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1 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 Chapter 12 Personality

2 Assignment: Cattel 16 Personality Test Choose the Cattell 16 Factor Test (85 questions)Cattell 16 Factor Test Print out results (NOTE: Dont expect a detailed report as would be generated by a trained psychologist. Online tests are not comprehensive and are not as reliable as a psych report prepared by a psychologist.) Short reaction/reflection Do you agree/disagree? What behaviors/attitudes can you cite to support your claim? (Dont have to explain every factor... Just what is most interesting. Particularly any extreme scores.)

3 Personality Tests and Internet There are numerous personality tests available on the Internet. Not all equal in quality, reliability, or validity. Lack of professional interpretation of the results of such tests. Personality tests on the Internet Menu

4 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Theories of Personality Personality –Innate or Learned? –Conscious or Unconscious? –Influenced by Internal or External Factors?

5 Personality Personality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave. Character - value judgments of a persons moral and ethical behavior. Temperament - the enduring characteristics with which each person is born. Personality Menu

6 Four Perspectives in Study of Personality Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Behavioristic (including social cognitive theory) Humanistic Trait perspectives Menu

7 Sigmund Freud Europe during the Victorian age. Men were understood to be unable to control their animal desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched. Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges. Backdrop for this theory. Freuds view of the divisions of the conscious mind Menu

8 Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939) Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. Freud is best known for theories of the unconscious mind, mechanism of repression; redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life, his therapeutic techniques, especially his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationship the presumed value of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.

9 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory –Personality Structures Id, Ego and Superego Defense Mechanisms –Repression

10 Psychoanalytic Approach Views personality as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness); occurring in stages; emphasizes early experiences with parents (play a role in sculpting personality). Id consists of instincts (reservoir of psychic energy) Guided by the pleasure principle Ego deals with the demands of reality. Guided by the reality principle Superego moral branch of personality.

11 Psychoanalytic Approach The goal of Freudian therapy, or PSYCHOANLYSIS, was to bring to CONSCIOUSNESS repressed thoughts and feelings; to allow the patient to develop a stronger EGO You always desire what you don't have or what you are not it is very unlikely that you will fulfill this desire Freuds treatment is meant to teach the patient to cope with his or her insatiable desires Defense Mechanisms The ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is REPRESSION people often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that they cannot bear them. Such thoughts and feelingsand associated memoriescould not be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness. Thus they come to constitute the unconscious.

12 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Defense Mechanisms

13 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Defense Mechanisms

14 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory –Personality Development Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage –Oedipus Complex Latency Stage Genital Stage

15 Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Oral stage - first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated. Freuds stages of personality development Menu

16 Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Anal stage - second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops. Anal expulsive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile. Anal retentive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn. Freuds stages of personality development Menu

17 Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Phallic stage - third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops. Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent. Identification - defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety. Freuds stages of personality development Menu

18 Freuds Theory: Stages of Personality Development Latency - fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways. Genital – sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets. Freuds stages of personality development Menu

19 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Defense Mechanisms and Freudian Stages

20 Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life Instructions: Each ofthe following scenarios illustrates one of Freuds defense mechanisms from the list below. Read each case, identify the defense mechanism, and explain how it is illustrated by the example. DisplacementProjectionRationalization Reaction Formation Regression Repression SublimationDenial

21 Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 1.After losing the soccer game by failing to stop a goal, Hester explains to her older brother, Winning is really quite meaningless and unimportant. It has little to do with true happiness. What defense is Hester using? 2.Angela really likes her older sisters boyfriend and wants him to ask her out despite the fact that he has eyes for only her older sister. On a conscious level, she knows her feelings are unacceptable, so she turns it around. Angela tells her best friend, I think Roberto dates my sister to be nearer to me. What defense is Angela using? 3.Jack is in love with his teacher but feels guilty about it. In class, he acts like a horrible, disrespectful brat. What defense is Jack using?

