2Assignment: Cattel 16 Personality Test Choose the Cattell 16 Factor Test (85 questions)Print out results(NOTE: Don’t expect a detailed report as would be generated by a trained psychologist. Online tests are not comprehensive and are not as reliable as a psych report prepared by a psychologist.)Short reaction/reflectionDo you agree/disagree?What behaviors/attitudes can you cite to support your claim?(Don’t have to explain every factor ... Just what is most interesting. Particularly any extreme scores.)
3Personality Tests and Internet Personality tests on the InternetPersonality Tests and InternetThere are numerous personality tests available on the Internet.Not all equal in quality, reliability, or validity.Lack of professional interpretation of the results of such tests.Menu
4Theories of Personality Innate or Learned?Conscious or Unconscious?Influenced by Internal or External Factors?Personality A pattern of enduring, distinctive thoughts, emotions, and behaviors That characterize the way an individual adapts to the world.1-
5PersonalityPersonalityPersonality - the unique and relatively stable ways in which people think, feel, and behave.Character - value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior.Temperament - the enduring characteristics with which each person is born.Menu
6Four Perspectives in Study of Personality Psychoanalytic/PsychodynamicBehavioristic (including social cognitive theory)HumanisticTrait perspectivesMenu
7Sigmund Freud Europe during the Victorian age. Freud’s view of the divisions of the conscious mindSigmund FreudEurope during the Victorian age.Men were understood to be unable to control their “animal” desires at times, and a good Victorian husband would father several children with his wife and then turn to a mistress for sexual comfort, leaving his virtuous wife untouched.Women, especially those of the upper classes, were not supposed to have sexual urges.Backdrop for this theory.Menu
8Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939) Austrian neurologist and psychiatristfounded the psychoanalytic school of psychology.Freud is best known fortheories of the unconscious mind,mechanism of repression;redefinition of sexual desire as the primary motivational energy of human life,his therapeutic techniques, especially his theory of transference in the therapeutic relationshipthe presumed value of dreams as sources of insight into unconscious desires.
9Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud's Psychoanalytic TheoryPersonality StructuresId, Ego and SuperegoDefense MechanismsRepressionPsychodynamic Perspectives They view personality as primarily unconscious (that is, beyond awareness) and as occurring in stages. Most psychoanalytic perspectives emphasize that early experiences with parents play a role in sculpting personality.Id The Freudian structure of personality that consists of instincts, which are the individual's reservoir of psychic energy.Ego The Freudian structure of personality that deals with the demands of reality.Superego The Freudian structure of personality that is the moral branch of personality.Defense Mechanisms The ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.1-
10Psychoanalytic Approach Views personality as primarily unconscious (beyond awareness); occurring in stages; emphasizes early experiences with parents (play a role in sculpting personality).Idconsists of instincts (reservoir of psychic energy)Guided by the “pleasure principle”Egodeals with the demands of reality.Guided by the “reality principle”Superegomoral branch of personality.
11Psychoanalytic Approach Psychoanalytic ApproachThe goal of Freudian therapy, or PSYCHOANLYSIS, was to bring to CONSCIOUSNESS repressed thoughts and feelings; to allow the patient to develop a stronger EGOYou always desire what you don't have or what you are notit is very unlikely that you will fulfill this desireFreud’s treatment is meant to teach the patient to cope with his or her insatiable desiresDefense MechanismsThe ego's protective methods for reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.Crucial to the operation of the unconscious is REPRESSIONpeople often experience thoughts and feelings that are so painful that they cannot bear them.Such thoughts and feelings—and associated memories—could not be banished from the mind, but could be banished from consciousness.Thus they come to constitute the unconscious.
14Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud's Psychoanalytic TheoryPersonality DevelopmentOral StageAnal StagePhallic StageOedipus ComplexLatency StageGenital StageOedipus Complex In Freud's theory, the young child's development of an intense desire to replace the same-sex parent and enjoy the affections of the opposite-sex parent.1-
15Freud’s Theory: Stages of Personality Development Freud’s stages of personality developmentFreud’s Theory: Stages of Personality DevelopmentOral stage - first stage occurring in the first year of life in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict. Id dominated.Menu
16Freud’s Theory: Stages of Personality Development Freud’s stages of personality developmentFreud’s Theory: Stages of Personality DevelopmentAnal stage - second stage occurring from about 1 to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. Ego develops.Anal expulsive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is messy, destructive, and hostile.Anal retentive personality - a person fixated in the anal stage who is neat, fussy, stingy, and stubborn.Menu
17Freud’s Theory: Stages of Personality Development Freud’s stages of personality developmentFreud’s Theory: Stages of Personality DevelopmentPhallic stage - third stage occurring from about 3 to 6 years of age, in which the child discovers sexual feelings. Superego develops.Oedipus complex- situation occurring in the phallic stage in which a child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent and jealousy of the same-sex parent.Identification - defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety.Menu
18Freud’s Theory: Stages of Personality Development Freud’s stages of personality developmentFreud’s Theory: Stages of Personality DevelopmentLatency - fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways.Genital – sexual feelings reawaken with appropriate targets.Menu
20Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life Instructions: Each ofthe following scenarios illustrates one of Freud’s defense mechanisms from the list below. Read each case, identify the defense mechanism, and explain how it is illustrated by the example.Displacement Projection RationalizationReaction Formation RegressionRepression Sublimation Denial
21Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 1. After losing the soccer game by failing to stop a goal, Hester explains to her older brother, “Winning is really quite meaningless and unimportant. It has little to do with true happiness.” What defense is Hester using? 2. Angela really likes her older sister’s boyfriend and wants him to ask her out despite the fact that he has eyes for only her older sister. On a conscious level, she knows her feelings are unacceptable, so she turns it around. Angela tells her best friend, “I think Roberto dates my sister to be nearer to me.” What defense is Angela using? 3. Jack is in love with his teacher but feels guilty about it. In class, he acts like a horrible, disrespectful brat. What defense is Jack using?
22Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 4. Secretly, Amanda likes reading sexually explicit materials, but she struggles because she feels it is morally wrong. She takes a job at the local library screening books for obscenity in order to protect the public. What defense is Amanda using?5. Serika notices that her 7-year-old son likes to pull wings off flies, jab pins in the cat, and trap mice so he can cut off their tails. Serika tells herself that her son has a great future in medicine. What defense is Serika using?6. Eric received a “fair” grade on a paper he worked very hard to complete and was quite proud of. After school, he picks a fight with his sister, calls her a jerk, and tells her she’s “stupid.” What defense is Eric using?
23Identifying Defense Mechanisms in Everyday Life 7. Emmanuel’s mother has been very busy taking on extra projects at work. She frequently works late or brings the projects home to complete at night. Despite the fact that he is 8 years old, Emmanuel has been sucking his thumb and wetting the bed. What defense is Emmanuel using?8. Georgia was extremely close to her grandfather. He died unexpectedly last year, and though Georgia attended all the funeral services, she does not remember any of the events that took place for those three days. What defense is Georgia using?
