2Topics Pavement Management Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Snow and Ice Control*Safety Inspection ProgramsBird and Wildlife Hazard Management
3Pavement ManagementThe definition of minimum quality standard for airfield pavement by U.S. regulation:Pavement edges shall not exceed 3 inches difference in elevation between abutting pavement sections and between full-strength pavement and abutting shoulders.Pavement surfaces shall have no hole exceeding 3 inches in depth or any hole the slope of which from any point in the hole to the nearest point at the lip of the hole is 45 degrees or greater as measured from the pavement surface plane, unless, in either case, the entire area of the hole can be covered by a 5-inch diameter circle.Pavement shall be free of cracks and surface variations which could impair directional control of air carrier aircraft.
4Pavement ManagementThe definition of minimum quality standard for airfield pavement by U.S. regulation (continue):Mud, dirt, sand, loose aggregate, debris, foreign objects, rubber deposits, and other contaminants shall be removed promptly and as completely as practicable, with exceptions for snow and ice removal operations.Any chemical solvent that is used to clean any pavement area shall be removed as soon as possible, with exceptions for snow and ice removal operations.The pavement shall be sufficiently drained and free of depressions to prevent ponding that obscures markings or impairs safe aircraft operations.
5Pavement ManagementRunways are typically paved using one of two sets of materials.Runways may be constructed of flexible (asphalt) or rigid (concrete) materials.Concrete, a rigid pavement that can remain useful for 20 to 40 years, is typically found at large commercial service airports and former military base airfields. Runways made of rigid pavements are typically constructed by aligning a series of concrete slabs connected by joints that allow for pavement contraction and expansion as a result of the loading of aircraft on the pavement surface, and as a result of changes in air temperature.Runways constructed from flexible pavement mixtures are typically found at most smaller airports. Flexible pavement runways are typically much less expensive to construct than rigid pavement runways. The life of asphalt runways typically lasts between 15 and 20 years, given proper design, construction, and maintenance.
6Pavement ManagementPeriodic on-the-ground inspections can easily spot joint openings, surface cracks, and other problems before the runway becomes a hazard to aviation operations. Specific runway conditions that are considered hazards include alligatoring of asphalt surfaces, pavement cracking, rutting, raveling, and the creation of potholes.中正機場每日有兩次聯合巡場時間，上午及下午各一次，每次分別檢查南、北跑道及滑行道。所謂聯合巡場包含航務組檢查道面，及助航組檢查跑滑道助航燈光。
7Pavement ManagementThe following symptoms provide evidence of potential pavement failures:Ponding of water on or near pavement.Building up of soil or heavy turf at pavement edges, preventing water runoff.Clogged or overgrown ditchesErosion of soil at pavement edgesOpen or silted-in jointsSurface cracking or crumblingUndulating or bumpy surfaces
8Pavement ManagementThe FAA defines pavement maintenance as "any regular or recurring work necessary, on a continuing basis, to preserve existing pavement facilities in good condition, any work involved in the care or cleaning of existing pavement facilities, and incidental or minor repair work on existing pavement facilities.“ Pavement maintenance involves, for example, sealing of small surface cracks.The FAA defines pavement rehabilitation as the "development required to preserve, repair, or restore the financial integrity" of the pavement. Adding an additional layer of asphalt on the surface of a runway with the goal of restrengthening the pavement would be considered a rehabilitation.Though approaches to repairing pavements may differ, some experts note that appropriately timed maintenance and rehabilitation forestalls the need to replace the pavement entirely, termed pavement reconstruction, which is a far more expensive process. An appropriate maintenance program can minimize pavement deterioration. Similarly, rehabilitation can extend the time needed until the pavement must be replaced.
9Pavement ManagementA proper pavement management program evaluates the present condition of a pavement and predicts its future condition through the use of a pavement condition index. By projecting the rate of deterioration, a life cycle cost analysis can be performed for various alternatives, and the optimal time of application of the best alternative is determined.During the first 75 percent of its life, a pavement's performance is relatively stable. It is during the last 25 percent of its life that pavement begins to deteriorate rapidly. The challenge of pavement management programs is to predict as accurately as possible when that 75 percent life cycle point will be reached for a particular piece of pavement so its maintenance and rehabilitation can be scheduled at the appropriate times.The longer a pavement's life can be stretched until it must be rehabilitated, the lower the overall life cycle cost of the pavement will be. According to the FAA's own estimates, the total costs for ignoring maintenance and periodically rehabilitating poor pavement can be up to four times as high as the cost for maintaining the same piece of pavement in good condition.
10Pavement Management Runway Surface Frictions Runway pavement surface friction is threatened by normal wear, moisture, contaminants, and pavement abnormalities. Repeated traffic movements wear down the runway surface.Wet weather can create dynamic or viscous hydroplaning. Dynamic hydroplaning is a condition where landing gear tires ride up on a cushioning film of water on the runway surfaces.Viscous hydroplaning occurs when a thin film of oil, dirt, or rubber particles mixes with water and prevents tires from making sure contact with pavement.Contaminants, rubber deposits, and dust particles accumulate over a period of time and smother the surface.The pavement itself might have depressed surface areas that are subject to ponding during periods of rainfall.