22 Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 4.Secretly, Amanda likes reading sexually explicit materials, but she struggles because she feels it is morally wrong. She takes a job at the local library screening books for obscenity in order to protect the public. What defense is Amanda using? 5.Serika notices that her 7-year-old son likes to pull wings off flies, jab pins in the cat, and trap mice so he can cut off their tails. Serika tells herself that her son has a great future in medicine. What defense is Serika using? 6.Eric received a fair grade on a paper he worked very hard to complete and was quite proud of. After school, he picks a fight with his sister, calls her a jerk, and tells her shes stupid. What defense is Eric using?

23 Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 7.Emmanuels mother has been very busy taking on extra projects at work. She frequently works late or brings the projects home to complete at night. Despite the fact that he is 8 years old, Emmanuel has been sucking his thumb and wetting the bed. What defense is Emmanuel using? 8.Georgia was extremely close to her grandfather. He died unexpectedly last year, and though Georgia attended all the funeral services, she does not remember any of the events that took place for those three days. What defense is Georgia using?

24 Psychoanalytic Approach Evaluation of Freuds approach Sexuality is not all that pervasive a force in development Later years are as important as early years Ego functions (thinking, reasoning, creativity) not necessarily bound by ids impulses Role of sociocultural factors (not just biological)

25 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Psychodynamic Perspectives Psychoanalytic Dissenters and Revisionists –Horneys Sociocultural Approach –Jungs Analytical Theory Collective Unconscious Archetypes –Adlers Individual Psychology –Evaluating of the Psychodynamic Perspectives

26 Karen Horneys Sociocultural Modification ( ) Horney (like Adler) emphasized the importance of sociocultural factors in personality development. rejected the classical psychoanalytic concept that anatomy is destiny and countered Freuds notion of penis envy by stating that both sexes envy the attributes of the other. The need for security is a prime motive in human existence. Individuals cope with anxiety using three main strategies: moving toward people (dependence) moving away from people (independence) moving against people (competition, aggression). Balanced use of these 3 strategies

27 Carl Jungs Depth Psychology ( ) Collective Unconscious distinguished from the personal UNCONSCIOUS particular to each human being. The collective unconscious is also known as "a reservoir of the experiences of our species." Importance of symbolisms/Archetypes innate, universal prototypes for ideas and may be used to interpret observations The SELF, the regulating center of the psyche The SHADOW, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonetheless The ANIMA, the feminine image in a man's psyche The ANIMUS, the masculine image in a woman's psyche

28 Archetypes The Hero. From world leaders to mythic gods, the hero represents someone who rises to the occasion to conquer and vanquish with great might. Often the hero is a relatively weak individual, but one who connects to powerful internal forces. Herein lies a blueprint for the development of ones own sense of individuality. The Trickster. This archetype is often seen as a collective shadow figure representing the underdeveloped or inferior traits of individuals. Great Mother. The Virgin Mary, the Hindu goddess Kali, fertility symbols, Mother Earth, myths and legends of motherhood...these are all reflections of our archetype of one who ushers us into existence and nurtures us. Spiritual Father. Our image and sense of fathers is tied to spirituality. An obvious link, established well before Jung, is found in many Judeo- Christian religions.

29 Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology ( ) Bio unhappy childhood saw himself as undesirable and in competition with an elder, successful brother severe rickets and glottis maladies prevented him from enjoying the normal activities of childhood, became an outsider younger brother died while sleeping in the bed next to him developed resentment toward his mother, cold and unfeeling except when it came to her firstborn son. Left home, became part of a street gang. nomadsituated in a social environment individuals created ideas and self-conceptions that reflected their environment. individual fictions are generated

30 Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology ( ) In Adlers own case, feelings of inferiority and isolation must have been central to his early fictions, but if he were to act as if those fictions were real, he would develop symptoms or behave as inferior. At the core of Adlers theory is a central idea: We search for significance in a society that values competitiveness. We are encouraged to excel, to be popular, to be athletic, to be a real man, to believe that practice makes perfect, and to dream the impossible dream. attributes or abilities he or she hopes will give feelings of worth. Should the child feel that he or she cannot attain a place in life because of doubts about abilities, the child will become discouraged and engage in disturbing behavior in an effort to find a place.