24Psychoanalytic Approach Evaluation of Freud’s approachSexuality is not all that pervasive a force in developmentLater years are as important as early yearsEgo functions (thinking, reasoning, creativity) not necessarily bound by id’s impulsesRole of sociocultural factors (not just biological)
25Psychodynamic Perspectives Psychoanalytic Dissenters and RevisionistsHorney’s Sociocultural ApproachJung’s Analytical TheoryCollective UnconsciousArchetypesAdler’s Individual PsychologyEvaluating of the Psychodynamic PerspectivesCollective Unconscious Jung's term for the impersonal, deepest layer of the unconscious mind, shared by all human beings because of their common ancestral past.Archetype The name Jung gave to the emotionally-laden ideas and images in the collective unconscious that have rich and symbolic meaning.Individual Psychology The term for Adler's approach, which views people as motivated by purposes and goals, being creators of their own lives.1-
26Karen Horney’s Sociocultural Modification (1885-1952) Horney (like Adler) emphasized the importance of sociocultural factors in personality development.rejected the classical psychoanalytic concept that “anatomy is destiny” and countered Freud’s notion of penis envy by stating that both sexes envy the attributes of the other.The need for security is a prime motive in human existence.Individuals cope with anxiety using three main strategies:moving toward people (dependence)moving away from people (independence)moving against people (competition, aggression).Balanced use of these 3 strategies
27Carl Jung’s Depth Psychology (1875-1961) Collective Unconsciousdistinguished from the personal UNCONSCIOUS particular to each human being. The collective unconscious is also known as "a reservoir of the experiences of our species."Importance of symbolisms/Archetypesinnate, universal prototypes for ideas and may be used to interpret observationsThe SELF, the regulating center of the psycheThe SHADOW, the opposite of the ego image, often containing qualities that the ego does not identify with but possesses nonethelessThe ANIMA, the feminine image in a man's psycheThe ANIMUS, the masculine image in a woman's psyche
28ArchetypesThe Hero. From world leaders to mythic gods, the hero represents someone who rises to the occasion to conquer and vanquish with great might. Often the hero is a relatively weak individual, but one who connects to powerful internal forces. Herein lies a blueprint for the development of one’s own sense of individuality. The Trickster. This archetype is often seen as a collective shadow figure representing the underdeveloped or inferior traits of individuals. Great Mother. The Virgin Mary, the Hindu goddess Kali, fertility symbols, “Mother Earth,” myths and legends of motherhood...these are all reflections of our archetype of one who ushers us into existence and nurtures us. Spiritual Father. Our image and sense of fathers is tied to spirituality. An obvious link, established well before Jung, is found in many Judeo-Christian religions.
29Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology (1870-1937) Biounhappy childhoodsaw himself as undesirable and in competition with an elder, successful brothersevere rickets and glottismaladies prevented him from enjoying the normal activities of childhood, became an outsideryounger brother died while sleeping in the bed next to himdeveloped resentment toward his mother, cold and unfeeling except when it came to her firstborn son.Left home, became part of a street gang.“nomad”—situated in a social environmentindividuals created ideas and self-conceptions that reflected their environment.individual fictions are generated
30Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology (1870-1937) In Adler’s own case, feelings of inferiority and isolation must have been central to his early fictions, but if he were to act “as if ” those fictions were real, he would develop symptoms or behave as inferior.At the core of Adler’s theory is a central idea:We search for significance in a society that values competitiveness.We are encouraged to excel, to be popular, to be athletic, to be a “real man,” to believe that “practice makes perfect,” and to “dream the impossible dream.”attributes or abilities he or she hopes will give feelings of worth.Should the child feel that he or she cannot attain a “place in life” because of doubts about abilities, the child will become discouraged and engage in disturbing behavior in an effort to find a place.
31Alfred Adler’s Individual Psychology (1870-1937) CompensationProcess of developing abilities to overcome real or imagined inferioritiesOvercompensationWhen trying to hide a weakness or deny real inferiorityInferiority complexExaggerated feelings of weakness & inadequacySuperiority complexExaggerated self-importanceTo mask strong feelings of inferiority
32Psychoanalytic Approach Evaluation1. Early experiences do play a role in shaping personality.2. Personality can be better understood by examining it developmentally.3. We mentally transform our experiences to give them meaning that shapes our personality.4. Unconscious motives do lie behind some of our behaviors.5. The inner world may conflict with the demands of reality.6. Personality and adjustment are legitimate areas of scientific enquiry.7. Psychoanalytic theories are difficult to test empirically.8. Psychoanalytic theory may be too negative and pessimistic.9. Psychoanalytic theory may place too much emphasis on unconscious processes.10. Psychoanalytic theory has a male, Western bias.
33Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Skinner's BehaviorismPersonality is merely a collection of observable behaviors; learned through reward/punishment experiencesCognition not important! Environment is!To change: simply rearrange environment of individualBehavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives They emphasize the importance of environmental.Social Cognitive States that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality.1-
34Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Bandura’s Social Cognitive TheoryBehavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality.Personal constructsMust consider how a person views the world; constructs the worldPeople constantly assign meaning to experiencesPeople may interpret different meaningsBehavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives They emphasize the importance of environmental.Social Cognitive States that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality.1-
36Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Bandura’s Social Cognitive TheoryReciprocal Determinism – Bandura’s explanation of how the factors of environment, personal characteristics, and behavior can interact to determine future behavior.Observation LearningPersonal ControlDelay of GratificationSelf-EfficacyLocus of ControlOptimismBehavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives They emphasize the importance of environmental.Social Cognitive States that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality.1-
37Behavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives Evaluating the Behavioral and Social Cognitive PerspectivesEmphasized environmental factors/experiencesCriticismFocus on changes in environment; neglected enduring traits of individualsReductionism – citing 1 or 2 factors to explain complex behaviorToo mechanical – humans are creative and spontaneousBehavioral and Social Cognitive Perspectives They emphasize the importance of environmental.Social Cognitive States that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are important in understanding personality.1-
38Humanistic ApproachEmphasized the uniqueness of individuals and how they view the worldunlike how behavioral and psychoanalytic views
39Humanistic Approach Rogers' Approach Hypothesized that people start out with positive feelings about themselvesEroded by significant people“I will praise (love)you only if you conform to our standards.”Conditional positive regard/Conditions of worthGood feelings diminishDevalue our true selvesConflict trying to live up to standards (societal or of parents, friends etc.)
40Humanistic Approach Rogers' Approach The Self Developed through experiences with the worldSelf-ConceptIndividual’s overall perceptions of his abilities, behavior, personalityThe REAL SELF (the result of experiences) VS. the IDEAL SELF (who they’d like to be)The greater the discrepancy, the more maladjusted the personUnconditional Positive Regard, Empathy, and GenuinenessUPR: Rogers' term for accepting, valuing, and being positive toward another person regardless of the person's behavior.The Fully Functional Persona person who is in touch with and trusting of the deepest, innermost urges and feelings
42Humanistic ApproachWhat are you conditions of worth?
43Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow People have needs: Deficiency needs (physiological, psychological)Growth needs (“self-actualizing” needs)Need for truthNeed for beautyNeed for goodnessNeed for justiceNeed for perfection etc.All lower needs must first be met
44Humanistic Approach Abraham Maslow 1990's adapted Hierarchy of Needs including Transcendence needs1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.5. Cognitive needs - knowledge, meaning, etc.6. Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.7. Self-Actualisation needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 8. Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualisation.
46Humanistic Approach Evaluation Key elements Criticisms The way we perceive ourselves and our worldNeed to look at the whole personInnate positiveness of the qualities of individualsCriticismsDifficult to testToo optimistic about human nature?Encourages narcissism?
47The Origins of Personality Henry Thomas Throckmorton was born at 2:06 this morning at Atherton Memorial Hospital. Henry weighed 8 pounds, 2 ounces, and is 22 inches long. He appears to be a healthy and normal human infant.Imagine that we have asked these questions of three psychologists, one representing Freud and psychoanalytic psychology, the second representing Skinner and the radical behaviorists, and the third representing Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and humanistic psychology.
48The Psychoanalytic Perspective Little Henry is basically selfish, pleasure-oriented, and irrational.personality right now is all id.Later the ego will develop to negotiate between the id and the environment, and the superego will develop to punish him with guilt if he disobeys the rules of his parents and society.He will become civilized, but beneath the facade created by the ego and the superego, the id will continue to generate sexual and aggressive impulses and make demands that society will not tolerate.Many of the motives that direct his behavior are buried in his unconscious mind, and his thinking will be distorted by his need to disguise his primitive nature and to protect secrets that must be denied and repressed.
49The Psychoanalytic Perspective During the first four years of life, the focus of that all-important need, sexual gratification, will migrate from the mouth to the anus and from the anus to the genitals.The manner in which conflicts related to these erogenous impulses are resolved will have a lasting influence on his personality.His basic personality will be established by the time he is five years old.When Henry is an adult, he may feel that he has free will, but actually his choices were to a great extent made for him by the human genes that carry the instinctual drives for sex and aggression, and by repressed experiences of early childhood.
