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The vocal tract and articulatory organs The airstream mechanisms The state of the vocal cords Velum position Places of articulation Manners of articulation.

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Presentation on theme: "The vocal tract and articulatory organs The airstream mechanisms The state of the vocal cords Velum position Places of articulation Manners of articulation."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The vocal tract and articulatory organs The airstream mechanisms The state of the vocal cords Velum position Places of articulation Manners of articulation The articulation of vowels Classification of speech sounds Consonants vs. Vowels Suprasegmental features

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4 Airstream mechanism Airflow initiator Airflow direction language Pulmonic egressive lungsoutwards Most languages, for many it is the sole AM Velaric ingressiveveluminwardsZulu (S. Africa) Glottalic egressive glottisoutwards Navajo (N. America) Glottalic ingressive glottisinwardsSindhi (India)

5 Voiceless sounds: /p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, / ɕ /, / ʃ /, /x/, /t^s/, /t^ ɕ /, /t^ ʃ / Voiced sounds: all vowels, sonorants and /b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʑ /, / ʒ /, /d^z/, /d^ ʑ /, /d^ ʒ / …

6 oral sound /b/nasal sound /m/

7 Labial articulations Lips Coronal articulations Tongue tip and blade Dorsal articulations The back of the tongue

8 /b/ e.g. but, budka /p/ e.g. ptak, kropki /m/ e.g. most, pomost labial (lower and upper lip) /v/ e.g. wił, wył /f/ e.g. fortuna labiodental (lower lip and upper front teeth)

9 /t/ e.g. piątek /d/ e.g. błędy /n/ e.g. nóż /θ/ e.g. moth Dental (tip of the tongue and upper teeth) Post-dental (tip of the tongue, the upper teeth and the area just behind them) /s/ e.g. sąsiad /z/ e.g. język /t^ ɕ / e.g. ręce /d^ ʑ / e.g. pieniądze

10 Alveolar (tongue tip and alveolar ridge) PL: /t^ ʃ / e.g. rączka, tęcza /d^ ʒ / e.g. dżentelmen /l/ e.g. walka /r/ e.g. rak, burak EN: /s/ e.g. snake /z/ e.g. zebra /t/ e.g. tiger /d/ e.g. dog / ɾ / e.g. better, ladder Palato-alveolar (tongue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge) / ʃ / e.g. shrew / ʒ / e.g. measure /t^ ʃ / e.g. chimpanzee /d^ ʒ / e.g. lodger

11 post-alveolar (the blade of the tongue and the front of the hard palate) / ʃ / e.g. szczęście / ʒ / e.g. książę alveolo-palatal (the blade and the center of the tongue and the front of the hard palate) / ɕ / e.g. śnieg / ʑ / e.g. zwięźle /t^ ɕ / e.g. pięć /d^ ʑ / e.g. dźwięk / ɲ / e.g. mięsień

12 palatal (front of the tongue and hard palate) /c/ e.g. kiedy / ɟ / e.g. giełda /j/ e.g. jasny retroflex (tongue tip and the back of the alveolar ridge) EN (optionally): / ʂ / e.g. try / ʐ / e.g. dry

13 velar (tongue back and soft palate) /x/ e.g. harcerz /k/ e.g. kret, kredka /g/ e.g. góry, kangury /ŋ/ e.g. tango uvular (tongue back and uvula), e.g. French rat pharyngeal (tongue root and pharynx wall) glottal (vocal cords are the active and passive articulator), e.g. PL: nauka /na ʔ uka/ uiścić / ʔ u ʔ i ɕ t ɕ it ɕ / o / ʔ o ʔ / (only if pronounced in isolation)

14 It refers to the vertical relationship between the active and passive articulators. Stops – complete closure of the articulators, the airstream can not escape through the mouth Oral stops (examples from Polish, do not include all stops)* Nasal stops (-> nasals): /m/, /n/, / ɲ / and /ŋ/ Bilabial /p/, /b/ Velar /k/, /g/ Dental /t/, /d/

15 Fricatives – close approximation of two articulators, the airstream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced. (examples from Polish, do not include allophonic variants) labiodental /f/, /v/ post-dental /s/, /z/ post-alveolar / ʃ /, / ʒ / alveolo-palatal / ɕ /, / ʑ / velar /x/ Affricates - involve more than one manner of articulation: a combination of a stop followed by a fricative of the same place of articulation (examples from Polish) post-dental /t^s/, /d^z/ alveolar /t^ ʃ /, /d^ ʒ / alveolo-palatal /t^ ɕ /, /d^ ʑ /

16 Liquids – the articulators approach each other, but to such an extent that there is a free passage of air through the oral tract Alveolar /l/, /r/, / ɾ /, / ɹ / lateral /l/ – produced with a central obstruction – the air passes out at the side trill /r/ – articulator set in vibration by the airstream tap/flap / ɾ / – a single movement in a trill, tongue hits the roof of the mouth approximant / ɹ / – approximation of two articulators with no turbulent airstream

17 Glides (semi-vowels) – the articulators are wide apart and the air flows unhindered the position of the articulators is unstable like consonants they do not form the nuclei of syllables /j/ /w/ Glides and liquids are classified as approximants. Together with nasals and vowels they belong to sonorants. jaj – jej kuj – kij odbij - odbyj biłem – byłem czuła – czoła muły - mały

18 Classification of vowels: Vertical position of the body of the tongue -> front and back vowels Horizontal position of the body of the tongue -> high, mid and low vowels Lip rounding -> rounded and unrounded vowels 1) heed, 2) hid, 3) head, 4) had, 5) father, 6) good, 7) food Open approximation – the articulators do not come very close together; an unobstructed passage for the airstream in the oral cavity

19 /i/ e.g. wij / ɨ / e.g. wyj /e/ e.g. jej /a/ e.g. jaj /o/ e.g. czuła /u/ e.g. czoła

20 Consonantal sounds can be described by referring to the following features: Airstream mechanism The state of the vocal cords Velum position Place of articulation Manner of articulation Consonants – usually 3 dimensions: voicing, place and manner of articulation Vowels – the height of the tongue body, the front-back position of the tongue and the degree of lip rounding

21 The distinction between vowels and consonants is primary in the analysis and description of speech. Vowels: articulated with an open approximation syllabic (nucleus) Consonants: articulated with some kind of an obstruction non-syllabic (onset, coda)

22 These features are superimposed on units larger than a single speech unit (phoneme) -> syllables, phrases, sentences. They include: variation in stress variation in pitch (variation in length) Analysis and description – in relation to other items in the same utterance – relative values are linguistically significant.

23 Variation in stress increased activity of respiratory and laryngeal muscles functions Grammatical e.g. (En) insult (verb) vs. insult (noun) Lexical e.g. (Pl) jajem vs. ja jem Grouping e.g. (Pl) do domu Demarcative e.g. (Pl) niedaleko, pojutrze Cumulative Emphasis (focus) or contrastive emphasis

24 Variation in pitch laryngeal activity intonation – patterns of distinctive changes in pitch domain: phrases, sentences convey semantic, evidential and regulative information

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