31 Alfred Adlers Individual Psychology ( ) Compensation Process of developing abilities to overcome real or imagined inferiorities Overcompensation When trying to hide a weakness or deny real inferiority Inferiority complex Exaggerated feelings of weakness & inadequacy Superiority complex Exaggerated self-importance To mask strong feelings of inferiority

32 Psychoanalytic Approach Evaluation 1.Early experiences do play a role in shaping personality. 2.Personality can be better understood by examining it developmentally. 3.We mentally transform our experiences to give them meaning that shapes our personality. 4.Unconscious motives do lie behind some of our behaviors. 5.The inner world may conflict with the demands of reality. 6.Personality and adjustment are legitimate areas of scientific enquiry. 7.Psychoanalytic theories are difficult to test empirically. 8.Psychoanalytic theory may be too negative and pessimistic. 9.Psychoanalytic theory may place too much emphasis on unconscious processes. 10.Psychoanalytic theory has a male, Western bias.

33 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Skinner's Behaviorism –Personality is merely a collection of observable behaviors; learned through reward/punishment experiences –Cognition not important! Environment is! –To change: simply rearrange environment of individual

34 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Banduras Social Cognitive Theory –Behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality. –Personal constructs Must consider how a person views the world; constructs the world People constantly assign meaning to experiences People may interpret different meanings

35 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Banduras Social Cognitive Theory

36 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Banduras Social Cognitive Theory –Reciprocal Determinism – Banduras explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior. –Observation Learning –Personal Control Delay of Gratification Self-Efficacy Locus of Control Optimism

37 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives –Emphasized environmental factors/experiences –Criticism Focus on changes in environment; neglected enduring traits of individuals Reductionism – citing 1 or 2 factors to explain complex behavior Too mechanical – humans are creative and spontaneous

38 Humanistic Approach Emphasized the uniqueness of individuals and how they view the world unlike how behavioral and psychoanalytic views

39 Humanistic Approach Rogers' Approach Hypothesized that people start out with positive feelings about themselves Eroded by significant people I will praise (love)you only if you conform to our standards. Conditional positive regard/Conditions of worth Good feelings diminish Devalue our true selves Conflict trying to live up to standards (societal or of parents, friends etc.)

40 Humanistic Approach Rogers' Approach The Self Developed through experiences with the world Self-Concept Individuals overall perceptions of his abilities, behavior, personality The REAL SELF (the result of experiences) VS. the IDEAL SELF (who theyd like to be) The greater the discrepancy, the more maladjusted the person Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathy, and Genuineness UPR: Rogers' term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior. The Fully Functional Person a person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings

41 Rogers view of self Menu

42 Humanistic Approach What are you conditions of worth?

43 Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow People have needs: Deficiency needs (physiological, psychological) Growth needs (self-actualizing needs) Need for truth Need for beauty Need for goodness Need for justice Need for perfection etc. All lower needs must first be met

44 Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow 1990's adapted Hierarchy of Needs including Transcendence needs 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. 3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. 4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc. 6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc. 7. Self-Actualisation needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualisation.

45 Humanistic Approach

46 Evaluation Key elements The way we perceive ourselves and our world Need to look at the whole person Innate positiveness of the qualities of individuals Criticisms Difficult to test Too optimistic about human nature? Encourages narcissism?