50The Psychoanalytic Perspective Henry’s parents will influence the development of his personality by the way they handle the three central conflicts of infancy and early childhood.These conflicts involve oral gratification and weaning, anal gratification and toilet training, and the Oedipal situation.In the case of weaning and toilet training, parents must be sensitive to timing and to letting the child deal with these aspects of socialization gradually and with a minimum of parent-child confrontation.During the Oedipal stage, the mother must continue to be loving and affectionate, but she must also avoid sexually stimulating Henry, or behaving toward him in a way that encourages his incestuous desire for her.
51The Behavioral Perspective Locke said that a human being at birth is a tabula rasa. Little Henry, too, is a blank slate. He is neither good nor bad, intelligent nor stupid, rational nor irrational.What he becomes depends upon what he learns.His “personality” will be shaped by the consequences of his behavior.He will retain those behaviors that are followed by pleasant consequences.Behaviors that are punished or not rewarded will disappear from his behavioral repertoire.
52The Behavioral Perspective There are a few simple rules Henry’s parents should remember as they supervise the development of his personality.One rule is to reward desirable behavior and ignore or punish undesirable behavior, avoiding physical punishment except in situations where his behavior endangers his life.This rule is easy to remember but not easy to apply. Let’s suppose Henry is three years old and has brushed his own teeth. There is a six-inch ribbon of toothpaste on the sink and the mirror and walls are splattered. If a parent praises him for brushing his own teeth, they may be rewarding wastefulness and messiness. If they criticize him for wastefulness and messiness, they may be punishing his effort to brush his own teeth.
53The Behavioral Perspective Another rule is to deliver reinforcement immediately, especially for infants and small children.If time elapses between the behavior and the consequence, the child will not make the association between them.The last rule is to be consistent. This doesn’t mean that his mother has to say “good boy” every time he says “thank you.”
54The Humanistic Perspective All human children are born with the motive to be self-actualizing, to be the best they can be and to develop their abilities to the maximum.Henry may be corrupted by society, and his quest for self-actualization may encounter barriers, but he is basically good and basically rational.Freud and his followers have used the sick and distorted personalities of their patients as a basis for generalization about human morality and human rationality.
55The Humanistic Perspective When Henry is 20 or 30 or older, he will not be able to avoid being influenced by his own history, but the human personality is never irrevocably molded.Psychology should get rid of its preoccupation with searching for the roots of anxiety and depression in the client’s past and concentrate on the here and now and the client’s perception of reality.The questions are, “What are the barriers to this person’s self-fulfillment?” and “How can the person remove the barriers?” rather than “How did the barriers get there?”
56The Humanistic Perspective Henry will be free to make his own choices in life.Neither primitive impulses nor past learning can be blamed for the choices we make.As he matures, he must begin to take responsibility for his own behavior.It will be his responsibility to make choices and to find meaning in his life.
57The Humanistic Perspective Probably the most important thing in child-rearing is unconditional positive regard.This doesn’t mean that Henry’s mother should smile at him and pat him on the head when he spits his food at her.Rather, parents should criticize the behavior, not the child. “I don’t like what you did, but I like you.” Criticism of the child: “You’re stupid, messy, clumsy, selfish, bad, ugly,” shapes a negative self-perception.For some time Henry’s parents will be the most important people in his life, and his self-image will reflect their positive or negative regard.
