann, T., Massling, A., Løfstrøm, P, Winther, M., Nøjgaard, J. K. & Ketzel. M : Investigation of air pollution at the apron at Copenhagen airport in relation to working environment (Danish with English summary) DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy, Aarhus University. 148 p. – DCE report no. 5. Løfstrøm, P., Ketzel, M., Winther, M., Kousgaard, U., Christensen, J., Geels, C., Massling, A., Nøjgaard, J.K., Ellerman, T. 2012: AIR POLLUTION LEVELS AT COPENHAGEN AIRPORT ESTIMATED BY MEASUREMENTS AND NESTED REGIONAL EULERIAN, LOCAL GAUSSIAN PLUME AND CFD MODELS, 5 p., 14th Conference on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes – 2-6 October 2011, Kos, Greece.

23 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Thank you for your attention!

24 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE AARHUS UNIVERSITY 27. november 2012 Morten Winther Senior adviser Aktivitetsdata – kørende trafik Trafiktællinger/15 min intervaller fra CPH (kamera): Hilton Busterminal v. T2 Drop off v. T3 Finger B-C Check Øst Køretøjskategorier Personbiler, varebiler/minibus, busser (rute/turist), bagagevogne Strækninger opmålt på kort Antagelser vedr. tomgang og kørehastighed


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