47 The Origins of Personality Henry Thomas Throckmorton was born at 2:06 this morning at Atherton Memorial Hospital. Henry weighed 8 pounds, 2 ounces, and is 22 inches long. He appears to be a healthy and normal human infant. Imagine that we have asked these questions of three psychologists, one representing Freud and psychoanalytic psychology, the second representing Skinner and the radical behaviorists, and the third representing Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and humanistic psychology

48 The Psychoanalytic Perspective Little Henry is basically selfish, pleasure-oriented, and irrational. personality right now is all id. Later the ego will develop to negotiate between the id and the environment, and the superego will develop to punish him with guilt if he disobeys the rules of his parents and society. He will become civilized, but beneath the facade created by the ego and the superego, the id will continue to generate sexual and aggressive impulses and make demands that society will not tolerate. Many of the motives that direct his behavior are buried in his unconscious mind, and his thinking will be distorted by his need to disguise his primitive nature and to protect secrets that must be denied and repressed

49 The Psychoanalytic Perspective During the first four years of life, the focus of that all-important need, sexual gratification, will migrate from the mouth to the anus and from the anus to the genitals. The manner in which conflicts related to these erogenous impulses are resolved will have a lasting influence on his personality. His basic personality will be established by the time he is five years old. When Henry is an adult, he may feel that he has free will, but actually his choices were to a great extent made for him by the human genes that carry the instinctual drives for sex and aggression, and by repressed experiences of early childhood

50 The Psychoanalytic Perspective Henrys parents will influence the development of his personality by the way they handle the three central conflicts of infancy and early childhood. These conflicts involve oral gratification and weaning, anal gratification and toilet training, and the Oedipal situation. In the case of weaning and toilet training, parents must be sensitive to timing and to letting the child deal with these aspects of socialization gradually and with a minimum of parent-child confrontation. During the Oedipal stage, the mother must continue to be loving and affectionate, but she must also avoid sexually stimulating Henry, or behaving toward him in a way that encourages his incestuous desire for her

51 The Behavioral Perspective Locke said that a human being at birth is a tabula rasa. Little Henry, too, is a blank slate. He is neither good nor bad, intelligent nor stupid, rational nor irrational. What he becomes depends upon what he learns. His personality will be shaped by the consequences of his behavior. He will retain those behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequences. Behaviors that are punished or not rewarded will disappear from his behavioral repertoire

52 The Behavioral Perspective There are a few simple rules Henrys parents should remember as they supervise the development of his personality. One rule is to reward desirable behavior and ignore or punish undesirable behavior, avoiding physical punishment except in situations where his behavior endangers his life. This rule is easy to remember but not easy to apply. Lets suppose Henry is three years old and has brushed his own teeth. There is a six-inch ribbon of toothpaste on the sink and the mirror and walls are splattered. If a parent praises him for brushing his own teeth, they may be rewarding wastefulness and messiness. If they criticize him for wastefulness and messiness, they may be punishing his effort to brush his own teeth

53 The Behavioral Perspective Another rule is to deliver reinforcement immediately, especially for infants and small children. If time elapses between the behavior and the consequence, the child will not make the association between them. The last rule is to be consistent. This doesnt mean that his mother has to say good boy every time he says thank you

54 The Humanistic Perspective All human children are born with the motive to be self- actualizing, to be the best they can be and to develop their abilities to the maximum. Henry may be corrupted by society, and his quest for self- actualization may encounter barriers, but he is basically good and basically rational. Freud and his followers have used the sick and distorted personalities of their patients as a basis for generalization about human morality and human rationality

55 The Humanistic Perspective When Henry is 20 or 30 or older, he will not be able to avoid being influenced by his own history, but the human personality is never irrevocably molded. Psychology should get rid of its preoccupation with searching for the roots of anxiety and depression in the clients past and concentrate on the here and now and the clients perception of reality. The questions are, What are the barriers to this persons self- fulfillment? and How can the person remove the barriers? rather than How did the barriers get there? 12-55

56 The Humanistic Perspective Henry will be free to make his own choices in life. Neither primitive impulses nor past learning can be blamed for the choices we make. As he matures, he must begin to take responsibility for his own behavior. It will be his responsibility to make choices and to find meaning in his life

