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Parental Care in Mammals How are mammals specialized to care for offspring? Pregnancy Lactation Paternal care in mammals.

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Presentation on theme: "Parental Care in Mammals How are mammals specialized to care for offspring? Pregnancy Lactation Paternal care in mammals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Parental Care in Mammals How are mammals specialized to care for offspring? Pregnancy Lactation Paternal care in mammals

2 LACTATION Providing nutrients to babies during the early stages of development after birth, via fluids produced by the (usually) mothers body

3 Marsupial Mammals Red Kangaroo Koala Possum

4 Placental Mammals

5 Breastfeeding

6 Biological Risks of Not Breastfeeding For Baby –Nutrition –Changes w/ needs Composition Amount –Immunity Antibodies & Antivirals Artificial baby food increases risk of death from respiratory illness by 120X –3X more likely to die of SIDS

7 Biological Risks of Not Breastfeeding For Baby –Nutrition –Changes w/ needs Composition Amount –Immunity Antibodies & Antivirals Artificial baby food increases risk of death from respiratory illness by 120X –3X more likely to die of SIDS

8 Milk Composition

9 Biological Risks of Not Breastfeeding For Babies & Toddlers –Nutrition –Changes w/ needs –Immunity –3X more likely to die of SIDS –Increased chances of allergies –Increased jaw/teeth problems –Slower mental development –More likely to be fat adults –Larger as babies –Different kind of growth

10 Fat Babies Baby Adult Breastfeeding Artificial food

11 Fat Baby Fat Adult 6 months 32 months

12 Biological Risks of Not Breastfeeding For Mom –Hemorrhage – Uterus returns to shape and size less quickly –Weight loss slower –Increased chance of diseases later in life Breast & reproductive cancers Heart disease High blood pressure High cholesterol Diabetes Osteoporosis Rheumatoid arthritis –No lactational ammenhoria

13 Lactational Ammenhoria Note: Ecological breastfeeding means nursing on request –Baby always with mom –No schedule –Nursing whenever baby wants

14 Biological Risks of Not Breastfeeding –Babies bowels & spit smell –Takes time/ interrupts sleep –Have to keep it around/cost –Miss more work (sick days) –Environmentally unfriendly Also psychological and sociological risks For Mom –Hemorrhage – Uterus returns to shape and size less quickly –Weight loss slower –Increased chance of diseases later in life –No lactational ammenhoria

15 Biological Problems with Breastfeeding Not good for moms using many drugs –Recreational Detox –Some Prescriptions. –Resource: Not good if mom w/ TB, HIV Not good for babies with galactosemia Environmental contamination and pollution –Most experts still recommend breastfeeding! Also can be psychological and social problems

16 Gradual Weaning Siamung (Ape)

17 How long humans Breastfeed Solids introduced ~ 6 mo, my mom says if they can grab it off your plate, and they wont choke on it, let them have it … theyll tell you when theyre ready American Academy of Pediatrics: exclusive for 6 mo, at least 12 months, and thereafter for as long as mutually desired WHO/UNICEF: at least 2+ yrs Natural age years –Modern range 1 (Samoans)-7 (Inuit) years Worldwide Average 4+ years For more info, check out

18 PATERNAL CARE While mammal moms are primarily responsible for pregnancy and lactation, dads in many mammals play important roles in caring for their infants and babies.

19 Paternal Care in Mammals Pregnancy – no known examples Lactation –Dayak fruit bats –Regularly in some human cultures –Many individual examples in humans.

20 Male Lactation Websites milkmen.html milkmen.html ion.html ion.html men-can-breastfeed.html men-can-breastfeed.html milk-its-re/#more milk-its-re/#more icle.cfm?id=strange-but-true-males- can-lactate&sc=rss icle.cfm?id=strange-but-true-males- can-lactate&sc=rss 015/http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m151 1/is_n2_v16/ai_ /http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m151 1/is_n2_v16/ai_ /http://www.ananova.com/news /story/sm_ html /http://www.ananova.com/news /story/sm_ html ion.html#nursing ion.html#nursing

21 Paternal Care in Mammals Lactation – Dayak fruit bats, some human cultures Other (monogamous) species –Protection –Food –Incubation –Cleaning young –Play

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23 Paternal Care of Infants in Mammals Lactation – Dayak fruit bats, some human cultures Other mammal species –Protection, food, incubation, cleaning, play More human contributions: –Skin-to-skin time –Singing –Sleeping –Bathing –Diaper changing (mom in, dad out) –Supporting Mom & baby bonding & breastfeeding –Maintain Moms sanity –Co-discipline –Moral and financial support


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