58Trait Theories of Personality Trait perspectiveTrait Theories of PersonalityTrait theories - theories that endeavor to describe the characteristics that make up human personality in an effort to predict future behavior.Trait - a consistent, enduring way of thinking, feeling, or behaving.Allport first developed a list of about 200 traits and believed that these traits were part of the nervous system.Cattell reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.Menu
59Trait perspectiveThe Big Five TheoryFive-factor model (Big Five) - model of personality traits that describes five basic trait dimensions.Openness - one of the five factors; willingness to try new things and be open to new experiences.Conscientiousness - the care a person gives to organization and thoughtfulness of others; dependability.Menu
60The Big Five Theory Trait perspective Extraversion - dimension of personality referring to one’s need to be with other people.Extraverts - people who are outgoing and sociable.Introverts - people who prefer solitude and dislike being the center of attention.Agreeableness - the emotional style of a person that may range from easygoing, friendly, and likeable to grumpy, crabby, and unpleasant.Neuroticism - degree of emotional instability or stability.Menu
62Trait Perspectives Trait Theories Allport’s View of Traits Cardinal TraitsCentral TraitsSecondary TraitsTrait Theories State that personality consists of broad dispositions, called traits, that tend to lead to characteristic responses.1-
63Trait Perspectives Trait Theories Eysenck’s Dimensions of Personality Introversion-ExtraversionStable-UnstablePsychoticismTrait Theories State that personality consists of broad dispositions, called traits, that tend to lead to characteristic responses.Big Five Factors of Personality Comprised of emotional stability (neuroticism), extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.1-
65How trait theorists view personality Trait Theories TodayCross-cultural research has found support for the five-factor model of personality traits in a number of different cultures.Future research will explore the degree to which child-rearing practices and heredity may influence the five personality factors.Trait–situation interaction - the assumption that the particular circumstances of any given situation will influence the way in which a trait is expressed.Menu
66Personality Assessment Projective TestsThe Rorschach Inkblot TestOther Projective TestsThematic Apperception Test (TAT)Projective Test Presents individuals with an ambiguous stimulus and then asks them to describe it or tell a story about it; based on the assumption that the ambiguity of the stimulus allows individuals to project their personality into it.Rorschach Inkblot Test Developed in 1921 by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, is a widely used projective test; it uses an individual's perception of inkblots to determine his or her personality.Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Developed by Henry Murray and Christina Morgan in the 1930s, this is an ambiguous projective test designed to elicit stories that reveal something about an individual's personality.1-
67Measuring Personality: Personality Inventory LO Using personality inventories to measure personalityMeasuring Personality: Personality InventoryPersonality inventory - paper and pencil or computerized test that consists of statements that require a specific, standardized response from the person taking the test.NEO-PI - based on the five-factor modelMyers-Briggs Type Indicator - based on Jung’s theory of personality types.The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) - designed to detect abnormal personality.Menu
68Personality Assessment Self-Report TestsThe Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)Assessing the Big Five FactorsBehavioral and Cognitive AssessmentAssessment in the Selection of EmployeesMinnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) The most widely used and researched self-report.Self-Report Tests Also called objective tests or inventories, they directly ask people whether items (usually true/false or agree/disagree) describe their personality traits or not.1-
69Three Faces of Psychology Imagine that three psychologists are having lunch together, and that you are eavesdropping on their conversation. There is a psychoanalyst (P), a behaviorist (B), and a humanist (H). Which of the psychologists is most likely to have made each of the following statements?
70Three Faces of Psychology ( ) 1. I think people in our profession should put more effort into trying to understand mentally healthy people and prosocial behavior. ( ) 2. Aggression is a human instinct. Society can control it to some extent, but we will never eliminate aggressive behavior. ( ) 3. Your student may be under a lot of pressure from his parents, but that is no excuse for cheating. We are responsible for what we do.
71Three Faces of Psychology ( ) 4. If you want to understand why she did it, look to the environment for clues instead of at inferred internal forces such as impulses and motives. ( ) 5. We humans are products of evolutionary forces that have preserved selfishness, pleasure-seeking, and a tendency to deceive ourselves. ( ) 6. It doesn’t seem to me that you need to dig into a person’s past in order to understand the person’s current problems and concerns.
72Three Faces of Psychology ( ) 7. There aren’t any values inherent in human nature. Values are acquired in the same way we learn to say “please” and “thank you.” ( ) 8. If we wanted to improve the character of people in our society, we would need to start when they are very young. By the time a kid is five years old, it’s probably too late. ( ) 9. You may think your choice of chili and ice cream for lunch was freely made, but your perception of free choice is an illusion. Choosing chili and ice cream is predictable from the consequences of past behavior.
73Three Faces of Psychology ( ) 10. General laws of behavior and experience that apply to all people are not very helpful if you want to understand a particular individual. ( ) 11. You say people are inherently good, and he says they are inherently pretty bad. I don’t think people are inherently either good or bad. ( ) 12. The sex drive is with us at birth. People just don’t want to believe that infants get sexual pleasure from sucking and exploring anything they get in their hands with their mouths.