11Pavement Management Runway Surface Frictions The most effective and economical method of reducing hydroplaning is runway grooving. One-quarter-inch grooves spaced approximately 1 1/4 inches apart are made (generally with diamond blades) in the runway surface.These safety grooves help provide better drainage on the runway surface, furnish escape routes for water under the tire footprint to prevent dynamic hydroplaning, and offer a means of escape for superheated steam in reverted rubber skids.Grooving also assists in draining surface areas that tend to pond, reducing the risks of spray ingesting, fluid drag on takeoff, and impacting spray damage.Unfortunately, the grooves become filled with foreign matter and must be cleaned periodically.The removal of rubber deposits and other contaminants includes use of high-pressure water, chemical solvents, and high-velocity impact techniques.
30Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Although the incidents of fires and emergencies occurring at an airport are rare, when they do occur, especially on an aircraft, the fire fighting and rescue capabilities at the airport may mean the difference between life and death for pilots, passengers, and other airport personnel. Because of this, aircraft rescue and fire fighting (ARFF) services are strongly recommended at all airports and are required to be present at all airports.For most of the airports, an agreement with local municipal rescue and firefighting agencies is also necessary.The characteristics of aircraft fires are different from those of other structures and equipment because of the speed at which they develop and the intense heat they generate. Because of this, ARFF uses combinations of water, dry chemicals, and aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) to fight aircraft-based and other airfield fires.
31Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting The U.S. regulation indicates a minimum response time of the first vehicle to an incident, defined by the ability to reach the midpoint of the runway farthest from the vehicle's assigned post, of 3 minutes from when an alarm is sounded, with all other vehicles required to the scene within a minimum of 4 minutes.Until the 1960s, airport fire fighting equipment consisted of little more than modified versions of the gear used by municipal fire services. Today, nearly every major airport is equipped with rapid intervention vehicles (RIVs) able to reach runways within 2 minutes of an alarm. Heavy-duty vehicles are designed to cross rough ground to reach a distant runway or go into rough terrain, where many accidents tend to occur.
34Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Training is a key ingredient to the overall effectiveness of ARFF.The followings are the recommended basic training items:Airport familiarizationAircraft familiarizationRescue and fire fighting personnel safetyEmergency communications systems at the airport, including fire alarmsUse of the fire hoses, nozzles, turrets, and other appliances required for complianceApplication of the types of extinguishing agents required for complianceEmergency aircraft evacuation assistanceFire fighting operationsAdapting and using structural rescue and fire fighting equipment for aircraft rescue and fire fightingAircraft cargo hazardsFamiliarization with firefighters' duties under the airport emergency plan
35Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Furthermore, at least one ARFF person on duty must be trained in emergency medical care, covering the following areas:BleedingCardiopulmonary resuscitationShockPrimary patient surveyInjuries to the skull, spine, chest, and extremitiesInternal injuriesMovement of patientsBurnsTriage
36Snow and Ice Control Aircraft deicing he presence of ice or significant snow accumulation on an aircraft's wings or fuselage has potential significant adverse effects on the performance of aircraft in flight. Because of this, the removal of such accumulations is required prior to flight. This removal process is known as aircraft deicing.Aircraft deicing is accomplished by spraying one of two types of heated aqueous solutions onto the aircraft. The heat of the solution and the force of the spray melt and remove the accumulation. The chemical properties of the solution act as an antifreeze to prevent significant accumulation prior to takeoff.
37Safety Inspection Programs Clearly one of the most important concerns of airport management is operational safety. To ensure those regulations regarding to safety are continuously met, airport management should carry out a comprehensive safety inspection program.the following general categories in which emphasis on elimination, improvement, or education are suggested:Hazards created by weather conditions such as snow, ice, and slush on or adjacent to runways, taxiways, and apronsObstacles on and around airfield surfacesHazards that threaten the safety of the publicHazards created by erosion, or broken or damaged facilities in the approach, takeoff, taxi, and apron areasHazards occurring on airports during construction activity, such as holes, ditches, obstacles, and so forthBird hazards adjacent to the airportInadequate maintenance personnel or equipment
38Safety Inspection Programs A typical Safety Inspection Model PDCA ModelP=PlanD=DoC=CheckA=Action (feedback)
39Bird and Wildlife Hazard Management Birds and other wildlife striking aircraft in operation in the vicinity of an airport has the potential to cause serious damage to aircraft and loss of human life.In 2001, over 5,600 aircraft reported a wildlife strike, nearly five times the amount reported in Between 1990 and 2001, an estimated $400 million per year in aircraft damage and over 500,000 hours per year of aircraft downtime was associated with these events. Because most strikes occur on or near airports, emphasis on bird and wildlife management is mandated.A flock of birds ingested into a jet engine at takeoff can cause a dangerous stall, and a single large bird hitting an engine with the force of a bullet might smash a fan blade that can cost thousands of dollars to replace.Airport managers, as well as all other members of the aviation community, are aware of the hazards that can be caused by birds.
42Bird and Wildlife Hazard Management There are a variety of control techniques available that can be used individually or in combination, including:Elimination of food sources through better planning and implementation of a regimen for vegetation management on the airport property.Elimination of habitat such as trees, ponds, building ledges, and other roosting areas.Physical annoyance, such as noisemakers, high-pressure water from fire hoses, and decoys, such as papiermache owls to frighten birds.Chemical treatment to cause dispersal and movement of flocks or death: Effective insect control would also be a part of chemical treatment.Continual upgrading of scientific methods used in assessing the effectiveness of different bird control techniques.Better training and management of a team dedicated to bird hazard management.Use of firearms or other mechanical means of killing.The use of trained birds of prey, such as falcons and hawks, complements a number of other measures enacted in recent years in the fight against bird strikes. Moreover, several airports have turned to border collies as an effective way to chase birds.