57 The Humanistic Perspective Probably the most important thing in child-rearing is unconditional positive regard. This doesnt mean that Henrys mother should smile at him and pat him on the head when he spits his food at her. Rather, parents should criticize the behavior, not the child. I dont like what you did, but I like you. Criticism of the child: Youre stupid, messy, clumsy, selfish, bad, ugly, shapes a negative self-perception. For some time Henrys parents will be the most important people in his life, and his self-image will reflect their positive or negative regard

58 Trait Theories of Personality Trait theories - theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior. Trait - a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving. Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system. Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis. Trait perspective Menu

59 The Big Five Theory Five-factor model (Big Five) - model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions. Openness - one of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences. Conscientiousness - the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability. Trait perspective Menu

60 The Big Five Theory Extraversion - dimension of personality referring to ones need to be with other people. Extraverts - people who are outgoing and sociable. Introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention. Agreeableness - the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant. Neuroticism - degree of emotional instability or stability. Trait perspective Menu

61 Trait perspective Menu

62 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Trait Perspectives Trait Theories –Allports View of Traits Cardinal Traits Central Traits Secondary Traits

63 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Trait Perspectives Trait Theories –Eysencks Dimensions of Personality Introversion-Extraversion Stable-Unstable Psychoticism

64 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved The Big Five Personality Factors

65 Trait Theories Today Cross-cultural research has found support for the five-factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures. Future research will explore the degree to which child-rearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors. Trait–situation interaction - the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed. How trait theorists view personality Menu

66 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Personality Assessment Projective Tests –The Rorschach Inkblot Test –Other Projective Tests Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

67 Measuring Personality: Personality Inventory Personality inventory - paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test. NEO-PI - based on the five-factor model Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - based on Jungs theory of personality types. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) - designed to detect abnormal personality. LO Using personality inventories to measure personality Menu

68 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved Personality Assessment Self-Report Tests –The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) –Assessing the Big Five Factors Behavioral and Cognitive Assessment Assessment in the Selection of Employees

69 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Faces of Psychology Imagine that three psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. There is a psychoanalyst (P), a behaviorist (B), and a humanist (H). Which of the psychologists is most likely to have made each of the following statements? 12-69

70 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Faces of Psychology ( )1.I think people in our profession should put more effort into trying to understand mentally healthy people and prosocial behavior. ( )2.Aggression is a human instinct. Society can control it to some extent, but we will never eliminate aggressive behavior. ( ) 3.Your student may be under a lot of pressure from his parents, but that is no excuse for cheating. We are responsible for what we do

71 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Faces of Psychology ( )4.If you want to understand why she did it, look to the environment for clues instead of at inferred internal forces such as impulses and motives. ( )5.We humans are products of evolutionary forces that have preserved selfishness, pleasure-seeking, and a tendency to deceive ourselves. ( )6.It doesnt seem to me that you need to dig into a persons past in order to understand the persons current problems and concerns

72 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Faces of Psychology ( ) 7.There arent any values inherent in human nature. Values are acquired in the same way we learn to say please and thank you. ( )8.If we wanted to improve the character of people in our society, we would need to start when they are very young. By the time a kid is five years old, its probably too late. ( )9.You may think your choice of chili and ice cream for lunch was freely made, but your perception of free choice is an illusion. Choosing chili and ice cream is predictable from the consequences of past behavior

73 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Three Faces of Psychology ( )10.General laws of behavior and experience that apply to all people are not very helpful if you want to understand a particular individual. ( ) 11.You say people are inherently good, and he says they are inherently pretty bad. I dont think people are inherently either good or bad. ( )12.The sex drive is with us at birth. People just dont want to believe that infants get sexual pleasure from sucking and exploring anything they get in their hands with their mouths

74 Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Answers: 1. Humanist 2. Psychoanalyst 3. Humanist 4. Behaviorist 5. Psychoanalyst 6. Humanist 7. Behaviorist 8. Psychoanalyst 9. Behaviorist 10. Humanist 11. Behaviorist 12. Psychoanalyst 12-74


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