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Airport Forecasting

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Forecasting Demand Essential to have realistic estimates of the future demand of an airport Used for developing the airport master plan or aviation system plan

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Master Plan

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Data used to predict future 1. Airport service area 2. Origins and destinations of trips 3. Demographics and population growth of area 4. Economic character of area 5. Trends in existing transportation activities for the movement of people, freight, and mail by various modes 6. Trends in national traffic affecting future development 7. Distance, population, and industrial character of nearby areas having air service 8. Geographic factors influencing transportation requirements 9. Existence and degree of competition between airlines and among other modes of traffic

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Estimates Needed 1. The volumes and peaking characteristics of passengers, aircraft, vehicles, freight, express, and mail 2. The number and types of aircraft needed to serve the above traffic 3. The number of based general aviation aircraft and the number of movements generated 4. The performance and operating characteristics of ground access systems

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Forecasting by Judgement Delphi Method: A panel of experts on different subjects is assembled and asked a series of questions and projections which they take into account to determine a forecast

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Trend Extrapolation 375000 390000

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Top-Down Model Extrapolate 1, given 2, get 3:

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Cross Classification Model Cross Classification: examines the behavioral characteristics of travelers Travelers broken down into classifications based upon these characteristics Based on the belief that certain socioeconomic characteristics influence the inclination for travel Market study performed to determine the travel characteristics of the individual groups By knowing the different groups travel patterns, forecasts can be made by projecting the patterns out

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Factors Income Occupation Age Type and location of residence Education etc…

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Market Study Market Study method does NOT require complex mathematical relationships uses simple equations to generate a classification table or matrix Advantage: allows for discrimination between discretionary and non-discretionary travelers and the factors that influence both types Non-discretionary = business traveler Discretionary = vacationers

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Multiple Regression Econometric Modeling: relates measures of aviation activity to economic and social factors Multiple Regression is used to determine the relationships between dependent variables and explanatory variables

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Explanatory Variables Economic growth Population growth Market factors Travel impedance Intermodal competition

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Regression Equations Linear Regression form: Y = mx + b Multiple Regression form: Y est = a o + a 1 X 1 + a 2 X 2 + a 3 X 3 + … + a n X n

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Statistical Testing of Models Tests performed to determine the validity of econometric models The analyst needs to consider the reasonableness as well as the statistical significance of the model

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Coeff. of Mult. Determination Coefficient of multiple determination, R 2 : measures the variation in the dependant variable that is explained by the variation in the independent variables (e.g. R 2 1.0 very good relationship) Equation: R 2 = (Y est - Y avg ) 2 (Y - Y avg ) 2

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Coeff. of Mult. Correlation Coefficient of multiple correlation, R: measures the correlation between the dependent variable and the independent variables (e.g. R 1.0 very close correlation) Equation: R = (R 2 ) 1/2

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Standard Error Standard error of the estimate: measure of the dispersion of the data points about the regression line and is used to establish the confidence limits Equation: (Y - Y est ) 2 m - (n+1) [] y est =

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Equations for Trend Line

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Elasticity Elasticity: the percentage change in traffic for a 1% change in fare or travel time In the past, it was important Even greater significance today due to a deregulated industry fare wars spoke and hub system

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Elasticity < -1, Elastic, people may change trip behavior E = 0, Perfectly Inelastic, no effect on trip behavior -1 < E < 0, Inelastic, insensitive to price q p p q = ()

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Elasticity Example

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Calculations Tourists: (-4000/2) (7/6000) = -2.33 < -1, Elastic people may change trip behavior Commuters: (-1000/2)(7/7500) = -0.47 -1 < E < 0, Inelastic insensitive to price q p p q = ()

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THE END

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